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  • Crash Course Philosophy is brought to you by Squarespace

    Squarespace 為您帶來《哲學速成班》

  • Squarespace: Share your passion with the world

    Squarespace:分享熱情給全世界

  • What are you afraid of? Spiders? Public speaking? The dentist? Calculus?

    你怕什麼?蜘蛛?演講?牙醫?微積分?

  • What about death?

    死亡呢?

  • How you feel about death has probably been shaped by your beliefs about whether or not there’s an afterlife

    相不相信有來生,也許形塑了你對死亡的想法

  • and if there is, what it’s like.

    -如果你相信有,這也形塑了你對死亡的想像

  • The ancient Egyptians believed that, at death, your heart would be weighed against a feather,

    古埃及人相信,死後,人的心臟會跟羽毛一起秤重

  • to determine if it was fit to enter the underworld.

    據此來決定是否能進入另一個世界

  • A heart heavy with misdeeds would be fed to a demon

    作惡多端的人心臟沉重,會被拿去餵給怪獸吃掉

  • Christians may envision Saint Peter, waiting at the pearly gates to welcome you into heaven,

    基督徒相信,死後聖彼得會在天堂的珍珠大門旁迎接你

  • unless your name doesn’t make his list.

    除非你的名字不在他的名單之中

  • Imagine not only being turned away from the coolest club in town, but banished to the eternal torments of hell.

    想像一下你不只被城裡最酷炫的俱樂部拒絕,還被趕到痛苦永無止境的地獄中

  • As we learned in our discussions about the philosophy of religion, when the stakes are eternal,

    就像我們對宗教哲學的討論,當風險一直都在的時候

  • it’s only reasonable to get a little nervous about what’s basically the Ultimate Final Exam.

    會對於基本上是終極最後試驗有點緊張是很合理的

  • But if it makes you feel any better, many philosophers have believed, and still believe,

    假如這些話會讓你感覺好些,一直以來哲學家都相信

  • that death is nothing to fear.

    死亡沒什麼好怕的

  • [Theme Music]

    [主題配樂]

  • In 399 BCE, Socrates was sentenced to death for, among other things,

    西元399年前,蘇格拉底因眾多原因被判處死刑

  • refusing to acknowledge the official deities of Athens,

    他不承認雅典眾神

  • radicalizing youth, and generally honking off the people in charge.

    腐蝕青年思想,惹火了當權者

  • But even when he faced his own imminent death, he remained calm and unafraid.

    不過,即使死亡當前,他依然保持冷靜,毫不畏懼

  • He was a philosopher, after all. And fear was no match for his ability to argue.

    畢竟,他是個哲學家。以他的能力恐懼對他來說不是個問題

  • Socrates didn’t think we could know if there’s an afterlife or not,

    蘇格拉底認為我們無法得知是否有來生

  • but he thought there were really only two possibilities.

    但他認為也只有兩個可能

  • And as far as he was concerned, neither of them was anything to be afraid of.

    而且,既他所知,兩種情形都無須害怕

  • Here’s his argument:

    他的論點如下:

  • Either death is a dreamless sleep or death is a passage to another life

    死亡是一場無夢的長眠,或者,死亡是前往另一個世界的通道

  • Dreamless sleeps are nice, not scary (Socrates said he could use the rest)

    睡一場沒有夢的覺很棒,無須畏懼(蘇格拉底說他也很需要這樣的休息)

  • And a passage to another life sounds good, too,

    前往另一個世界的通道聽起來也不錯

  • because hell get to hang out with cool people from the past who have already died

    這樣,他就可以跟已逝的故人一起談笑風生

  • Therefore, either way, death is nothing to fear

    因此,無論是哪種情形,死亡没什麼好怕的

  • Socratesidea of the afterlife was Hades, which he seems to have pictured as being a lot like Athens,

    在蘇格拉底的思想中,死後世界就是冥界,在他想像中跟雅典頗為相似

  • except that no one had any physical bodiesonly disembodied minds.

    只是人們都没有實體身體-只有超脫軀殼的意志

  • And frankly he thought that sounded awesome, because bodies can be a real pain;

    坦白說,他覺得這樣很棒,因為肉體會帶來痛苦

  • they just need to be fed, and require rest. Just, so much upkeep.

    身體需要進食,需要休息,要做太多事情來維持身體

  • So, in the afterlife, Socrates imagined he’d get to have endless philosophical conversations,

    所以,在來生中,蘇格拉底想像自己會有無窮盡的哲學對話

  • and continue learning new things, with the greatest thinkers of the past.

    跟著已故的偉大思想家繼續學習新事物

  • And they wouldn’t have to take a break to eat or sleep or pee!

    他們不需要休息、吃東西、睡覺或上廁所!

  • Now, Socrates recognized that, although his favorite activity, philosophizing, didn’t require a body, some things do.

    現在,蘇格拉底明白,進行他最愛的哲學思辨是不需要身體的,但有些東西是需要的

  • And if all of your favorite pastimes are physical, you might find the afterlife disappointing.

    所以假如你喜歡的都是實體娛樂活動,你在來生中可能會覺得失望

  • That’s why Socrates recommended spending your life looking after your mind,

    這就是為什麼蘇格拉底建議要花時間檢視自己的內心思想

  • cultivating that part of you that youll get to keep foreverif there’s an afterlife.

    建立起自己的思想意志,如此才能讓自己永遠存在-假如真的有來生的話

  • If you do that, when the time comes for you to die, youll actually see death as a benefit,

    如果你這麼做了,死亡將至之時,你會視死亡為一益事

  • because you won’t be troubled by bodily things, while your mind will be in top form.

    因為你不會為身體等一切實體所困,你的意識會上升成某種形式

  • But what if there isn’t an afterlife?

    但是假如沒有來生呢?

  • What about thatdreamless sleepthat Socrates spoke about?

    蘇格拉底提到「沒有夢境的長眠」又是什麼?

  • Isn’t total annihilation of the self, like, the scariest thing there is?

    這不就是指一個人完全毀滅,也就是最可怕的事情嗎?

  • Ancient Stoic philosopher Epicurus didn’t think so.

    古哲學家伊比鳩魯不這麼認為

  • He lived about a hundred years after Socrates, and he rejected belief in an afterlife altogether.

    他生於蘇格拉底約100年之後,完全不相信有來生

  • Instead, he said were just our bodies, and nothing more.

    反而,他說我們就只是肉體本身,沒有其他了

  • But still, he still didn’t find death scary.

    不過,他仍然不認為死亡可怕

  • Here’s his argument: death is the cessation of sensation.

    以下是他的論點:死亡就是停止感知

  • Good and evil only make sense in terms of sensation.

    善與惡在人有感知時才有意義

  • So, Death is neither good nor evil.

    所以,死亡既非善亦非惡

  • Epicurus was convinced that things are only evil, or bad, if they feel bad.

    伊比鳩魯確信事物之所以是邪惡或不好的,是因為它們讓你感覺很糟

  • And he didn’t mean only physical feelings.

    他講的不僅只是肉體的感覺

  • Anyone who’s ever had a broken heart will tell you that it’s a lot more painful, and harder to heal, than a broken leg.

    任何有心碎經驗的人都會告訴你,比起摔斷腿,心碎痛苦多了,也更難治癒

  • But a broken heart is still a sensationyou need a body to experience itso as a materialist

    但心碎仍是一種感知-你需要肉體去體驗這個感覺-所以,對物質主義者來說

  • someone who believed that You equal Your Bodydeath just meant nonexistence.

    你本身就是你的身體-死亡代表的是不存在

  • And there was nothing scary about that, because, well,

    這没什麼好害怕的,因為

  • there won’t be any you to have any feelings about not existing!

    你本身感受不到自己不存在

  • Epicurus argued that fearing nonexistence is not only stupid, but it gets in the way of enjoying life.

    伊比鳩魯論道畏懼不存是愚蠢的,要享受生命

  • You are alive, and experiencing sensations, now.

    你還活著,現在仍在感受一切

  • So, he said, make those sensations as great as possible,

    所以,他說,盡可能去享受吧

  • and don’t worry about when those sensations are going to stop! YOLO!

    不要擔心什麼時候會停止感知!生命只有一次!

  • To help you understand Epicurus and his attitudes about death a little better,

    為了讓你更了解伊比鳩魯對死亡的態度

  • let’s head over to the Thought Bubble for some Flash Philosophy.

    讓我們用思想泡泡來進行一些快速的哲學思考

  • Think about a hangover. If you haven’t had one, imagine what they might be like.

    想想看宿醉,假如你沒有這個經驗,想像一下可能會是怎麼樣

  • Hangovers aren’t bad for you before you get one, right?

    宿醉之前發生的事一點都不糟,對吧?

  • In fact, the thing that comes before the hangover is often quite pleasant, what with all the laughing,

    事實上,宿醉前通常都很愉快,充滿歡笑

  • and feeling uninhibited, and working up the courage to talk to that cutie from your calculus class.

    感覺無拘無束,還讓你提起勇氣去跟微積分課上的美女講話

  • No, the hangover is only bad while it’s happening.

    不過,開始宿醉後,事情就變糟了

  • And true, it might be bad after it’s over, like, if it kept you from doing well on your calculus exam the next morning,

    的確,宿醉後就開始糟糕了,宿醉讓你明早的微積分考試表現不盡理想

  • because you were too busy trying not to barf in front of said cutie.

    因為你忙著讓自己不要在那個美女前嘔吐

  • But the point is, if something is bad for you, it’s generally bad for you at a particular time, the way a hangover is.

    但重點是,假如某件事情對你來說很糟糕,他通常是發生在某一個時間點,就像宿醉一樣

  • But Epicurus said that death can’t be bad for you at any time.

    不過伊比鳩魯說死亡在任何時間點都不會是糟糕的

  • Because once it arrives, youre gone!

    因為一旦死亡降臨,你已經不存在了

  • The thing that eventually kills you? Yeah, that’s gonna be bad for you, before your death.

    死亡最終會奪走性命嗎?是的,對你來說這一定糟透了,不過要在你死去之前才會感覺糟糕

  • But that’s not death.

    這表示此時還不是死亡

  • When you think about it, you and Death are never present at the same time.

    當你還在想死亡,你和死亡是不會同時存在的

  • And if there’s no you when death is present, then there is no time in which death is bad for you.

    假如死亡降臨時你已經不在了,你也沒有時間感到死亡很糟

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble!

    感謝這些思想泡泡!

  • So, things like hangovers and charley horses and movie spoilers are bad, because youre there to experience them.

    所以,像宿醉、腳抽筋、劇情被爆雷這些事情感覺很糟,是因為你能親身體驗這一切

  • But as far as Epicurus was concerned, life was like a night of drinking before the hangover that is death,

    但既伊比鳩魯所知,生命就像是宿醉(也就是死亡)前的飲酒之夜

  • whichinevitable as it isyou will never actually experience.

    不可避免地,你也無法真正體驗後續的宿醉

  • Now, the 21st century has its own perspectives on death.

    現在,21世紀對於死亡有新的觀點

  • And one might be best described as a kind of philosophical FOMO.

    其中一種被視為一種哲學上的FOMO(fear of missing out 恐懼錯失任何新訊息)

  • Contemporary American philosopher Thomas Nagel points out that some people dread death

    當代美國哲學家湯瑪斯·內格爾指出,有些人對死亡感到恐懼

  • because theyll miss out on things that they want to experience.

    因為他們害怕錯過那些想要親身經歷的事物

  • If you died right now, you’d never get to finish the video game youre in the middle of,

    假如你現在死了,進行到一半的電動遊戲就無法破關

  • or read the next George RR Martin book, or see humans land on Mars.

    或看到喬治·R·R·馬丁的下一本書、也看不到人類登陸火星

  • Which would suck, yeah.

    這真是太糟了,唉

  • But think about it like this: Cool stuff was going on way before you were born. And you missed it!

    但是想一想:酷炫的東西在你出生前就一直出現,你也都錯過了!

  • I’m gonna make some assumptions about your age here

    我要先假設一下你的年齡

  • and say that you weren’t listening when Orson Welles terrified the nation with the War of the Worlds.

    你一定沒有聽到奧森.威爾斯用廣播播出世界大戰嚇壞整個國家

  • You didn’t march on Washington. You totally missed Woodstock.

    也沒有參與到華盛頓進軍,你也一定錯過整個胡士托音樂節

  • So, Nagel asks: If you don’t feel some sort of deep sense of loss at what you missed before you were alive,

    所以,內格爾問大家:假如你對於自己錯過出生前的這些大事,並沒有感到損失慘重

  • why should you feel loss at what youll miss after you die?

    那為什麼要對錯過你死後的事情感到哀痛欲絕?

  • Now, Nagel does point out that, if we believe that life is essentially good,

    現在,內格爾指出,如果我們相信生命的本質是美好的,

  • then there is something to mourn when a life is cut short.

    那麼生命變短時就令人哀痛

  • Since humans can live, on average, for about 80 years,

    人類平均可以活大約80年

  • someone dying at the age of 20 is a tragedy, because that person missed out on 60 possible years of good times.

    對於一個20歲就死去的人來說這是個悲劇,因為他可能錯失了60年的大好時光

  • But we should pause here to talk about what you really value about life,

    但這裡我們該停下來,討論一下你如何衡量生命的價值

  • because that will also have an impact on what you think about death in general,

    一般來說,這會影響你對死亡的想法

  • or about the death of a particular person.

    也會影響你對特定的人死去時的想法

  • If you say that life is just always, inherently, good, then youre said to place a high value on the sanctity of life.

    如果你說生命總是美好的,那麼,你賦予生命神聖的高價值

  • It doesn’t matter what the content of that life looks like, or what the person is like.

    這與一生過得如何,或者是什麼人無關

  • The fact that theyre alive is just good. So, losing it would not be good.

    只要事實是你認為活著是美好的,那麼,失去生命就不是什麼好事

  • But, if you think that quality of life is what’s important,

    但是,如果你認為生活品質很重要

  • then youre going to want to distinguish between lives that are full of good experiences, and those that aren’t.

    那麼你就會去區分生命中的美好部分和不好的部分

  • If you value quality of life, you don’t think that there’s something inherently valuable about merely being alive.

    若你重視生命的品質,你不會認為光活著這點有任何價值可言

  • So in these terms, some deaths might actually be positive or valuable

    那麼在這個情形,有些死亡或許是有益的、有價值的-

  • like, if they bring about an end to a terrible, painful existence.

    像是讓一段糟糕、痛苦的生命走向終點

  • Now, of course, it might make sense to be afraid of dying itself,

    當然,現在害怕死亡是有道理的

  • because the process of dying can be painful and drawn out and involve saying a lot of difficult good-byes.

    因為死亡的過程是痛苦、持久的,包括許多很困難的道別

  • But maybe Socrates and Epicurus have convinced you that fearing your own death is absurd.

    但也許蘇格拉底和伊比鳩魯早已說服你畏懼死亡很荒謬

  • Well then what about the death of others? Is it equally silly to fear the death of the people you love?

    那麼他人的死亡呢?害怕你深愛的人死亡也一樣傻嗎?

  • Probably so, say some philosophers, because what youre fearing isn’t actually death;

    也許是,有些哲學家這麼說,因為你真正害怕的不是死亡

  • what youre afraid of is being left behind, alone, when a loved one dies.

    當愛人死去時,你真正害怕的是被留下、孤單

  • And this is a good place to hear from ancient Chinese Daoist philosopher Zhuangzi.

    此時聽聽中國哲學中的道家思想家莊子的說法

  • He lived about the same time as Epicurus, and believed that there’s no reason to fear the death of your loved ones.

    他和伊比鳩魯生在同一時代,他認為不必害怕失去摯愛

  • He asked, why would you fear the inevitable?

    他問道,為什麼要害怕不可避免的事情?

  • We know death is going to happen, to everyone, and we also know that it’s a part of the life cycle.

    我們知道死亡會發生在任何人身上,我們也知道這是生命的循環

  • And we don’t see any other part of that cycle as being bad.

    我們並沒有將生命循環中的其他部分視為壞事

  • Wouldn’t it be silly, he said, if we mourned the loss of our babies when they became toddlers,

    他說,如果我們為孩子從嬰兒變成幼童感到哀傷,不是很傻嗎?

  • or our children when they became teens?

    或者小孩變成青少年的時候?

  • We celebrate every other life milestone, with birthday parties, bar mitzvahs, and graduations,

    我們會慶祝每一個生命的里程碑,像是生日派對、成年禮、畢業典禮

  • to mark the passage of time and the changes that have come.

    用來紀念時間的流逝和它帶來的改變

  • Sure, your parents might shed some tears when they pack you off to college,

    當然,你的父母送你去大學時可能會流淚

  • but they also knew that that day was going to come

    但是他們也知道總會有這麼一天-

  • when you would move away from them and onto your own life.

    你會搬走,離開他們,展開自己的生活

  • So death, according to Zhuangzi, is just one more changewhy treat it differently?

    所以,依莊子的說法,死亡只是另一種改變-為什麼我們不能等同視之呢?

  • Instead, he said, you should celebrate the death of a loved one

    他說,反而,你應該要慶祝愛的人死去

  • just as you celebrated every other life change that they experienced.

    就像你慶祝他們歷經其他生命的轉變一樣

  • You should think of their death as a going away party for a grand journey.

    你應該把死亡當作開啟另一段偉大旅程的歡送派對

  • In his view, mourning can actually seem selfish.

    在他看來,哀傷其實很自私

  • When it’s time for the people you love to move on, Zhuangzi said,

    在你的愛人繼續前進時哀傷是很自私的,莊子說

  • the last thing you should do is hold them closer.

    你該做的最後一件事是更靠近親近他們

  • Today we talked about death.

    今天我們談論死亡

  • We considered philosophical responsesfrom Socrates, Epicurus, and Zhuangzi,

    思考哲學上的說法-從蘇格拉底、伊比鳩魯和莊子

  • about whether it’s logical to fear your own death, or the deaths of your loved ones.

    談論害怕自己,或者是愛人的死亡究竟有沒有邏輯

  • And we talked about Thomas Nagel, death, and Fear of Missing Out.

    我們也談到湯瑪斯.內格爾、死亡和害怕錯過

  • This episode of Crash Course Philosophy is made possible by Squarespace.

    本集《哲學速成班》是以 Squarespace製作

  • Squarespace is a way to create a website, blog or online store for you and your ideas.

    Squarespace提供你或是任何想法一個管道,以建立網站、部落格或是網路商店

  • Squarespace features a user-friendly interface, custom templates and 24/7 customer support.

    Squarespace提供人性化介面、客製化範本及全天候客戶支援

  • Try Squarespace at squarespace.com/crashcourse for a special offer.

    你可以到 squarespace.com/crashcourse試用Squarespace,領取優惠

  • Squarespace: share your passion with the world.

    Squarespace:分享熱情給全世界

  • Crash Course Philosophy is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios.

    《哲學速成班》與PBS數位影音合作發行

  • You can head over to their channel to check out amazing shows like

    你可以收看他們的頻道,有許多精彩節目像是

  • Brain Craft, PBS Game/Show, and Gross Science.

    《大腦精工》、《PBS 遊戲/節目》和 《噁爛科學》

  • This episode of Crash Course was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio

    《哲學速成班》由 Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio製作

  • with the help of all of these awesome people and our equally fantastic graphics team is Thought Cafe.

    以及《Thought Cafe》影像團隊的優秀人員提供協助

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