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  • Late sleepers get a bad rap.


  • Rise and shine! Come on!


  • Maybe your friend who wakes up at 5 a.m. every day is, like, kind of quirky, but I bet they're productive.

    也許你認為那個每天 5 點起床的朋友有點古怪,但我肯定他們是很有工作效率的。

  • Your friend who wakes up [at] 11 every day, like, what do you think about them?

    至於你那個 11 點才起床的朋友,你對他有什麼樣的評價?

  • But it turns out, sleeping late isn't just a preference or a bad habit.


  • Research is showing that our bedtime could be coded into our DNA.

    研究顯示我們的睡眠時間可能是由我們的 DNA 決定。

  • Each of us has an internal clock, but my clock isn't necessarily in sync with yours.


  • That's because we all have our own chronotype, or preferred sleeping pattern.


  • Scientists study chronotypes by tracking when people go to sleep on days when they don't have to go to work or to school.


  • This chart shows the mid-point of people's sleep on those free days.


  • If you go to bed around 11 p.m. and get up around 7 a.m., you have an average chronotype.

    如果你在 11 點就寢,並在 7 點左右起床,那你的晝夜節律就屬於平均值。

  • A very small number of people on either end of the chart have either very early or very late chronotypes.


  • But even those of us who are just slightly behind the average chronotype can wake up feeling jet-lagged every day.


  • If you have an average chronotype, you're generally getting the same amount of sleep on both free days and work days.


  • So, your sleep schedule fits with society's schedule.


  • But the later your chronotype, the bigger the difference between the amount of sleep you get on free days versus work days.


  • So, going back to a work after a free day can feel like flying over several time zones.


  • And to understand why, you need to look at the master clock in our body.


  • It's a bundle of neurons called the "suprachiasmatic nucleus", or SCN.

    這是由一束稱為「視交叉上核」,或簡稱 SCN 的神經元所組成。

  • If you have a normal chronotype, your SCN tells the pineal gland to start producing melatonin around 9 p.m. that makes you sleepy.

    如果你的晝夜節律是正常的,你的 SCN 會告訴你的松果體在晚上 9 點左右開始製造讓你想睡的褪黑激素。

  • Around 10:30, your colon starts suppressing bowel movements.

    在 10 點 30 分左右,你的結腸開始抑制腸胃蠕動。

  • Your body temperature drops to its lowest point around 4:30 a.m., and your blood pressure reaches its highest point around 6:45 a.m., so you're at your most alert around 10 a.m.

    你的體溫在凌晨 4 點 30 分左右降到最低點,然後你的血壓在 6 點 45 分之間升到最高點,使你在 10 點左右最為清醒。

  • But for people with late chronotypes, all this stuff happens later in the day, and there's not much they can do about it.


  • That's because inside the neurons that make up the SCN, scientists have discovered something called "clock genes".

    這是因為在組成 SCN 的神經元中,科學家們發現了一個稱為「時鐘基因」的東西。

  • These genes turn on and off throughout the day to keep your body on a this 24-hour cycle.

    這些基因在一天中不斷開關,讓你的身體在這 24 小時的循環中維持運作。

  • This 7-day time-lapse of the SCN shows these clock genes releasing proteins every 24 hours like clockwork.

    這個 SCN 一周七天的縮時攝影顯示,這些時鐘基因 24 小時內都在釋放蛋白質,就像發條一樣。

  • Researchers who study families of extreme early-risers show that many of them share the same mutation on one of these clock genes, and studies have found similar mutations in hamsters with early chronotypes.


  • But when scientists took out these hamsters' SCNtheir body clockand replaced them with the SCN of a normal hamster, they still woke up and went to sleep super early.

    但當科學家們取出這些倉鼠的 SCN,也就是他們的生理時鐘,並用正常倉鼠的 SCN 取代後,他們仍然會早睡早起。

  • And that's because the SCN isn't our only biological clock.

    這是因為 SCN 並不是我們唯一的生理時鐘。

  • You also have all these little clocks in every single cell of your body.


  • In the early-rising hamsters, these clocks in the body preserved the early chronotype, even after the brain's SCN was taken out.

    在這些早起的倉鼠案例中,即使腦中的 SCN 已被取出,他們的身體仍然保留了原本早起的晝夜節律。

  • And for humans, this helps explain why it's nearly impossible for late sleepers to adjust to society's schedule.


  • The cells in their bodies literally won't let them, and that's a problem.


  • In one study, researchers took healthy people and messed with their sleep schedules.


  • After three weeks, they had early signs of diabetes.


  • People with late chronotypes are also more likely to be smokers and to develop depression.


  • And maybe that should change the way we think about sleep, you know, it's not this nuisance; it's this, kind of, fundamental part of life.


  • Maybe some late sleepers are lazy, sure, but the rest have been sorely misunderstood.


Late sleepers get a bad rap.


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