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  • Welcome to the first lecture.

  • Before we get started, a word about pianos and keyboards.

  • We are going to use the piano quite a lot for this music theory course.

  • And we're hoping that you can get access to any kind

  • of keyboard, including one that you might download as an app.

  • You don't need to be a piano player, you simply need to be able to put

  • your fingers on the keys and play along with some of the stuff as we do it.

  • >> The only reason that we're doing this is because it's a really

  • nice visual illustration of some of the

  • things that we're going to be talking about.

  • [BLANK_AUDIO]

  • >> So let's get started.

  • Here's a sound.

  • [SOUND].

  • >> And here is another sound.

  • [SOUND].

  • >> You'd probably say that this one is high.

  • [NOISE].

  • >> Whereas this one [NOISE] is low.

  • >> And that is the case in nearly every language in the planet.

  • The thing is with this sound [NOISE], while I

  • can say it's high, I can't seem to sing it.

  • [tries to sing] I can't find the note.

  • >> And that's just exactly the same as this one.

  • We know it's low, but again bom, bom, bom.

  • There's no, there's no note to, to latch on to and recognize there.

  • >> But compare with this, [piccolo note] which is high, but is a note.

  • La- sings same note

  • [sxophone low note].

  • >> And then we've got a low note.

  • That's, again, something that we can sing, we can recognize.

  • >> So those two examples have what we call Pitch.

  • Okay?

  • A singable musical quality to the sound, all right?

  • Now, we're going to be looking at how to represent this stuff graphically.

  • This is the written part of music.

  • So, I could say obviously my note was high, so I'll stick it up here.

  • Zack's note came afterwards with low down here, shall we, shall we say.

  • That would imply that this axis is giving us time.

  • My note first, Zack's second.

  • And this axis, this axis is giving us Pitch.

  • High and low, okay?

  • >> And that's fine.

  • But actually, it's really quite difficult to know just how

  • high that note is, or how low this note is.

  • It's not very good for us to able to give this

  • to someone else, to be able to replicate what we did.

  • You know?

  • It's, it's, it's purely a, a kind of graph of where our notes were.

  • >> I can try and make a tune, like, la, la, la, la.

  • But we don't really know.

  • >> Yeah, this is just a, a, Scatter Graph.

  • It's just plotting where things happened, and roughly how high or low they were.

  • >> In the 7th century, Archbishop Isidore

  • of Seville, said, that unless sounds could be

  • held in the memory of man, they are lost because they cannot be written down.

  • You've got to imagine you're a 9th century monk and you've come

  • up with a really great piece of music for the church liturgy, okay?

  • You can use this kind of system here, as a memory

  • jogger for you and for the people you're immediately working with.

  • But you have no musical instrument and you have no recording devices.

  • So if you wanted to send this to another monastery, if

  • you wanted to submit it to the Pope for authentication, you couldn't.

  • There's no way that anyone else would be able to interpret these dots.

  • They struggled with this right through, until in

  • the 16th century, they came up with this.

  • [BLANK_AUDIO]

  • Five lines called a Stave, or if you're American, a Staff.

  • Okay?

  • These five lines are like a grid system that can be overlaid onto those dots.

  • Now we have some relativity that we can work with.

  • Right.

  • So we got this stave, and I'm going to put a symbol here,

  • which you'll probably recognize.

  • Now, these monks started naming the notes.

  • Things like Do Re Mi, which we still use.

  • But, also, particularly in English speaking countries, letters

  • from the alphabet, and we'll start with A.

  • Which on the piano, sounds like.

  • [MUSIC]

  • A, and I'll put that right here, on this space.

  • So that's, A.

  • >> Okay, so we said it was alphabetical.

  • So the next thing obviously is B, and that sits on the line, just above that space.

  • >> B.

  • >> You guessed it.

  • The next one is C, and that's in the space above.

  • >> C.

  • >> And then we've got D on the next line.

  • >> D.

  • >> E on the next space.

  • >> E.

  • >> F on the next line.

  • >> F.

  • >> G compares just on top of the stave.

  • >> G.

  • >> And then it looks like we've ran out of stave actually, but we can, we

  • can write notes that are higher than this

  • and there's a trick for getting around that.

  • Richard's going to show you [CROSSTALK].

  • >> It's called a Ledger Line, and that gets us that note.

  • >> Okay, so on that note if we were following

  • that up alphabetically, A, B, C, D, E, F, G.

  • Not H, what we get is another.

  • >> A.

  • >> Okay, so we can say that our musical alphabet runs A,

  • B, C, D, E, F, G and then the sequence starts repeating itself.

  • >> Going down, I'm just going to come down to

  • this stave and A goes down, of course, to G.

  • >> And then if you keep going down we've got an F

  • and the space, E on the line, D perched just below the stave.

  • And again, we've got the same problem.

  • But as Richard says, we can use a short line, which

  • is temporary and it's called a Ledger Line that represents our C.

  • We can draw them, the line again, and write the next note in the

  • space below, that gives us a B and we can keep going with this.

  • So, so the next thing is two ledger lines.

  • And all we're doing is temporarily extending the stave when we

  • do this and this takes us back down to our E, again.

  • >> Now one other thing I'll just mention.

  • So we started on A and we came down to a G.

  • This G is on the line and this line is where this symbol circles itself around.

  • So this symbol can be called a G-Clef, or more commonly nowadays, a Treble-Clef.

  • But the really important thing we've got to deal

  • with is the existence of more than one A.

  • And in fact now we've seen this being a C, more than one C.

  • What does that mean?

  • That's what we're going to look at next.

  • >> Following on from this idea of having more than one

  • of any given note represented at different points on the stave.

  • Let's use the guitar as an illustration.

  • So on the guitar, if we play this string, [SOUND] we get an A.

  • Now this instrument makes sound by having a string that vibrates.

  • If I was to put my finger halfway along the length

  • of that string, [SOUND] it now vibrates at double the frequency.

  • This is what we call an Octave.

  • This A [SOUND] is an octave higher than [SOUND] this A.

  • But we can hear, although there are different notes on there're

  • different points on the instrument, they do sound equivalent in some way.

  • And this is something that we'll recognize intuitively, and

  • we'll be able to illustrate that with our voices.

  • Okay, so imagine you're at a party.

  • Sing:Happy birthday to you, happy birthday to you.

  • That's quite enough of that!

  • but, I sang high, the part that often children

  • or, some women would sing, and Zack sang low.

  • We were singing the same melody.

  • You always do this in your everyday life.

  • We were singing in octaves.

  • Okay?

  • >> It sounded equivalent.

  • It didn't sound weird.

  • It didn't clash.

  • This is what we mean by the an Octave.

  • >> So again looking at our stave, let's see what this octaves mean.

  • Right here's A, and if we count these notes,

  • A being 1, B 2, C 3, D 4, E 5,

  • F6, G7, number 8 is when we come back to A.

  • >> That's not going to be much of a surprise

  • to us given that we've called it an Octave.

  • >> The 8.

  • >> So we've looked at these notes on the stave, but let's just go

  • back to the keyboard so we can look at where they are on an instrument.

  • So the A that we've started with was here.

  • [SOUND] We never got that A.

  • An octave above [SOUND] up here.

  • So we had A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and A.

  • And you'll notice that that's just used every line and space on the stave,