Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • (Music)


  • You probably already know that everything is made up of


  • little tiny things called atoms.

    一種非常微小 稱之為原子的東西所組成

  • You might even know that each atom is made up of even smaller particles

    你甚至可能知道原子還是由 更小的粒子所組成

  • called protons, neutrons and electrons.


  • And you've probably heard that atoms are small.


  • But I bet you haven't ever thought about how small atoms really are.

    但我猜你應該從未想過 原子究竟有多小

  • Well, the answer is that they are really, really, really small.

    嗯 答案是 非常 非常 非常小

  • So you ask, just how small are atoms?

    因此 你會想知道 究竟原子有多小?

  • To understand this, let's ask this question:

    為了了解 先來研究這個問題

  • How many atoms are in a grapefruit?


  • Well let's assume that the grapefruit is made up of only nitrogen atoms,

    嗯 假設葡萄柚是只由氮原子所組成

  • which isn't at all true, but there are nitrogen atoms in a grapefruit.

    當然這不是事實 但確實葡萄柚裡有氮原子

  • Well, to help you visualize this, let's blow up each of the atoms

    當然 為了幫助你們想像 我們將原子放大

  • to the size of a blueberry.


  • And then how big would the grapefruit have to be?

    那此時 葡萄柚會變得多大呢?

  • It would have to be the same size of -- well, actually, the Earth.


  • That's crazy! You mean to say that if I filled the Earth with blueberries,

    非常不可思議吧...意思是 若把藍莓集合成地球一樣大

  • I would have the same number of nitrogen atoms as a grapefruit?


  • That's right! So how big is the atom?

    沒錯! 所以到底原子有多大?

  • Well, it's really, really, really, really small.

    原子是非常 非常 非常 非常小

  • And you know what?


  • It gets even more crazy.


  • Let's now look inside of each atom -- and thus the blueberry, right? --

    讓我們來看看每個原子之中 也就是藍莓

  • What do you see there?


  • In the center of the atom is something called the nucleus,

    在原子的中央 有個稱為原子核的東西

  • which contains protons and neutrons,


  • and on the outside you'd see electrons.


  • So how big is the nucleus?


  • Well, if atoms are like blueberries in the Earth, how big would the nucleus be?

    如果原子像藍莓一般大 原子核相對會多大?

  • You might remember the old pictures of the atom from your science class,

    你可能還記得在理化課上的 舊原子圖片吧

  • where you saw this tiny dot on the page with an arrow pointing to the nucleus.

    你看到的頁面上 用箭頭指著的那個小點

  • Well, those pictures, they're not drawn to scale,

    嗯 那些圖片 其實並非照比例而畫

  • so they're kind of wrong.


  • So how big is the nucleus?

    所以 原子核究竟多大呢?

  • So if you popped open the blueberry


  • and were searching for the nucleus,


  • you know what? It would be invisible.

    你知道 原子會是隱形的

  • It's too small to see!


  • OK. Let's blow up the atom -- the blueberry --

    因此 我們在將原子 也就是藍莓

  • to the size of a house.


  • So imagine a ball that is as tall as a two-story house.

    想像一下這個球跟 兩層樓的房子一樣高

  • Let's look for the nucleus in the center of the atom.


  • And do you know what? It would just barely be visible.

    你知道嗎? 原子核還是幾乎不可見

  • So to get our minds wrapped around how big the nucleus is,

    所以 為了知道到底原子核有多大

  • we need to blow up the blueberry, up to the size of a football stadium.

    我們必須把原子從藍莓的大小 放大到美式足球場一樣

  • So imagine a ball the size of a football stadium,


  • and right smack dab in the center of the atom,


  • you would find the nucleus, and you could see it!

    你就會找到原子核 而且你可以看得到它

  • And it would be the size of a small marble.


  • And there's more, if I haven't blown your mind by now.

    不僅僅如此 如果我還沒讓你驚訝的話

  • Let's consider the atom some more. It contains protons, neutrons and electrons.

    我們來更詳盡的了解原子 它包含了質子 中子 跟電子

  • The protons and neutrons live inside of the nucleus,


  • and contain almost all of the mass of the atom.


  • Way on the edge are the electrons.


  • So if an atom is like a ball the size of a football stadium,

    如果原子是一顆 跟美式足球場般大的球

  • with the nucleus in the center, and the electrons on the edge,

    原子在中央 電子在邊緣

  • what is in between the nucleus and the electrons?


  • Surprisingly, the answer is empty space.

    相當令人驚訝地 答案是什麼都沒有

  • (Wind noise)


  • That's right. Empty!

    沒錯 什麼都沒有 空的

  • Between the nucleus and the electrons, there are vast regions of empty space.

    在原子核跟電子之間 有著相當廣大的空間

  • Now, technically there are some electromagnetic fields,

    嚴格來說 那裡存在著電磁場

  • but in terms of stuff, matter, it is empty.

    但就本質而言 那裡是空的

  • Remember this vast region of empty space


  • is inside the blueberry, which is inside the Earth,

    是位於跟和組成地球的 藍莓一樣大的原子之中

  • which really are the atoms in the grapefruit.

    組成地球的藍莓 就好比是葡萄柚裡的原子

  • OK, one more thing, if I can even get more bizarre.

    另外還有一件事 是更難以想像的

  • Since virtually all the mass of an atom is in the nucleus --

    既然事實是原子的全部重量 是集中於原子核中

  • now, there is some amount of mass in the electrons,

    嗯 當然電子當然還是 佔有一部分的重量

  • but most of it is in the nucleus --


  • how dense is the nucleus?


  • Well, the answer is crazy.


  • The density of a typical nucleus


  • is four times 10 to the 17th kilograms per meter cubed.


  • But that's hard to visualize. OK, I'll put it in English units.

    但數字是難以想像的 讓我來用英制表示

  • 2.5 times 10 to the 16th


  • pounds per cubic feet.


  • OK, that's still kind of hard to figure.

    當然 這仍然是難以理解的

  • OK, here's what I want you to do.


  • Make a box that is one foot by one foot by one foot.


  • Now let's go and grab all of the nuclei from a typical car.

    然後集合相當於 一台普通車子的所有原子

  • Now, cars on average weigh two tons.


  • How many cars' nuclei would you have to put into the box


  • to have your one-foot-box have the same density of the nucleus?

    才能讓這每邊為1英呎盒子的 密度等同於原子核呢?

  • Is it one car? Two? How about 100?

    一輛 兩輛 還是100輛

  • Nope, nope and nope.


  • The answer is much bigger.


  • It is 6.2 billion.


  • That is almost equal to the number of people in the Earth.


  • So if everyone in the Earth owned their own car --


  • and they don't --


  • and we put all of those cars into your box,


  • that would be about the density of a nucleus.


  • So I'm saying that if you took every car in the world and put it into your one-foot box,

    我的意思是 如果你將地球上 所有的車子放進每邊一英呎的盒子裡

  • you would have the density of one nucleus.


  • OK, let's review.

    好了 讓我們來複習一下

  • The atom is really, really, really small.

    原子是非常 非常 非常小

  • Think atoms in a grapefruit like blueberries in the Earth.

    葡萄柚裡的一粒原子 就好比地球上的一顆藍莓

  • The nucleus is crazy small.


  • Now look inside the blueberry, and blow it up to the size of a football stadium,


  • and now the nucleus is a marble in the middle.


  • The atom is made up of vast regions of empty space.


  • That's weird.


  • The nucleus has a crazy-high density.


  • Think of putting all those cars in your one-foot box.

    就好比將地球上所有的車放進 每邊為1英呎的盒子中

  • I think I'm tired.


  • (Yawning)





單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 原子核 藍莓 密度 地球 電子

【TED-Ed】原子到底有多小? (Just How Small is an Atom? - Jon Bergmann)

  • 1556 130
    Furong Lai 發佈於 2012 年 11 月 30 日