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  • Thank you guys so much.

    謝謝大家!

  • Also, I'd like to thank Shawn Roggenkamp

    我也要謝謝洛根勘普 (Shawn Roggenkamp) 的

  • for the slides and this photography,

    照片和幻燈片,

  • but you should know the good slides that she did,

    精彩的幻燈片是她做的,

  • the bad photography is all me.

    壞了的照片是我的傑作。

  • So, a lot of time I hear people talk about classical music

    常聽到人們對古典音樂的討論

  • the way they talk about broccoli.

    就有如市場的青菜。

  • There's the sort of vague sense that it's good for us,

    大家有個模糊概念,

  • and we should probably have more of it,

    多聽古典音樂是有益的,

  • but it's also kind of boring sometimes,

    但有時聽多了又覺得無趣,

  • and we'd rather have our high fructose pop song.

    比較偏好甜點似的熱門音樂。

  • And even when we get into the concert hall,

    就連在音樂廳,

  • I often see people also with a look on their face,

    觀眾臉上常有一種表情,

  • they're like: "Wow, this is pretty, this is still pretty,

    說著:「哇,這真美妙,真的很美妙,

  • how long is this going to be pretty for?"

    但還會再持續多久?」

  • So, why is this so hard?

    這是甚麼原因?

  • I think it's okay to admit that sometimes classical music

    有時,古典音樂

  • can be a little bit boring.

    確實有點無趣。

  • But there's two kinds of boring:

    但有兩種無趣:

  • There's "This is too easy, I-already-know-it boring,"

    「太簡單了,我都已經都懂了」,

  • and there's "This is too-hard-to-follow boring."

    或是「這太難懂了」的無趣。

  • And I would submit that classical music is the second kind.

    我認為古典音樂是屬於後者。

  • There's a lot of information coming out at us at the same time

    古典音樂裡有很多的資訊

  • and it's hard to keep track of how it fits into the big picture.

    不是很容易消化。

  • I say information, because I think listening to classical music is a learning task.

    我用「資訊」這個詞, 因為聽古典音樂是一種學習。

  • I think you're trying to feel all the things of the piece for the first time.

    初聽時, 你一定會試著去完全感受這音樂。

  • You're trying to get the characters, you're trying to get the world,

    試著了解它的格調、它的全貌,

  • things are repeating, you're trying to remember them.

    和記下重複的樂段。

  • And you're often trying to do it on your first listen.

    這是在初次接觸到新音樂會有的現象。

  • And the challenge with learning anything

    但新事物帶來的挑戰

  • is that your brain gets overwhelmed pretty quickly.

    會使大腦很快的感到疲憊。

  • When you first learn something, it's going into your head

    當你開始學習新事物時, 每一項新資訊,

  • in a working place that you call,

    會先儲存在神經科學家

  • neuroscientists call working memory.

    所謂的工作記憶裡。

  • And that's sort of like your mental scratch pad,

    類似一本塗鴉便箋,

  • where you keep things like telephone numbers,

    可以暫時記下一個

  • only for a few minutes, though,

    新電話號碼,

  • before you can put in some other larger context.

    直到你能將這資訊整體歸類。

  • And the problem is, you have a limited capacity to store new information.

    問題是,工作記憶的容量有限,

  • It's like trying to keep track of too many objects.

    就像是一心多用,

  • And that's what it's like when you listen to something overwhelming.

    這類似聽一首很繁複的音樂。

  • So your brain, luckily, has a neat trick.

    但幸好大腦有一個絕招,

  • You can put things into groups, or chunking information.

    就是將每項資訊分類或分組。

  • And now you no longer see this as 12 objects.

    把 12 個各別體分成 3 組,

  • You see this as 3 groups and that's a lot less information.

    這減縮了不少資訊量,

  • That frees up room in your working memory for more new things.

    好在工作記憶中騰出空位給新資訊。

  • And this is why clear writing uses punctuation,

    這也是為什麼 條理分明的文章需要標點符號,

  • and why music has phrases that repeat to show you those groups.

    同樣的,音樂也有區分段落的樂段。

  • So, say you're trying to learn a telephone number that's ten digits,

    假設你需要記住一個十位數的電話號碼,

  • The first thing you do is you make groups,

    那首先你會將它們分組,

  • and that may not seem like a big deal,

    很簡單,對吧,

  • but if you've ever been in a country that has different grouping

    但令人困惑的是,每個國家有不同的

  • you know how confusing that is,

    電話號碼分組,

  • and how much we rely on this as an expectation.

    由此可見,我們很固守習態。

  • Next, if you know the area code you're in luck,

    接下來,如果你有幸知道區域代碼,

  • because this is now one piece of information, not 3 numbers.

    這不再是 3 個數字,而是一個資訊組。

  • And if you're over 40, you know that 867-5309 is Jenny, and good for you.

    40 歲以上的人, 如果你知道 867-5309 是珍妮的號碼,那很棒。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And this is not just true of numbers, this is true of language as well.

    這不限制於數字,語文也可如此分類。

  • So consider the phrase:

    看看這句:

  • Fly me to the moon and let me play among the stars.

    Fly me to the moon and let me play among the stars. (帶我飛向月球並讓我在群星之間嬉戲 )

  • Now, if you're familiar with the song and the phrase,

    如果你熟悉這首歌和這歌詞,

  • this is only one piece of information,

    這對你來說只是一項資訊,

  • you're very easily understanding it, you're ready to move on.

    很容易了解,可以繼續下去。

  • But if you don't know the song, well, these 12 words

    但如果你不知道這首歌, 那這 12 個英文字

  • represent 12 different pieces of information,

    代表了12 個不同的資訊,

  • and that's a little bit harder.

    這就變得有點困難。

  • And if you didn't know English,

    那如果你不懂英文,

  • then you'd be dealing with a level of symbols,

    這些字對你來說只是一些符號,

  • and you have 39 different symbols.

    39 個不同的符號,

  • And that's a really overwhelming task,

    這變成一項非常艱鉅的任務,

  • but I think that's exactly what it's like

    完全類似

  • when we're listening to a piece of classical music for the first time.

    初聽一首古典音樂的狀況。

  • We often don't know the words and we don't know the symbols,

    我們的困惑通常來自於

  • and thats what makes it so difficult for us.

    我們不認得那些字和符號。

  • The trick to this, though, is whenever you want to use this chunking

    當你想使用分類技巧來處理訊息時,

  • you have to walk into the room with some previous information.

    你必需先具備一點知識。

  • You have to know already there are letters,

    你需要知道這些是英文字母組成的,

  • you have to know there are words,

    你需要知道這些是英文字,

  • you have to know the phrase of "Fly me to the moon."

    你需要知道「Fly me to the moon」 (帶我飛向月球) 是一段短句。

  • And knowing each of these things, again, tremendously reduces that.

    這些資訊能減低困惑,

  • That's what allows you to take a huge amount of information

    幫助你將大量的資訊

  • and put it into smaller chunks.

    分類。

  • And so the difficulty with music is that

    相對的,我們對音樂的認知

  • I think we're stuck at that level of 39 symbols.

    停留在類似 39 個符號的階段,

  • We don't know that these things exist.

    我們不知道音樂的組成。

  • But in fact, music does have words, and music does have phrases.

    其實,音樂也有字和短句,

  • And if we can see how, in fact, music is quite organized.

    懂得音樂的組織,

  • That, I think, unlocks a lot of stuff for us.

    就能解除我們對音樂的困惑,

  • That's what allows a meaningful engagement in music.

    讓我們了解音樂的意義。

  • So, at Oberlin College I did study neuroscience and music theory,

    我在歐柏林學院 (Oberlin College) 研究 神經科學和音樂理論,

  • and what I want to share with you today

    我今天要跟你們分享的是

  • is how that combination changed the way that I understand music.

    這兩門學科如何影響了我對音樂的認知。

  • So first let's consider a phrase as a musical idea.

    首先,讓我們考慮一個樂句為一個樂思。

  • And this is building off on some work that William Kaplan did in the 1990s

    這源自卡普蘭 (William Caplin) 在1990年代提出的概念,

  • and later other scholars extended it to all sorts of other music.

    後而延伸到各種形式的音樂。

  • But we can really apply this, not only to classical music,

    這不只可以套用在古典音樂,

  • but to modern pop music

    也可以用在流行樂

  • and anything you want to do.

    和任何事物。

  • Basically a phrase is a musical idea that introduces

    簡單來說,一個樂句是包含了

  • some sort of tension and then release.

    張力推疊和釋放的樂思,

  • It arrives somewhere, like a ball being thrown and then caught.

    它有個目標,就像一顆被傳送的球。

  • So let's start with an example of some music with words,

    首先聽一個有歌詞的音樂範例,

  • and we'll try and follow along and see if there's a phrase to it,

    讓我們來辦認它的樂句,

  • and just look for a sense of there being tension

    是否有張力推疊

  • and there being release.

    和釋放。

  • So we're going to start with a group, OC Times,

    首先,來聽聽 OC Times 樂團,

  • a barber shop group, a good friend of mine.

    一個理髮店四重奏, 也是我的好朋友。

  • Let's hear it.

    聽好了。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right, I hope you can hear some sense of arriving somewhere.

    有聽到這音樂是有目標嗎?

  • So let's see what happens next.

    那聽下一段。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right, so, that's basically the same material,

    好,雖然這一段歌詞不同,

  • I mean, the words are different, but the music sounds the same.

    但音樂是幾乎一樣的。

  • And so we can call this an A section.

    我們稱這為 A 段,

  • We can give it a letter, and since it's the first thing that we heard,

    可以用一個字母標明, 而這是最先聽到的,

  • we'll call it A.

    所以稱為 A。

  • So, I'm going to play the next part and I want you to tell me

    現在來聽下一段,告訴我

  • if you think it's the same section or different section,

    這一段是否還是一樣,

  • and I'd also invite you to close your eyes.

    請你們閉上眼睛聽,

  • I think you'll absorb a lot more information from music.

    這有助於吸收音樂中的訊息,

  • You'll be surprised, I think, at how much you'll hear more of it.

    你們將會很驚訝能多聽到多少。

  • All right, let's go.

    來,注意聽好。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Ok, same thing or different thing? Right.

    好的,這跟前一段是否相同? 說對了。

  • So, this is the next thing we've heard, you guys are all fantastic.

    這是我們剛剛聽到的,你們都很棒。

  • So, the next thing we've heard and we're going to call it the B section,

    剛才這一段,我們叫 B 段,

  • and now I want you to keep both of these sections in mind

    那現在把這兩段記到

  • in your working memory,

    你們的工作記憶,

  • and tell me what happens next.

    然後跟我說接下來是什麼。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right, what do we have?

    好,這是什麼?

  • Ah, so, it's mostly A material coming back,

    阿,A 主題又回來了,

  • but it is a little bit different,

    但有些不同,

  • we do have some changes, so we can call it A prime.

    有些變化,那我們叫這 A'。

  • But the gist I want you to get is that it's essentially A material,

    大致上,這是 A 主題,

  • it's pretty similar, it should be more similar to that than anything else.

    跟 A 段很相近,幾乎相同。

  • It's not totally new, it's not totally the same.

    雖然不太一樣,但也不完全是新主題。

  • All right, let's take us home.

    聽好了,最後一段。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • What was that? It wasn't exactly anything we've heard before.

    這是什麼? 跟我們聽過的都不太一樣。

  • It kind of summarizes a little bit of the piece,

    有混合整首曲子每部分的味道,

  • but it also shows off with some fancy chords,

    又有些炫耀的花俏和弦,

  • so we can call it a coda, which means a tail,

    這叫尾聲 (coda),

  • it's sort of a little bit at the end of it.

    在結束之前的一小段。

  • So when we put this together you see

    把這些結合起來

  • there's really a very simple overall structure.

    是不是一個比較簡淺易懂的組織?

  • And in music theory we call this a binary form.

    樂理稱這為二段體曲式 (binary form),

  • Binary, because it has two basic parts to it.

    由兩個基本主題組成的。

  • We have an idea, we showed you that again,

    最先呈示一個樂思,重複,

  • we moved on to something else,

    然後轉移到別的樂思,

  • and we came back a little bit changed,

    最後有點轉變的原樂思。

  • And you don't just have to have 2 parts.

    這不限於二段體形式。

  • In fact you can have 3 parts and that's a classic pop song.

    經典流行歌曲是三段體曲式。

  • But before that, though, we can subdivide these phrases as well,

    這些樂句可以再細分,

  • and I'm just going to highlight in red

    紅色強調歌詞中

  • all the parts where he says "All I wanna do".

    每一個「All I wanna do (我只想做)」

  • And you can tell that it comes at the end of every A section,

    這出現在每個 A 段的結尾,

  • and the coda is just chock-full of it.

    和完全佔據了尾聲。

  • So, like I said, we can have 3 sections, as well.

    所以這也可以分成三段體曲式。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Oops, all right, so, before we get to that,

    哎呀,在我們繼續之前,

  • we're now ready for a Schubert waltz,

    先聽一段舒伯特 (Schubert) 的華爾茲,

  • and I would like to invite you again to close your eyes.

    請你們再閉上眼睛。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right, so, this time there are no lyrics to help you out,

    好,這音樂沒有歌詞,

  • It's classical music, but we hear the first 2 sections

    是古典音樂,但我們能聽到

  • are note for note the same.

    前兩段是一模一樣的,

  • And that's because they're also both A sections.

    都是 A 段。

  • So here what we have so far.

    再聽一次。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right? And after that it got really exciting,

    接下來就變得較激動,

  • we had this thing that was new material,

    有新主題,

  • and it subdivides in itself to 2 little parts that are repeating.

    內含兩個重複段落。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • And I hope you recognized that at the end,

    希望你們有聽出

  • we came back to a little bit more of A material,

    結尾又重複了一點 A 主題,

  • and then the concluding part was just doing the same thing again.

    在最後又重複了一次。

  • We also have a binary form.

    這是二段體曲式。

  • This is a classical phrase analysis of music.

    這是經典的樂句分析。

  • And so, like I mentioned, you can also have 3 parts.

    就如我說過,也有三段體曲式。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • And now we just call them verse and chorus,

    這叫主歌和副歌,

  • and that hipster whistling part in the middle is a bridge.

    在中間有吹口哨的叫橋段。

  • And you don't even have to go there.

    不一定要有橋段,

  • Sometimes you can just get away with just 2.

    有時只有兩個主題。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • They never introduce a third theme,

    這首沒有第三主題,

  • and if you subdivide these,

    將這區分,

  • you'll see each of these going

    可以看出

  • to a call and response theme pretty easily.

    這主題形式是呼喊和回應。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Like I said, this applies to a lot of different kinds of music.

    各形式的音樂都可如此分析,

  • I found that reggae is a little bit more disorganized

    但我覺得雷鬼樂有點雜亂,

  • and I won't speculate on why.

    這我就不多解釋。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • Now, until I mapped out Friday I'm in Love,

    在分析「星期五到了,我愛上她」 (Friday I'm in Love) 之後,

  • I didn't realize there's this acually kind of cute parallel.

    我才發覺有蠻可愛相仿,

  • In the beginning and the very end

    只有器樂的

  • there are these 2 instrumental sections.

    開頭和結尾。

  • And if you're feeling really generous to The Cure, you can say:

    如果你們很善良的話,

  • This is all a little repetitive, but it's metaphorically suggestive

    可以說這有點重複性,

  • of a bleak emotional week leading up to Friday.

    比喻星期五之前,情緒暗淡的一星期。

  • But I'm not really,

    說真的,

  • I don't know if I'd give them that much credit,

    我不知道這是否「治療樂隊」 (The Cure) 的原意,

  • because that's actually what they're talking about Saturday,

    因為他們真正的主題是星期六,

  • it doesn't really fit.

    所以有點不對稱。

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • I love Ben Folds.

    我很喜愛班弗茲 (Ben Folds)。

  • I think his music is much more complicated,

    音樂分析圖可以看出

  • which you can even see a little bit from his pictures.

    他的音樂比較繁複。

  • The first thing, he starts you off with these 3 different sections.

    首先是不一樣的 3 段,

  • You can already tell just from here.

    從這裡可以看出來

  • You actually don't get a repeated note until about a minute into the song.

    歌曲要在一分鐘後才開始有重複。

  • And when you start, even at the end of the song,

    在開始和結尾中,

  • he's introducing this explosive piano section

    他穿插了爆發性的鋼琴演奏,

  • in the middle, which I put in red,

    也就是圖面上紅色的部分,

  • and he's giving you new material, even by the end.

    從頭到尾,持續的加入新主題。

  • He keeps introducing new themes,

    他不斷的推出新主題,

  • it's not just one thing and repeating it over.

    很少重複。

  • And we start looking at the bigger structure,

    這整體的組織內

  • something else also kind of interesting happens.

    也包括了其他有意思的結構。

  • You see, this A B C is like a little rotation.

    A、B、C 段有點旋轉式。

  • You start ABC, ABC, ok, this is an expectation,

    開始是 ABC,ABC,

  • I know how that goes.

    就如預料一樣。

  • He gives you the A, huge piano solo,

    A 是一大段的鋼琴獨奏,

  • and then finishes out with C,

    然後結束於 C,

  • and you realize this isn't random.

    這不是隨意編排的。

  • The piano solo part is taking the place of that middle section.

    這段鋼琴獨奏來到中段時,

  • It's sort of exploding, it's stretching out the piece,

    變成有點爆發性, 延伸到整首曲子,

  • and by the end, the structure entirely falls apart.

    到最後,是整個組織的瓦解。

  • It's a very angry song that's sort of exploding in the middle,

    這是一首憤怒的歌, 具有爆發性的中段,

  • and it collapses the structure of the song.

    導致最後的瓦解。

  • If you listen to it again, I think you might hear it this way.

    下次聽到這首歌時, 聽聽看是否也是這樣。

  • All right, so music has structure.

    所以音樂有組織。

  • Why do we care?

    這對我們有什麼意義?

  • Because these are simple examples, even with Ben Folds.

    這些是簡易的範例,包括 班弗茲。

  • And when we get to the level of a symphony,

    聽交響樂時,

  • this bubble diagrams start becoming extremely powerful.

    這樂句分析圖變得非常有用。

  • I have some examples from Mahler, you can do this with anyone,

    這可以用於任何音樂,

  • but I just