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  • One is the loneliest number.

    1 是最寂寞的數字。

  • Hey, everyone, Crystal here for DNews.

    大家好,我是 DNews 的 Crystal。

  • I don't care how much Netflix and ice cream you consume.

    我不管你可以看多久的 Netflix、吃多少冰淇淋。

  • Being alone for long periods of time just sucks!

    長期獨處的感覺真的糟透了!

  • It makes us sad, eats away at our self-esteem and our immune system, makes us more susceptible to chronic diseases, and it might even shorten our lifespan.

    它會讓我們傷心、逐漸摧毀我們自尊心還有免疫系統,使我們更容易受慢性病侵擾,甚至還可能縮短我們的壽命。

  • But could loneliness actually be a good thing?

    但寂寞有沒有可能其實是一件好事?

  • Loneliness is the emotional state that arises from perceived isolation.

    寂寞是由有意識的孤獨而激發的情緒狀態。

  • Like hunger, thirst, and pain, loneliness is an "aversive cue," a negative feeling that we want to move away from.

    與飢餓、口渴以及疼痛一樣,寂寞是一種「嫌惡信號」,告訴我們那是一種想要遠離的負面情緒。

  • Think of it as an evolutionary mechanism that says, "Hey, you're in danger and your friends could help you."

    把它設想為一種給你警訊的演化機制:「嘿,你有危險了,但你的朋友可以幫你」。

  • Humans evolved to be social animals; groups provide protection and shared resources that help us survive.

    人類演化成為一種社會性動物,以群體提供保護和共享資源來幫助我們生存。

  • When it comes to gathering food, building shelters, and defending themselves, communities of humans have a much better chance of survival than individuals do.

    當需要搜集食物、建造庇護所以及自我防衛的時候,群居的人類比獨自生活的個體有更高的存活機會。

  • And so, scientists say, we evolved a "need to belong."

    科學家表示,我們因此發展出「需要歸屬感」。

  • In fact, loneliness may have been so important for survival that we evolved a unique set of neurons in our brains dedicated to it.

    事實上,寂寞對於生存重要到人體可能演化出一系列專為寂寞而存在的獨特大腦神經元。

  • In a paper recently published in the journal, Cell, neuroscientists at MIT identified a region of the mouse brain that is uniquely responsive to isolation.

    最近在《細胞》期刊發表的一篇論文中提到,麻省理工的神經學家發現老鼠腦中有一個區塊對於孤獨有特殊反應。

  • The researchers used a technique called optogenetics, in which light is used to activate or inhibit selected groups of neurons in a modified rodent brain,

    研究人員採用了稱為「光遺傳學」的技巧,利用光線刺激或抑制改造後老鼠腦中特定的神經群,

  • To manipulate a cluster of dopamine-sensitive neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which is a region of the mouse's brain that's been associated with depression.

    以操控一群在中縫核的多巴胺敏感神經元,也就是老鼠腦部與沮喪感連結的地方。

  • For now, we'll call this special set of cells "loneliness neurons".

    我們暫且把這組特別的細胞稱為「寂寞神經」。

  • In this study, researchers introduced a lonely experimental mouse to a new mouse friend, and observed a significant increase in activity of the "loneliness neurons".

    在這個研究中,研究人員把一隻寂寞實驗鼠介紹給新的老鼠朋友,然後在「寂寞神經」觀察到顯著的活動增長。

  • Then, they gave the mouse a choice between spending time alone or with another mouse, and studied how optogenetic stimulation of the "loneliness neurons" influenced the mouse's choice.

    接著,他們讓這隻老鼠選擇獨處或是花間跟其他老鼠相處,並研究「寂寞神經」的光遺傳學刺激如何影響老鼠的選擇。

  • Activation of those neurons caused the mouse to spend significantly more time with a mousy companion, indicating that when those neurons fire, mice seek out social interaction.

    神經元激活促使這隻老鼠明顯花了更多時間跟其他老鼠在一起,這顯示當神經被激活時,老鼠會尋找更多的社交互動。

  • But was the mouse's choice motivated by positive reward or a negative experience?

    但這隻老鼠的選擇究竟是受正面獎勵還是負面經驗所激發呢?

  • To determine this, scientists let mice roam around in a box that contained two areas.

    為了找到答案,科學家讓老鼠在一個有兩個區域的箱子裡自由行動。

  • When the mouse spent time in one area, its "loneliness neurons" were stimulated, and while in the other area, they were not.

    當老鼠花時間待在其中一個區域時,「寂寞神經」會被刺激,當在另一個區域時則否。

  • Interestingly, the mice avoided the stimulating area, indicating that the activation didn't make them feel very good.

    很有趣的,這些老鼠避開了刺激區,顯示出這種神經激活並不會讓牠們感到很舒適。

  • This observation led researchers to suggest that activity in this brain region might be connected to a loneliness-like state that motivates mice to seek out social contact to feel better.

    這項觀察也讓研究人員假設這個腦區域的激活可能與類孤獨的狀態連結,給予老鼠動力往外尋找社交活動以感到好受一點。

  • These findings reinforce the evolutionary view that loneliness is actually a good thing.

    這些結果加強了「寂寞其實是件好事」的演化觀點上。

  • Because it encourages us to seek social contact and, in turn, keeps us healthier and safer.

    因為這鼓勵我們向外索求社會連結,並同時讓我們活得更健康、更平安。

  • Even just in this study, there's so much more to the story, and if the research is extrapolated to humans,

    即便只是在這項研究中,就還有其他更多發現,而如果把這項研究投射到人類身上,

  • It could not only help to explain motivations behind our own feelings and behavior, but also help us study what happens when those things go awry.

    不只可以解釋我們感受以及行為背後的動機,也可以幫助我們研究事情出錯時會發生什麼事。

  • But before we all get too excited, the neuroscientist in me must extend a note of caution:

    但我們歡欣鼓舞之前,身為神經學家的我要給一個提醒:

  • It's important to remember that human brains and mouse brains are similar in some ways, but not the same.

    我們必須記得,人腦及鼠腦在某些方面很相似,但並非完全相同。

  • And mice do not display identical social behaviors to humans.

    而且老鼠也不會表現跟人類一樣的社交行為。

  • But for now, since we can't manipulate human brains the way we do with mice, we have to make do with what we learn from rodents,

    但至少現在,既然我們無法像控制老鼠大腦一樣控制人腦,我們只好屈就於從臼齒類動物上學到的資訊。

  • And hope that somebody gave those lonely mice a hug and some tiny ice cream,

    並且希望有個好心人可以給那些寂寞的老鼠一個擁抱以及一點點冰淇淋。

  • And told them that they're terrific and it's going to be okay,

    然後讓牠們知道牠們很棒、一切都會好好的。

  • And somebody will love you for who you are, and you will never be lonely again

    你會找到一個真正愛你的人,然後就永遠不會再寂寞了...

  • Sorry.

    不好意思。

  • If I haven't managed to convince you to stop staring at this screen and seek some social contact,

    如果我還是無法說服你不要再盯著螢幕出去享受一點社交生活,

  • Check out this video by Laci on how loneliness can kill you.

    那麼就去看看 Laci 這部說明「寂寞如何殺死你」的影片吧。

  • More people are living alone now, people are working longer and longer hours, they're working remotely, they're traveling far and wide for jobs...

    現在有更多獨居的人、人們工時越來越長、他們會遠端工作、為了工作四處奔波...

  • People are using social media more to connect, and folks argue back and forth, is it good, is it bad?

    人們的確更仰賴社群媒體與他人連結,而人們總是來回爭辯,社群媒體是好是壞?

  • Is it bringing us together, tearing us apart... and everyone has different experience. Personally, I found it's good and bad.

    它讓我們更凝聚還是離散... 大家都有不同的經驗。對我來說,它好壞並存。

  • What about you? How do you deal with loneliness? Subscribe to DNews and let us know in the comments down below. See you next time!

    你呢?你如何面對寂寞呢?訂閱 DNews,並在下方留言讓我們知道。下回見!

One is the loneliest number.

1 是最寂寞的數字。

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單身萬歲:學會孤獨才是生存的關鍵! (Why Being Lonely Is Crucial For Survival)

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    Vivi Lee 發佈於 2022 年 06 月 28 日
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