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  • I want you to take a look at this baby.

    請大家看一看這個小嬰兒

  • What you're drawn to are her eyes

    你會被她的眼睛所吸引

  • and the skin you love to touch.

    你也會想摸摸她粉嫩的肌膚

  • But today I'm going to talk to you about something you can't see --

    但是今天我要跟大家談談你所看不到的東西

  • what's going on up in that little brain of hers.

    在她的小腦袋裏發生的事情。

  • The modern tools of neuroscience

    現代的腦神經科學的儀器

  • are demonstrating to us that what's going on up there

    能向我們顯示腦袋瓜裏發生的

  • is nothing short of rocket science.

    是十分神奇奧妙的事。

  • And what we're learning

    而我們研究的結果

  • is going to shed some light

    將會帶領我們一窺

  • on what the romantic writers and poets

    浪漫詩人和作家所描述的

  • described as the "celestial openness"

    小孩心靈那有如

  • of the child's mind.

    “天體般的公開”。

  • What we see here

    這裡我們看到的

  • is a mother in India,

    是個在印度的媽媽

  • and she's speaking Koro,

    她說的是一個叫做Koro的語言

  • which is a newly discovered language.

    這是一個新發現的語言。

  • And she's talking to her baby.

    她正在跟她的嬰兒講話

  • What this mother --

    這個媽媽

  • and the 800 people who speak Koro in the world --

    和全世界總共800個講Koro的人

  • understands [is] that, to preserve this language,

    都很清楚,想要保存這個語言的話

  • they need to speak it to the babies.

    那就必須跟新生兒說這個語言。

  • And therein lies a critical puzzle.

    這裡面有個關鍵的謎題

  • Why is it that you can't preserve a language

    爲什麽跟你我這樣的成年人說

  • by speaking to you and I, to the adults?

    是無法保存這個語言的呢?

  • Well, it's got to do with your brain.

    這個,跟你我的大腦有關。

  • What we see here

    我們這裡的意思是說

  • is that language has a critical period for learning.

    學習語言有一段關鍵的時期。

  • The way to read this slide is to look at your age on the horizontal axis.

    這張投影片X軸是你的年齡

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And you'll see on the vertical

    垂直的Y軸

  • your skill at acquiring a second language.

    是你學習第二外語的能力。

  • Babies and children are geniuses

    嬰兒和幼童在七嵗以前

  • until they turn seven,

    都是學習語言的天才

  • and then there's a systematic decline.

    七嵗以後能力就遞減。

  • After puberty, we fall off the map.

    青春期以後就掉到圖的外面了。

  • No scientists dispute this curve,

    所有的科學家都同意這條曲綫

  • but laboratories all over the world

    但是全世界的各大實驗室

  • are trying to figure out why it works this way.

    想盡辦法要找出原因來解釋這個現象。

  • Work in my lab is focused

    我的實驗室裏的研究專注在

  • on the first critical period in development --

    發展過程裏最早的關鍵時期

  • and that is the period in which

    也就是嬰兒建立學習語言

  • babies try to master which sounds are used in their language.

    用到的語音的集合的時期。

  • We think, by studying how the sounds are learned,

    我們想,藉著研究語音是如何學起來的

  • we'll have a model for the rest of language,

    我們就能把剩下的學習語言的機制建立起來,

  • and perhaps for critical periods that may exist in childhood

    甚至還能把嬰兒學習社交能力

  • for social, emotional

    情緒、認知能力的關鍵時期

  • and cognitive development.

    也找出來。

  • So we've been studying the babies

    所以我們研究小嬰兒

  • using a technique that we're using all over the world

    我們用了一個技巧

  • and the sounds of all languages.

    適用於各地的嬰兒和所有的語言。

  • The baby sits on a parent's lap,

    我們把嬰兒放在媽媽的大腿上

  • and we train them to turn their heads when a sound changes --

    我們訓練嬰兒,當聽到語音改變時會轉頭

  • like from "ah" to "ee."

    像從“ah”變成“ee”時。

  • If they do so at the appropriate time,

    如果他們在對的時間轉頭

  • the black box lights up

    這個黑盒子就會亮起來

  • and a panda bear pounds a drum.

    熊貓也會開始敲鼓。

  • A six-monther adores the task.

    六個月大的小嬰兒很喜歡這個遊戲。

  • What have we learned?

    那麽,我們得到什麽結果?

  • Well, babies all over the world

    世界上所有的嬰兒

  • are what I like to describe

    —我常常喜歡稱呼他們為

  • as "citizens of the world."

    世界公民—

  • They can discriminate all the sounds of all languages,

    都有能力去分辨所有語言的所有語音

  • no matter what country we're testing and what language we're using,

    不論我們在哪一國用哪一個語言測試。

  • and that's remarkable because you and I can't do that.

    這是了不起的,因爲這件事你我都辦不到。

  • We're culture-bound listeners.

    我們的聽力是受到我們的文化束縛的。

  • We can discriminate the sounds of our own language,

    我們只能分辨我們自己語言裏的語音

  • but not those of foreign languages.

    別的語言裏的語音我們是聼不出有什麽不同的。

  • So the question arises:

    所以問題就來了

  • when do those citizens of the world

    什麽時候這些一生下來為世界公民的小嬰兒

  • turn into the language-bound listeners that we are?

    會變成像你我一樣只懂得單一語言呢?

  • And the answer: before their first birthdays.

    答案是:一歲以前。

  • What you see here is performance on that head-turn task

    你這裡看到的是嬰兒轉頭測試

  • for babies tested in Tokyo and the United States,

    在東京和在美國的

  • here in Seattle,

    在這裡西雅圖作的

  • as they listened to "ra" and "la" --

    他們分別聼“ra”和“la”

  • sounds important to English, but not to Japanese.

    這兩個在英語不一樣但在日語裏沒差別的音。

  • So at six to eight months the babies are totally equivalent.

    六到八個月的嬰兒的表現完全一樣

  • Two months later something incredible occurs.

    兩個月後,不可思議的事發生了。

  • The babies in the United States are getting a lot better,

    在美國的嬰兒分辨得越來越好

  • babies in Japan are getting a lot worse,

    在日本的卻是越來越差,

  • but both of those groups of babies

    這兩組嬰兒正是同處在

  • are preparing for exactly the language that they are going to learn.

    準備學習母語的階段。

  • So the question is: what's happening

    所以,我們要問,在這關鍵的兩個月

  • during this critical two-month period?

    發生了什麽事?

  • This is the critical period for sound development,

    這個階段是語音發展的階段

  • but what's going on up there?

    在嬰兒的腦袋裏發生了什麽事?

  • So there are two things going on.

    有兩件事發生了

  • The first is that the babies are listening intently to us,

    第一是,嬰兒很密集地聼我們的發聲

  • and they're taking statistics as they listen to us talk --

    他們一邊聼一邊在腦袋中作統計

  • they're taking statistics.

    他們在做統計。

  • So listen to two mothers speaking motherese --

    聼兩個媽媽在說「母語」——

  • the universal language we use when we talk to kids --

    也就是所有的媽媽跟小孩說的話——

  • first in English and then in Japanese.

    先是英語,再來是日語。

  • (Video) English Mother: Ah, I love your big blue eyes --

    (影像)美國媽媽:啊,我好喜歡你的藍眼睛

  • so pretty and nice.

    好漂亮,好美喔。

  • Japanese Mother: [Japanese]

    日本媽媽:[日語]

  • Patricia Kuhl: During the production of speech,

    Patricia Kuhl :在學習語音的階段

  • when babies listen,

    當嬰兒聼的時候

  • what they're doing is taking statistics

    他們是在做統計

  • on the language that they hear.

    在統計他們聽到的語言。

  • And those distributions grow.

    語音的分佈情況也會改變

  • And what we've learned

    我們現在知道的是

  • is that babies are sensitive to the statistics,

    嬰兒們對語言統計很敏感

  • and the statistics of Japanese and English are very, very different.

    而英日語語音的統計分佈是十分不同的。

  • English has a lot of Rs and Ls.

    英語有很多的“R”和“L”

  • The distribution shows.

    從這裡可以看出。

  • And the distribution of Japanese is totally different,

    日語的語音分佈是完全不同的

  • where we see a group of intermediate sounds,

    我們可以看到有一群語音分佈於L和R之間

  • which is known as the Japanese "R."

    就是所謂的日語的R。

  • So babies absorb

    嬰兒會吸收

  • the statistics of the language

    語言語音的統計分佈

  • and it changes their brains;

    而這會進而改變他們的腦。

  • it changes them from the citizens of the world

    這會使他們從世界公民

  • to the culture-bound listeners that we are.

    轉變成跟我們一樣受自己的文化所限制。

  • But we as adults

    我們已經長成

  • are no longer absorbing those statistics.

    不會再吸收這些統計的結果了。

  • We're governed by the representations in memory

    我們也就受制於

  • that were formed early in development.

    早期在發展時期形成的記憶。

  • So what we're seeing here

    所以我們這裡看到的

  • is changing our models of what the critical period is about.

    是在這個關鍵時期語音分佈模型的改變。

  • We're arguing from a mathematical standpoint

    我們從數學的觀點來看

  • that the learning of language material may slow down

    語言資訊的學習速度在分配達到穩定後

  • when our distributions stabilize.

    就會慢下來。

  • It's raising lots of questions about bilingual people.

    對會雙語的人來説,這裡面有很多疑問。

  • Bilinguals must keep two sets of statistics in mind at once

    會雙語的人必須保留兩套統計資料

  • and flip between them, one after the other,

    並且在這兩套間換來換去

  • depending on who they're speaking to.

    隨著對話的對象不同換成不同的統計。

  • So we asked ourselves,

    所以我們問自己

  • can the babies take statistics on a brand new language?

    小嬰兒可以對新的語言作統計嗎?

  • And we tested this by exposing American babies

    我們測試了這個假設,

  • who'd never heard a second language

    讓處在發展關鍵時期

  • to Mandarin for the first time during the critical period.

    但從未聼過其他語言的美國嬰兒聼國語。

  • We knew that, when monolinguals were tested

    我們已經知道,用國語測試單語的嬰兒

  • in Taipei and Seattle on the Mandarin sounds,

    在臺北或西雅圖嬰兒

  • they showed the same pattern.

    他們顯示相同的模式

  • Six to eight months, they're totally equivalent.

    六、八月大的嬰兒,完全一樣。

  • Two months later, something incredible happens.

    兩個月以後,不可思議的事發生了。

  • But the Taiwanese babies are getting better, not the American babies.

    臺灣的嬰兒變得更好,美國的沒有。

  • What we did was expose American babies during this period

    我們接下來讓美國的嬰兒

  • to Mandarin.

    聼國語。

  • It was like having Mandarin relatives come and visit for a month

    就好像有說國語的親戚來拜訪一個月

  • and move into your house

    住在你家裏

  • and talk to the babies for 12 sessions.

    並且跟嬰兒說了12場的話。

  • Here's what it looked like in the laboratory.

    這是一段在實驗室的影片

  • (Video) Mandarin Speaker: [Mandarin]

    (影片)國語:

  • PK: So what have we done to their little brains?

    所以,這些小腦袋瓜裏發生了什麽事?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We had to run a control group

    我們必須另外跑一組控制組

  • to make sure that just coming into the laboratory

    來證明光進一趟實驗室

  • didn't improve your Mandarin skills.

    是不能改善你的國語能力的。

  • So a group of babies came in and listened to English.

    所以有一組嬰兒來實驗室但是聼英語。

  • And we can see from the graph

    我們可以從圖上看到

  • that exposure to English didn't improve their Mandarin.

    對英語有所接觸並不能改善他們的國語。

  • But look at what happened to the babies

    但是看看聼了12場國語的嬰兒

  • exposed to Mandarin for 12 sessions.

    有什麽改變?

  • They were as good as the babies in Taiwan

    他們的國語就跟住在臺灣

  • who'd been listening for 10-and-a-half months.

    聼了十個月半國語的嬰兒一樣好。

  • What it demonstrated

    這顯示了嬰兒有能力

  • is that babies take statistics on a new language.

    對新的語言來做統計。

  • Whatever you put in front of them, they'll take statistics on.

    他們聽到的是什麽語言,他們都能做統計。

  • But we wondered what role

    我們也想知道

  • the human being played

    真人的出現在這個學習裏面

  • in this learning exercise.

    扮演著什麽樣的角色。

  • So we ran another group of babies

    所以我們又測試了另一組嬰兒

  • in which the kids got the same dosage, the same 12 sessions,

    也是聼了12場的國語

  • but over a television set

    但是是透過電視(視覺組)

  • and another group of babies who had just audio exposure

    還另外有一組嬰兒同樣是由電視聼國語

  • and looked at a teddy bear on the screen.

    但是螢幕上只有泰迪熊(聽覺組)。

  • What did we do to their brains?

    這對他們的大腦有什麽影響?

  • What you see here is the audio result --

    這裡你看到的是聽覺組的結果

  • no learning whatsoever --

    完全沒有學到什麽

  • and the video result --

    這是視覺組的結果

  • no learning whatsoever.

    也沒有學到東西。

  • It takes a human being

    所以小嬰兒只會對真人的

  • for babies to take their statistics.

    聲音作統計。

  • The social brain is controlling

    小嬰兒作語音統計的時候,

  • when the babies are taking their statistics.

    是由社交的大腦來控制。

  • We want to get inside the brain

    我們想進入大腦裏面

  • and see this thing happening

    看看這個過程的發生

  • as babies are in front of televisions,

    看看小嬰兒在真人和電視前

  • as opposed to in front of human beings.

    大腦裏有什麽不同。

  • Thankfully, we have a new machine,

    很幸運,我們有個新的機器

  • magnetoencephalography,

    腦磁圖監測儀

  • that allows us to do this.

    能幫我們做到。

  • It looks like a hair dryer from Mars.

    這看起來像火星來的吹風機

  • But it's completely safe,

    但是這是完全安全的

  • completely non-invasive and silent.

    非侵入性,不產生噪音。

  • We're looking at millimeter accuracy

    我們的準確度可以達到一公釐

  • with regard to spatial

    在時間上準確度

  • and millisecond accuracy

    可達千分之一秒

  • using 306 SQUIDs --

    我們使用了306個SQUID腦磁圖通道

  • these are Superconducting

    這些都是超導體

  • QUantum Interference Devices --

    量子干涉儀(SQUID)

  • to pick up the magnetic fields

    這可以偵測到當我們思考時

  • that change as we do our thinking.

    大腦磁場的改變。

  • We're the first in the world

    我們是全世界第一個

  • to record babies

    用腦磁儀來記錄

  • in an MEG machine

    嬰兒學習時

  • while they are learning.

    腦波的變化。

  • So this is little Emma.

    這是小Emma

  • She's a six-monther.

    她六個月大。

  • And she's listening to various languages

    她用耳機

  • in the earphones that are in her ears.

    在聼著不同的語言。

  • You can see, she can move around.

    你可以看到,她可以自由擺動

  • We're tracking her head

    我們用她頭盔裏的小偵測器

  • with little pellets in a cap,

    來追蹤她的頭,

  • so she's free to move completely unconstrained.

    所以她可以完全自由地擺動

  • It's a technical tour de force.

    這是科技的精心傑作。

  • What are we seeing?

    我們在看什麽?

  • We're seeing the baby brain.

    我們在看嬰兒的腦袋

  • As the baby hears a word in her language

    當嬰兒聼到她母語裏的字的時候

  • the auditory areas light up,

    聽覺區會亮起來

  • and then subsequently areas surrounding it

    接著臨近區域也會亮起來

  • that we think are related to coherence,

    我們認爲這是和連貫性有關

  • getting the brain coordinated with its different areas,

    使大腦協調裏面不同的區域

  • and causality,

    還有因果順序

  • one brain area causing another to activate.

    不同的區域會活化其他不同的區域

  • We are embarking

    在有關嬰兒大腦發展的知識上

  • on a grand and golden age

    我們進入了前所未有的

  • of knowledge about child's brain development.

    黃金時期。

  • We're going to be able to see a child's brain

    我們能看見小嬰兒

  • as they experience an emotion,

    當他們產生情緒

  • as they learn to speak and read,

    當他們學説話和閲讀

  • as they solve a math problem,

    當他們思考數學問題的解答

  • as they have an idea.

    當他們有個主意時,腦袋裏的變化。

  • And we're going to be able to invent brain-based interventions

    我們也將能發明針對腦部的治療

  • for children who have difficulty learning.

    來醫治有學習障礙的小孩。

  • Just as the poets and writers described,

    跟詩人和作家所說的一樣

  • we're going to be able to see, I think,

    我想,我們將能夠看到

  • that wondrous openness,

    那不可思議的公開

  • utter and complete openness,

    小孩的心靈

  • of the mind of a child.

    純粹和完全的公開。

  • In investigating the child's brain,

    在研究小孩的大腦的同時

  • we're going to uncover deep truths

    我們也將能解開

  • about what it means to be human,

    「人類是什麽?」這個深奧的事實,

  • and in the process,

    在研究的過程中

  • we may be able to help keep our own minds open to learning

    我們也能使我們的心靈

  • for our entire lives.

    保持在終身學習的狀態。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

I want you to take a look at this baby.

請大家看一看這個小嬰兒

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B1 中級 中文 TED 嬰兒 國語 語言 語音 統計

【TED】Patricia Kuhl :嬰兒的語言天分 (The linguistic genius of babies | Patricia Kuhl)

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    VoiceTube 發佈於 2013 年 05 月 11 日
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