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  • I get asked all the time what my type is.

    我常常被問我的血型是什麼

  • A negative. What? It’s way more important, what if I need a blood transfusion?

    A型陰性。怎樣?這很重要欸,萬一我需要輸血怎麼辦?

  • Hey blood brothers and sisters, Julian here for DNews from the youtube space in LA

    嘿,各位如親兄弟姐妹的觀眾,我是《DNews》的 Julian

  • Even if you don’t know your blood type youve probably heard the terms thrown around before.

    就算你不知道自己的血型是什麼,你應該也聽過這些名詞吧

  • AB positive. O negative. What do they mean?

    AB 型陽性。O 型陰性。這是什麼意思啊?

  • It turns out there are actually 33 different systems for categorizing a person’s blood,

    原來,有多達 33 種不同的系統來分類人類的血型

  • but the nomenclature youre most familiar with is a combination of two of them;

    但你最熟悉的術語,應該是其中兩個的綜合

  • the ABO system and the Rh system.

    ABO 血型系統和 Rh 血型系統

  • The reason these two are so much more well known is because they are by and large the

    讓這兩個血型系統這麼有名的原因,總體來說,是由於

  • most important factors in blood transfusions. In most cases these alone should be enough

    他們是輸血時非常重要的因素。絕大多數的情況下,只要這有兩個因素,就足以

  • for a doctor to know what kind of blood to pump back into you if youve sprung a leak.

    讓醫生判斷,你失血時,應該要注回哪種血

  • It’s why some racing drivers in the ‘70s and ‘80s had their blood type sewn on their race suit

    這也是為什麼有些70、80年代的賽車手,會將他們的血型縫在比賽服上

  • or painted on their car. Nowadays they don’t bother; the tests to determine blood types and compatibility with donor blood

    或者漆在車上。現在不用這麼麻煩了;血型和捐贈血相容性的檢驗

  • are quick and much more foolproof than relying on embroidery or a sticker.

    比靠刺繡和貼紙來的快又簡單

  • So what do the letters and plus/minus symbols actually denote?

    所以,那些字母和正/負記號表示什麼意思呢?

  • Theyre describing little surface markers on the blood cells called antibody generators, or antigens for short.

    他們是在描述血球細胞表面的小標誌,稱之為抗體產生器,簡稱抗原

  • Antigens come in a lot of different varieties and your body’s immune system attacks cells

    抗原有超級多種類,身體的免疫系統會攻擊

  • with antigens that don’t match your own. Having the right antigens is like knowing

    抗原與自身不符的細胞。細胞上有正確的抗原,就像知道

  • the password to get into the super secret, boys-only treehouse.

    男孩專屬、超機密樹屋的通關密碼

  • Antigens can be either proteins or sugars. The antigens described by the ABO blood group system

    抗原可以是糖類或蛋白質。ABO 血型系統所描述的抗原

  • are sugars and they come in 4 different combinations ortypes”.

    是糖類,而且它們有四種不同的組合,或「類型」

  • Type O means the blood cells have no A or B antigens, so it might be easier to think of it as type Zero.

    O 型表示血球細胞沒有 A 或 B 抗原,所以滿容易讓人把它想成是「0」型

  • People with this blood type can only receive type O because their immune systems

    這種血型的人,只能接受 O 型的血液,因為他們的免疫系統

  • will attack anything with an A or B antigen. But any other blood type can accept type O blood

    會攻擊任何有 A 或 B 抗原的細胞。但其他血型的人都能接受 O 型血

  • because the red blood cells will be ignored by the immune system.

    因為紅血球會被免疫系統忽視

  • Type A means cells have the A antigen so they can’t receive type B blood,

    A 型表示細胞有 A 抗原,所以他們不能接受 B 型血,而 B 型表示

  • and type B means cells have the B antigen and won’t be compatible with type A blood. I think you see where this is going:

    細胞有 B 抗原,與 A 型血不相容。我想你應該知道些下來會是怎麼樣:

  • type AB means the red blood cells have both A and B antigens,

    AB 型意味著紅血球同時有 A 和 B 兩種抗原

  • and so none of the white blood cells will attack anything with A or B antigens.

    所以白血球不會去攻擊任何有 A 或 B 抗原的東西

  • People with this blood type can accept any all human blood. Well, so long as the Rh antigens are correct too.

    這種血型的人,可以接受任何人的血液。呃…只要 Rh 抗原也對的話

  • The Rh blood group system is so named because 75 years ago it was discovered the antigens behaved

    Rh 血型系統之所以這麼命名,是由於 75 年前,發現人類抗原的表現

  • similarly to those in Rhesus macaques. But they are different,

    和恆河猴(rhesus macaque)的類似。但它們其實還是不同的

  • so don’t go around injecting monkey blood all willy-nilly. Rh antigens are proteins, there are 49 varieties

    所以不要錯把猴子血拿來注射。Rh 抗原為蛋白質,有 49 種

  • but one in particular, RhD, is highly immunogenic, meaning immune systems that don’t have it

    而特別是其中一種,RhD,非常容易產生免疫反應,也就是說,沒有 RhD 抗原的免疫系統

  • freak out when they encounter it. So if you have RhD, your blood type has a plus symbol next to it

    遇到它時,免疫系統就會很激動。所以如果你有 RhD,你的血型旁邊就會有一個正記號

  • and you can only donate to other positive blood types, but you can accept positive

    你只能捐血給其他陽性血型的人,但你可以些受陽性

  • and negative blood types. Put the two together and it means O- is the universal donor,

    以及陰性血型。把這兩種系統合併使用的話,意味著 O 型陰性是萬能的捐獻者

  • while AB+ will be the universal receiver.

    而 AB 陽性是萬能的接收者

  • Blood types are passed down through your genes. You can change blood type, but it’s extremely rare.

    血型由基因遺傳下來。只有在極其少數的機會下,能變換血型

  • It either happens from some sort of illness, or if you get a bone marrow transplant

    要不是發生某種疾病,不然就是骨髓移殖

  • your blood will eventually convert to your donor’s type.

    血型最後會變成捐贈者的血型

  • So now you know! Unless you have some rare blood type that needs one of the other 31 blood group systems to describe it,

    現在了解了吧!除非你有某種罕見的血型,需要用到任一其他的 31 種血型系統來描述

  • you now understand what the letters and symbols of your blood type mean.

    不然,你現在應該了解自己血型的字母和符號的意思了

  • In some places like Japan it’s believed that blood types also correspond to personality traits,

    有些地方,像是日本,人們相信血型還和人格特徵相呼應

  • but really it only affects your immune system. Thinking Type O blood makes a person confident and controlled

    但其實血型真的只會影響你的免疫系統啦。認為 O 型的人自信又自律

  • is kind of like thinking Jupiter is going to affect your luck today.

    就有點像認為木星會影響你的今日運勢

  • Speaking of, here’s Laci talking about why Astrology is silly.

    談到這個,這邊有個影片是 Laci 談談為什麼占星學很蠢

  • Check the description for a link if youre on your mobile.

    手機用戶可以參考描述處的連結

  • Are there any other things like blood types you take for granted because you just never thought about it?

    還有其他有關血型你從未想過、覺得理所當然的事情嗎?

  • If you want us to to explain them, go ahead and ask us in the comments,

    如果你想聽我們說明,去留言處發問吧

  • it’s what were here for. I’ll see you next time on DNews.

    這是我們存在的用意。下次我們《DNews》見

I get asked all the time what my type is.

我常常被問我的血型是什麼

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 血型 抗原 免疫 細胞 陽性 紅血球

為什麼我們會有不同血型 (Why Do We Have Different Blood Types?)

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    陳叔華 發佈於 2016 年 08 月 02 日
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