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  • Around the globe, there are approximately 60 million people who have been forced to leave their homes to escape war, violence, and persecution.

    全世界大約有六千萬人因為戰亂、 暴力以及迫害而流離失所。

  • The majority of them have become internally displaced persons, which means they have fled their homes but are still within their own countries.


  • Others have crossed a border and sought shelter outside of their own countries.

    也有的人跨越了國界, 在他國找到了容身之處。

  • They are commonly referred to as refugees.


  • But what exactly does that term mean?


  • The world has known refugees for millennia, but the modern definition was drafted in the UN's 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees in response to mass persecutions and displacements of the Second World War.

    千百年來,世界各地都曾出現難民,但直到 1951 年,聯合國才起草《難民地位公約》,賦予二戰期間受到大型迫害行為和逃離家鄉的「難民」現代定義。

  • It defines a refugee as someone who is outside their country of nationality, and is unable to return to their home country because of well-founded fears of being persecuted.

    公約文件定義「難民」為: 有正當理由畏懼遭迫害,而離鄉背井、無法回歸家園的人。

  • That persecution may be due to their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, and is often related to war and violence.


  • Today, roughly half the world's refugees are children, some of them unaccompanied by an adult, a situation that makes them especially vulnerable to child labor or sexual exploitation.


  • Each refugee's story is different, and many must undergo dangerous journeys with uncertain outcomes.


  • But before we get to what their journeys involve, let's clear one thing up.


  • There's a lot of confusion regarding the difference between the terms "migrant" and "refugee."


  • "Migrants" usually refers to people who leave their country for reasons not related to persecution, such as searching for better economic opportunities or leaving drought-stricken areas in search of better circumstances.


  • There are many people around the world who have been displaced because of natural disasters, food insecurities, and other hardships, but international law, rightly or wrongly, only recognizes those fleeing conflict and violence as refugees.


  • So what happens when someone flees their country?


  • Most refugee journeys are long and perilous with limited access to shelter, water, or food.

    絕大多數的逃難歷程漫長又艱辛,無論是棲身之所、水和食物, 都十分有限。

  • Since the departure can be sudden and unexpected, belongings might be left behind, and people who are evading conflict often do not have the required documents, like visas, to board airplanes and legally enter other countries.

    因為逃難可能突如其來,一些身外物帶不走,逃難的人通常都不會持有正規的出國文件,例如他們沒有簽證, 無法搭上飛機、合法入境他國。

  • Financial and political factors can also prevent them from traveling by standard routes.


  • This means they can usually only travel by land or sea, and may need to entrust their lives to smugglers to help them cross borders.


  • Whereas some people seek safety with their families, others attempt passage alone and leave their loved ones behind with the hopes of being reunited later.


  • This separation can be traumatic and unbearably long.


  • While more than half the world's refugees are in cities, sometimes the first stop for a person fleeing conflict is a refugee camp, usually run by the United Nations Refugee Agency or local governments.

    雖然全球超過半數的難民身處於城市之中,但有時難民所抵達某國的第一站, 就是難民營,難民營通常由聯合國難民署或是當地政府所營運。

  • Refugee camps are intended to be temporary structures, offering short-term shelter until inhabitants can safely return home, be integrated to the host country, or resettle in another country.


  • But resettlement and long-term integration options are often limited.


  • So many refugees are left with no choice but to remain in camps for years and sometimes even decades.

    許多的難民在別無選擇之下, 只得在難民營裡待上好幾年,有時候甚至是好幾十年。

  • Once in a new country, the first legal step for a displaced person is to apply for asylum.


  • At this point, they are an asylum-seeker and not officially recognized as a refugee until the application has been accepted.

    在這個點上,他們只是尋求庇護者,在申請被通過以前, 他們都還不具合法難民身分。

  • While countries by and large agree on one definition of refugee, every host country is responsible for examining all requests for asylum and deciding whether applicants can be granted the status of refugee.

    雖然多數國家一致認同 「難民」的定義,各國仍自行負責審查所有尋求庇護者的申請,再決定申請者是否符合得到難民身分的條件。

  • Different countries guidelines can vary substantially.


  • Host countries have several duties towards people they have recognized as refugees, like the guarantee of a minimum standard of treatment and non-discrimination.


  • The most basic obligation towards refugees is non-refoulement, a principle preventing a nation from sending an individual to a country where their life and freedom are threatened.


  • In reality, however, refugees are frequently the victims of inconsistent and discriminatory treatment.

    但在現實生活當中, 難民通常都遭受到不一致且帶有歧視的對待。

  • They're increasingly obliged to rebuild their lives in the face of xenophobia and racism.


  • And all too often, they aren't permitted to enter the workforce and are fully dependent on humanitarian aid.


  • In addition, far too many refugee children are out of school due to lack of funding for education programs.


  • If you go back in your own family history, chances are you will discover that at a certain point, your ancestors were forced from their homes, either escaping a war or fleeing discrimination and persecution.


  • It would be good of us to remember their stories when we hear of refugees currently displaced, searching for a new home.


Around the globe, there are approximately 60 million people who have been forced to leave their homes to escape war, violence, and persecution.

全世界大約有六千萬人因為戰亂、 暴力以及迫害而流離失所。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 難民 迫害 逃離 難民營 申請

【TED-Ed】難民的定義 (What does it mean to be a refugee? - Benedetta Berti and Evelien Borgman)

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