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  • Is racism still a major problem in America? President Barack Obama certainly thinks so.

    在美國種族歧視依然是個大問題嗎?總統歐巴馬對此看法毫無疑問

  • He said that racism isin our DNA.” Really? If racism is in our DNA,

    他指出種族歧視存在於人類的基因裡,這是真的嗎?如果種族歧視存在於我們的基因裡

  • doesn’t that mean it's immutable, unchangeable?

    不就代表這是永遠無法避免和轉變的事實?

  • But America has changed -- and dramatically so. In 1960, 60% of Americans said they would

    然而,美國人卻有所轉變,而且是非常戲劇化的轉變,1960年,60%的美國人說

  • never vote for a black president. Almost 50 years later, the black man who said racism

    他們絕對不會將票投給黑人總統,五十年後,一位說種族歧視存在於我們的基因裡的黑人

  • is in America’s DNA was elected president, and four years later re-elected.

    正是美國人票選出來的總統,四年任期結束後仍再次當選

  • That’s only the most obvious example of racial progress. There are many others.

    對於種族歧視來說這是一項最明顯的轉變,還有許多其他的例子

  • Take inter-racial marriage. As William H. Frey of the Brookings Institution wrote, “Sociologists

    以族際婚姻來說,布魯金斯研究機構學者威廉·弗雷指出

  • have traditionally viewed multiracial marriage as a benchmark for the ultimate stage of assimilation

    社會學家傳統觀念將多種族婚姻視為一個特定族群進入社會的同化安定期的基準點

  • of a particular group into society.” Black-white marriages were still illegal in 16 states

    1967年之前,黑人與白人之間的婚姻關係一直處於違法狀態

  • until 1967. And a 1958 Gallup poll found that only 4% of Americans approved of black-white

    1958年,蓋洛普民調指出同意黑人與白人婚因的美國人只佔4%

  • marriages. Today that number is 87%. In 1960, of all marriages by blacks, only 1.7 percent

    現今該數字已增長至87%,1960年黑人婚姻中,與白人結婚的人口僅僅占據1.7%

  • were black-white. Today, it’s 12 percent and rising.

    然而今日該數字已增長至12%,且持續增加中

  • Now what aboutracial profilingand abuse of blacks by police? Doesn’t that

    而「種族定性」和警察對黑人的惡行又處於什麼樣的狀況呢?

  • prove that racism remains a major problem? In the summer of 2014, Ferguson, Missouri

    這些問題是不是代表了種族歧視仍然是個大問題呢?2014年夏天,發生於弗格森密蘇里州的事件

  • became ground zero for this accusation when a white policeman shot and killed an unarmed

    成為譴責的原爆點,一名白人警察開槍殺死了一名身上沒配戴武器的

  • black teenager. While a Department of Justice investigation of the incident cleared the

    黑人青少年,然而司法部調查指出

  • officer of any wrongdoing, it did accuse the city’s police department of racial bias.

    該員警無涉及任何不當行為,這已顯示出該市警局對於種族的偏見

  • But what was the Justice Department report’s most headline grabbing stat? The gap between

    而司法部所釋出的報導中,最令人揪心的頭條數據是什麼呢?

  • the percentage of blacks living in Ferguson -- 67% -- and the percentage of those stopped

    弗格森的黑人居民與因交通違規被警察攔下的黑人比率為67%與85%

  • by police for traffic violation who are black -- 85%. An 18 point discrepancy.

    有18%之差距

  • Racism, right? Not so fast.

    這就是種族歧視對吧?不僅僅如此

  • Blacks comprise 25% of New York City, but account for 55% of those stopped for traffic

    黑人佔紐約人口25%,但交通違規事件中,黑人就佔據55%

  • offenses -- a 30-point discrepancy, far bigger than that of Ferguson. Why isn’t the NYPD,

    30%之差,遠遠大於弗格森,這樣一來紐約市警察局

  • a department that is now majority minority, considered even more institutionally racist

    不就是一個多數個少數民族的單位, 如此一來是不是可以說該區比

  • than the Ferguson PD? The answer is you cannot have an honest discussion about police conduct

    弗格森公共域還要更具種族主義色彩呢?這個答案無法經由

  • without an honest discussion of black crime.

    誠實的討論警方行為與黑人犯罪中得到解答

  • Though blacks are 13% of the population, they commit 50% of the nation’s homicides,

    雖黑人人口佔13%,但其殺人罪比率卻佔國家50%

  • and almost always the victim is another black person, just as most white homicides are against

    而大部分案例中的受害者亦為黑人,就如同大多數的白人殺人犯一樣

  • other whites. In 2012, according to the Center for Disease Control, police killed 123 blacks,

    受害者亦是白人,2012年根據美國疾病控制與預防中心指出,警察殺害了123名黑人

  • while, by the way, killing over twice that many whites. But that same year blacks killed

    該數字是白人的兩倍之多,但於同一年

  • over 6,000 people -- again, mostly other blacks.

    黑人亦殺害了6000人,同樣的,受害者為黑人居多

  • What about traffic stops? Unlike when responding to dispatch calls, police officers exercise

    那對於臨時截停又是怎樣呢?不像大多數的警局的中心呼叫

  • more discretion when it comes to traffic stops. Thereforeracistcops can have a field

    對於臨時截停,警察則擁有自由裁量權,因此那些種族歧視的警察

  • day when it comes to traffic stops, right?

    便能在出外巡察時大發威力了不是嗎?

  • Actually, no.

    當然不是這樣的

  • The National Institute of Justice is the research agency of the Department of Justice.

    國家司法研究院為一個司法院的研究機構

  • In 2013, the National Institute of Justice published a study called "Race, Trust and Police Legitimacy."

    2013年,該研究院公布了一項研究,名稱為「種族,信任與警察合法性」

  • Three out of four black drivers admitted that they were stopped by the police for a "legitimate

    四個黑人駕駛中,其中就有三人承認自己曾因合法性理由遭警察攔下

  • reason." Blacks, compared to whites, were on average more likely to commit speeding

    比起白人,黑人更容易犯有超速或其他交通違規罪行

  • and other traffic offenses. The Institute wrote, “Seatbelt usage is chronically lower among

    研究院指出,黑人駕駛使用安全帶的比率較低

  • black drivers. If a law enforcement agency aggressively enforces seatbelt violations,

    在執法機構積極執行安全帶法規的情況下

  • police will stop more black drivers."

    警察攔下的違規者大多為黑人駕駛

  • The NIJ’s conclusion? These numerical disparities result from "differences in offending"

    司法研究院的結論如何呢?這些不同犯罪行為的數值差距

  • -- in other words, not because of racism.

    換句話來說,並不是因種族歧視而來

  • Similarly, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also found that blacks violate

    同樣地,美國國家公路交通安全管理局也指出

  • traffic laws at higher rates than whites -- in every offense, whether it’s driving without a license,

    比起白人,黑人有較高的違規比率,不管是無照駕駛

  • not wearing a seat belt, not using a child safety seat or speeding.

    未繫安全帶、未使用兒童安全座椅或超速等等

  • Is there still racism in America? Of course, there is. But racism is not in America’s DNA.

    能說美國依然有種族歧視的存在嗎?當然,還是有的,但種族歧視並不存在我們的基因裡

  • Recent history and a lot of research and data prove it.

    近期歷史以及許多研究都足以証明

  • As liberal Harvard sociologist Orlando Patterson said, America, “is now the least racist

    來自由主義的哈佛大學社會學教授奧蘭多‧帕特森表示

  • white-majority society in the world; has a better record of legal protections of minorities

    「美國,是世界上具最低種族歧視者的白人主導社會,跟其他社會比起來

  • than any other society, white or black; offers more opportunities to a greater number of

    也擁有較好的法規以保護那些少數民主,不管是白人或黑人

  • black persons than any other society, including all of those of Africa."

    同時也提供黑人較多的機會,包含所有來自非洲的住民

  • Patterson, by the way, is black.

    而帕特森,本身,也是位黑人

  • I’m Larry Elder for Prager University.

    我是來自普拉格大學的賴瑞‧艾德勒

Is racism still a major problem in America? President Barack Obama certainly thinks so.

在美國種族歧視依然是個大問題嗎?總統歐巴馬對此看法毫無疑問

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 黑人 種族 白人 警察 指出 婚姻

美國是否還籠罩在種族歧視中呢?(Is America Racist?)

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    Ying Chi Shing 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 12 日
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