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  • If airplanes are so heavy, how is it that they can fly?

    假如飛機真的有那麼重的話,那它們是怎麼飛行的呢?

  • Hello flyers, Lissette here for DNews. Flying scares the bejesus out of some people but

    哈囉,各位飛行員,我是DNews 的Lissette。飛行常會嚇破一些人的膽,但是

  • it’s actually one of the safest ways to travel. That’s because along with the regular

    實際上,它卻是最安全的旅行方式之一。因為隨著飛機都得定期

  • aircraft inspections, strict regulations, and thousands of hours of training pilots undergo

    接受檢查,嚴格的法規,以及歷經受訓數千小時的機師

  • the aircrafts themselves are made to withstand some pretty incredible challenges.

    而飛機本身也是用經得起重大挑戰的材料所製成

  • The wings of the Boeing 787, for example, are engineered to withstand one and a half

    舉例來說,波音787的機翼,就以忍受1.5倍

  • times the most extreme forces it would ever meet in flight.

    在空中可能碰到的極端外力來設計

  • There are a lot of things that go into making the wing that strong, like its design and

    許多東西融入機翼,使它變得堅固無比,像是它的設計和

  • construction. But the most important factor is the materials used. Materials are where

    結構,但最最重要的因素是它使用的材料。材料是所有

  • everything starts and they determine how easy a part is to machine or weld, how strong it

    設備的起源以及決定機器和焊接部分是否容易使用,包括強度

  • is, how flexible it is, how it behaves at different temperatures, how it stands up to

    如何,柔靭度如何,在不同溫度底下的表現,抗腐蝕性

  • corrosion, and how much it weighs. These are all factors aeronautical engineers have to

    ,以及它的重量,航空引擎有太多的因素

  • consider when theyre designing different parts. And for decades,

    需要考量,尤其當一架飛機使用不同元件。過去數十年

  • aluminum was the go-to material.

    鋁屬於萬用材質

  • Forty years ago, aluminum could make up as much as 70% of an aircraft. Aluminum, though

    40年前,單單用鋁可以打造飛機的70%。雖然鋁的

  • half as strong as titanium, is lighter and, more importantly, much cheaper. It gets stronger

    強度是鈦的一半,也更輕,更重要的是,它更便宜。它在低溫下

  • at colder temperature but stays ductile, and has it’s own anti-corrosion mechanism. Today’s

    變得更堅固,但依舊保持延展性,並且有其抗腐蝕的機制。今日的

  • jets are only 20% pure aluminum, but the metal is still present in abundance, it’s just

    噴射機只使用20%的純鋁,但這類的金屬仍大量使用。只是它

  • mixed with other metals to form alloys. Aluminum has so many alloys it’s hard to keep track

    混合進其它金屬形成合金了。鋁有太多合金形式以致無法追蹤

  • of all of them even though theyre numbered. The most common one used for airplanes is

    到全部,甚至難以計算。最普遍使用在機身上的稱為

  • 7075, which uses a little zinc, magnesium, and copper as well as trace amounts of manganese,

    7075,它使用了一點鋅、鎂和銅,以及微量的錳。

  • silicon, iron, titanium, and other metals. The result is an alloy that’s as strong

    矽、鐵、鈦和其他金屬,其結果是一種合金強靭有如

  • as steel, but isn’t too difficult to shape, drill, or weld.

    鋼鐵,但不是太難塑形、鑽孔或焊接。

  • Techniques and technology for machining metals is improving - making other alloys available,

    加工金屬的相關技術和科技仍在提昇 - 以做出其他合金,

  • that were previously too hard to work with. New alloys like titanium aluminide are replacing

    以前難以處理的工作。像鈦鋁等新型合金更在取代

  • older nickel based alloys that were twice as heavy but just as heat resistant. In some

    兩倍重量、並以鎳基為基礎的舊合金,但卻同樣耐熱。而一些

  • parts of the engine metals are being replaced altogether by parts that use ceramics reinforced

    用在發動機的金屬零件,目前也全部遭到陶瓷零件完全取代

  • with silicon-carbides. The benefit of these lightweight parts is that engines can operate

    其中並以矽碳化物來強化。這些輕質元件的好處是,讓發動機可以

  • at higher temperatures and run more efficiently. Reducing weight anywhere in the aircraft is

    更高溫和更有效率方式來運作,設法在飛機的任何地方減重

  • always a goal because it means the jet has to use less power to move - saving fuel. In the last decade, aircraft

    一直都是目標,因為它意味著飛機可以使用更少的馬力來移動 - 節省燃料。過去十年中,飛機

  • makers have gotten even more clever with their materials in the pursuit of lightness.

    製造商已經變得更加聰明,在追求

  • Composite materials were first used for light structural or cabin

    材料輕化上。複合材料首次被用在輕型結構或機艙

  • components, but more recently, theyve taken over metal for some serious structural parts, too.

    零件,但是最近,他們同樣已接手處理一些重要的金屬結構元件

  • Composites are incredibly light and strong, and can be molded into complex shapes. This

    複合材料已達令人難以置信的輕化和強固,並可塑造成複雜形狀。 這個

  • reduces the need for heavy fasteners or joints, which are potential failure points. Boeing’s

    以減少重要的扣件或接頭的需求,而這些正是潛在的故障點。波音公司

  • 787 dreamliner was the first commercial aircraft to use composites extensively. It has kevlar

    787夢幻機型是第一個大量使用複合材料的商用飛機。它的機翼上具有克维拉

  • honeycombs in the wings to make them light, flexible, and strong. The 787 also used carbon

    蜂巢式設計,使它們更輕、彈性並且更強靭。 787也採用碳

  • fiber to strengthen the fuselage. This saves weight, and as a bonus, the cabin can be pressurized

    纖維來強化機身。如此不但減輕重量,並帶來機艙可加壓的好處

  • more than previous aircraft, and composites can tolerate higher humidities without corroding

    比起以前的飛機,而複合材料能耐受更高濕度而不會腐蝕...

  • making the ride more comfortable. Carbon fiber was also used in the engine housing to trap

    讓搭乘更加舒適。碳纖維可用在發動機殼用於吸收

  • sound and make aircraft quieter.

    噪音,並使飛機更安靜

  • But engineers are never satisfied. Theyre are constantly coming up with new alloys,

    但工程師們永遠不會滿足。他們不斷推出新合金,

  • designs, and construction techniques to make aircrafter harder, better, faster, stronger.

    設計和施工技術,要使客機更堅固、更好、更快,更強化。

  • HRL laboratories, in a joint venture with Boeing, recently developed the lightest metal ever.

    波音公司的合資公司HRL實驗室,最近開發出歷來最輕的金屬

  • The metal is arranged in a microlattice structure which means it’s about 99.99%

    這種金屬被佈放在「微晶格」的結構內,意味著它有99.99%

  • air. A light flexible material like this could be used inside the cabin and save even more

    空氣,像這樣的輕柔性材料可以使用在機艙上,並節省更多

  • weight on future aircraft.

    未來飛機的重量

  • So that’s the technology making modern aircraft awesome. But what about future spacecraft?

    所以,科技讓現代航空器變得更棒。但未來航空器會變成怎樣?

  • What do we need to develop before we can rule the galaxy? Julian talks about that here.

    在我們能主宰銀河系之前,需要發展什麼?朱利安會在這裡跟大家討論。

  • Now that you know what planes are made of, does that make you more confident in flying,

    現在你知道飛機是什麼製成的,而這是否讓你在搭機時更加自信,

  • or do you still get the shakes?

    還是讓你怕怕的?

If airplanes are so heavy, how is it that they can fly?

假如飛機真的有那麼重的話,那它們是怎麼飛行的呢?

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B2 中高級 中文 飛機 材料 金屬 使用 元件 波音

是什麼材料使得飛機如此輕盈? (What Makes Airplanes Light Enough To Fly?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 27 日
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