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  • Ever wonder where most of the food you eat every day comes from?

    你曾好奇大多數你每天吃的食物從何而來嗎?

  • Well, about 60% of the food you eat is carbohydrates.

    嗯,大約 60% 你吃的食物屬於碳水化合物。

  • As you can probably tell from its name, carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    就如同你可以從它的名字看出來,碳水化合物包含碳、氫、和氧。

  • But where do these atoms originally come from and how do they join together to make delicious foods like fruits and pasta?

    但是這些原子從何而來?又如何結合在一起,組成像是水果和義大利麵這些美味的食物?

  • It actually all starts with the air you are exhaling this very minute, specifically the carbon dioxide molecules.

    其實這一切都始於你呼出的每一口氣,尤其是其中的二氧化碳分子。

  • Plants are going to breath in this very same carbon dioxide through pores in their skin, called stomata.

    植物會藉由表皮上稱為「氣孔」的特殊孔洞吸收這些二氧化碳。

  • Plants drink in water from their roots to get the needed oxygen and hydrogen atoms, and their electrons, in order to build carbohydrates.

    植物從根部吸收水以取得氧和氫原子,以及它們的電子,並用來建構碳水化合物

  • What is that thing?

    那是什麼?

  • Well, that's a special plant organelle inside the leaves of plants called a chloroplast.

    嗯,這是植物葉片中的特殊胞器,稱為"葉綠體"。

  • It's green beceause of a special light-absorbing pigment called chlorophyll.

    它的綠色是因為含有特殊吸收光線的色素稱作"葉綠素"。

  • Each leaf has about 44,000 cells and every cell can have anywhere between 20 to 100 chloroplasts.

    每片葉子大概有 4.4 萬個細胞,而每個細胞中大約有 20 到 100 的葉綠體。

  • That's up to 4,400,000 chloroplasts!

    總共高達 440 萬個葉綠體呢!

  • By now, you've probably guessed that we're talking about the process of photosynthesis and you might be wondering when the sun is going to make its entrance.

    現在你大概猜的到我們在講光合作用的過程,而你可能會好奇陽光是如何參與其中。

  • Let's go back to that original molecule of water.

    我們在回到一開始看的水分子。

  • The plant has to split this molecule of water so it can get electrons from it.

    植物必須裂解水分子,以得到其中的電子。

  • But, the plant can't pull that water apart by itself.

    但植物本身不能將水分裂。

  • It needs help from the high-energy rays of the sun.

    它需要太陽的高能光線。

  • So now that the chloroplast has all the building blocks - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and electrons - it can use them to go through the rest of the steps of photosynthesis to transform that original carbon dioxide gas into a simple carbohydrate called glucose, C-6-H-12-O-6.

    現在葉綠體就有所有原料 ——碳、氫、氧和電子 ——它可以讓它們走完整個光合作用,並將原本的二氧化碳氣體,轉化成葡萄糖,這種最簡單的碳水化合物,C6H12O6。

  • That little glucose molecule then helps to build bigger and better carbohydrates like cellulose.

    小小的葡萄糖分子,可以建造更大更多用途的碳水化合物,像是纖維素。

  • Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate found in plants that our body cannot break down.

    纖維素是一種可以在植物中找到,而我們身體不能分解的碳水化合物。

  • We call it fiber and we eat it in vegetables like lettuce, broccoli, and celery.

    我們稱之為纖維,而我們可以從像是萵苣、青花菜、和芹菜等青菜中攝取到。

  • Plants use cellulose to keep themselves strong.

    植物用纖維素保持硬度。

  • The plant could also turn that glucose into starch, a large molecule that stores energy for the plant.

    植物也可以將葡萄糖組化成澱粉,植物利用這種大分子儲藏能量。

  • We love eating starch from plants like potatoes, corn, and rice.

    我們喜歡從像是馬鈴薯、玉米、和稻米中吃進澱粉。

  • So you see, when you eat plants, we're actually benefiting from photosynthesis.

    你看,當你在吃植物時,你其實是受惠於光合作用。

  • The plant makes things like starch, which we eat and then break back down into glucose, the first form the plant made.

    植物製造澱粉一類的養份,而我們食入後,降解成葡萄糖,也是在植物在製造時最原始的形式。

  • Then, the mitochondria in our cells, powered by the oxygen we breath, can turn glucose into pure energy molecules called ATP.

    然後,我們細胞中的粒線體,由我們呼吸得到的氧氣驅動,將葡萄糖轉變為稱為 ATP 的能量分子。

  • ATP powers all work done by each and every one of your cells, things like communication, movement, and transport.

    ATP 在你身上任何一個細胞進行任何工作時提供能量。例如:溝通、移動、和搬運。

  • But why do we have to turn that glucose into ATP?

    但是為什麼我們必須將葡萄糖轉換成 ATP ?

  • Well, think of it like this.

    嗯,讓我們從這個角度想吧!

  • You're excited to start your summer job at the local ice cream stand, but your boss has just told you that she is going to pay you in ice cream cones.

    你對你在冰淇淋攤的暑期工作感到興奮,但你的老闆剛告訴你,她會以甜桶支付薪水。

  • What are you going to be able to do with those ice cream cones?

    那你能怎麼處理這些甜桶呢?

  • Nothing, which is why you kindly asked to be paid in dollars.

    什麼也不能。這就是你為什麼會要求以金錢支付薪水。

  • ATP is just like dollars.

    ATP 就像是貨幣。

  • It is the currency that all cells of life use while glucose is, well, kind of like ice cream.

    它是細胞間共通的貨幣,而葡萄糖卻像是甜桶一樣。

  • Even plants have mitochondria in their cells to break down the glucose they make into ATP.

    即使在植物細胞中也有可以將葡萄糖分解成 ATP 所需的粒線體。

  • So as you can see, humans and plants are intricately connected.

    所以你會發現,人類和植物用一種精巧的方式連結。

  • The air we breath out is used by plants to make the carbohydrates we enjoy so much.

    我們呼出的空氣,被植物用來製造我們喜愛的碳水化合物。

  • And, in the process, they are releasing the very same oxygen molecules we need to breath in in order that our mitochondria can break down our delicous carbohydrate meal.

    在此過程中,釋放出我們需要吸入來讓粒腺體用來分解碳水化合物大餐的氧氣。

Ever wonder where most of the food you eat every day comes from?

你曾好奇大多數你每天吃的食物從何而來嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 植物 碳水化合物 葡萄糖 細胞 光合作用

【TED-Ed】光合作用與食物的故事- Amanda Ooten - The simple story of photosynthesis and food

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