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  • Your body is a temple, but it’s also a museum of natural history.

    你的五臟六腑是個自然歷史博物館

  • Look closely and youll see parts that aren’t there because you need them

    仔細觀看,你會發現有些毫無用處的身體部位

  • but because your animal ancestors did. No longer serving their previous function

    是因應動物祖先的需求而存在。雖然這些部位跟以往的功能不同

  • but not costly enough to have disappeared, these remnants of our deep history only make

    但也不至於完全消失,我們深厚歷史下的這些遺跡

  • sense within the framework of evolution by natural selection.

    在物競天擇的進化論下有跡可循

  • With your arm on a flat surface, push your thumb against your pinky and tip your hand slightly up.

    將手臂平放、拇指和小指互碰,並輕輕將手掌向上提起

  • If you see a raised band in the middle of the wrist, youve got a vestigial muscle in your forearm.

    若你手腕中間有個鼓起的筋,那是在你前臂上留下來的一塊肌肉

  • That tendon you see connects to the palmaris longus,

    你看到的這根筋就是掌長肌

  • a muscle that around 10-15% of people are missing on one or both of their arms.

    約莫 10%-15%的人沒有這條肌肉,有些人只有其中一隻手臂有,有些人是兩隻手臂都沒有

  • It doesn’t make them any weaker though. There’s no difference in grip strength.

    但是失去掌長肌的人並沒有比較脆弱,他們的手掌握力與一般人相同

  • In fact, it’s one of the first tendons that surgeons will take out so they can use it

    事實上,這是外科手術中最先取出利用的肌腱之一,可用在

  • in reconstructive and cosmetic surgeries. You can find the palmaris longus across mammal species,

    重建和美容手術中。 哺乳動物身上也有掌長肌

  • but it’s most developed among those that use their forelimbs to move around.

    而其中,靠前肢移動的動物此肌肉最為發達

  • In primates, that means the muscle is longer in lemurs and monkeys and shorter in chimps,

    在靈長類動物裡,狐猴和猿猴的掌長肌比較長,而在黑猩猩屬、

  • gorillas, and other apes that don’t do a lot of scrambling through trees.

    大猩猩和那些不需經常在樹中攀爬的物種則較短

  • It’s not the only leftover muscle that we've got. Look at the three that are attached to our outer ear.

    它並不是唯一一個殘留在我們身體的肌肉,看這三塊在我們耳朵外側的肌肉

  • We can’t get much movement out of these muscles,

    這些肌肉的行動範圍相當有限

  • especially compared to some of our mammal relatives who use them to locate the sources of sounds.

    特別是相較於親哺乳動物,他們用這些肌肉來定位聲源

  • Presumably this would have been quite helpful for early nocturnal mammals.

    這或許對早期夜間哺乳動物相當實用

  • In humans, you can still detect the remnants of this adaptation with electrodes.

    對人類來說,你仍然可以利用電極觀測到這塊肌肉的演變

  • In one study researchers recorded a spike of activity in the ear muscle cells

    在某研究中,研究人員針對耳朵肌肉對

  • in response to a sudden sound. Not enough to move the ear,

    突發聲響的活動,其回應並為讓耳朵移動

  • but detectable. And you can probably guess the location of

    但是可偵測到的。根據這個結果,你大概能猜出

  • the sound based on the results - it came from a speaker to the left of the study subjects.

    這個聲音的來源,他來自研究對象的左測

  • So this is their left ear subconsciously trying and failing to pivot toward the sound.

    因此他們的左耳潛意識地想向聲音處移動

  • You can see another futile effort by our vestigial body parts when you get goosebumps.

    雞皮疙瘩是我們身體演化證據的另外一環

  • When were cold, tiny muscles attached to our body hairs contract, pulling the hair

    當我們受寒,附著在我們汗毛上的肌肉會收縮,

  • upright which causes the surrounding skin to form a bump.

    讓汗毛豎起來,並使周圍的皮膚隆起

  • For our furry mammal relatives, the raised hair increases the amount of space for insulation,

    對我們毛茸茸的哺乳動物近親,這些隆起的毛髮可以增加絕緣的空間

  • helping them stay warm. Birds can do this too. youve probably seen

    幫助他們保暖。鳥類也可以這麼做,你或許看過

  • a puffy pigeon on a cold day. Adrenaline is one of the hormones involved

    在寒冬時身體澎起的鴿子。腎上腺素讓

  • in the body’s response to cold temperatures, and it’s also part of the fight or flight response.

    我們的身體對低溫有所反應,它也是我們於「戰鬥或逃跑」反應時所需的賀爾蒙。

  • So it helps some animals appear larger when theyre threatened.

    它亦讓某些動物在飽受威脅時身體膨大。

  • And it may be why surprising and emotional

    這可能就是令人吃驚或感動的音樂

  • turns in music can give some people goosebumps. And then there’s our tail. At the end of

    能使人起雞皮疙瘩的原因。來談談我們的尾巴!

  • our spine are a set of fused vertebrae - some people have 3, some have 5. We call it the tailbone.

    我們的脊髓的末端有一組融合椎,有些人有三個、或五個,我們稱之為尾骨

  • It now serves as an anchor for some pelvic muscles

    它現在作為骨盆肌肉的支架

  • but it’s also what’s left of our ancestorstails.

    它也是我們祖先尾巴留下來的

  • Every one of us actually had a tail at one point. When the basic body plan is being laid

    每個人其實都曾有過尾巴。在母體內孕育

  • out at around 4 weeks of gestation, humans embryos closely resemble embryos of other vertebrates.

    妊娠期四周的時候,人類胚胎和其他脊椎動物很相似

  • And that includes a tail with 10-12 developing vertebrae.

    這包括一個尾巴,其中含有10到12個成長中的脊椎骨

  • In many other animals it continues to develop

    在許多其他動物中,它繼續成長為

  • into a proper tail. But in humans and other apes, the cells in

    一個真尾巴。但是人類和其他人猿類的尾細胞

  • the tail are programmed to die a few weeks after they appear.

    會在出現的幾週後死去。

  • Vary rarely though, a mutation allows the ancestral blueprint to prevail and a human

    雖然非常罕見,但是基因突變能讓祖先基因捲土重來

  • baby will be born with a true vestigial tail.

    並使小嬰兒出生時也有著 (因器官萎縮) 尾巴。

  • The most adorable vestigial behavior is the palmar grasp reflex,

    最迷人的演化部位是手掌抓握反射

  • where infants up until theyre about 6 months old have this incredible

    嬰兒一直到6個月大時都還有這項不可置信的抓握能力

  • grasp on whatever you put in their hand. There’s a similar reflex for their feet. I wanted

    不論你在他們手中放什麼。他們的腳也有相似的反射,我想

  • to show you this great piece of footage from the 1930s where they demonstrated this behavior.

    給你們看看這項神奇的行為,1930年他們證明了這個行為

  • These babies are only 1 month old and you can see that their inner monkey can support their entire weight.

    這些小孩僅僅一個月大,而手臂的力量卻能夠承受他們全身的重量,彷彿喚醒了內在小猴子

Your body is a temple, but it’s also a museum of natural history.

你的五臟六腑是個自然歷史博物館

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 Vox 肌肉 尾巴 動物 手掌 手臂

你手上的這條筋其實完全無用?看看我們身上的演化證據吧 (Proof of evolution that you can find on your body)

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    Shirley Huang 發佈於 2016 年 06 月 24 日
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