Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. history and today were going to discuss

  • how the United States came to acquire two of its largest states, Texas andthere is

  • another one. Mr. Green! Mr. Green! I believe the answer

  • youre looking for is Alaska. Oh me from the past, as you can clearly tell

  • from the globe, Alaskan statehood never happened. No I am referring of course to California.

  • Stan, are we using your computer today? Oh. Stan!

  • Weve talked about westward expansion a few times here on CrashCourse, but it’s

  • usually about, like, Kentucky or Ohio. This time were going really west, I mean, not

  • like Hawaii west, but sea to shining sea west. intro

  • So you might remember that journalist John O’Sullivan coined the phrase Manifest Destiny

  • to describe America’s god given right to take over all the land between the Atlantic

  • and Pacific Oceans, regardless of who happened to be living there

  • Sorry Native Americans, Mexicans, French fur trappers, beavers, bison, prairie dogs, passenger

  • pigeons. I’m not going to go so far as to give God

  • credit for America’s internal imperialism, but I will say that our expansion had a lot

  • to do with economics, especially when you consider Jefferson’s ideas about the empire

  • of liberty. Stan, did I just say liberty? That means technically

  • I also have to talk about slavery, but were gonna kick the slavery can down the road until

  • later in the show. Just like American politicians did in the 19th century.

  • By 1860 nearly 300,000 people had made the trip that has been immortalized by the classic

  • educational video gameOregon Trail,” which, by the way, is inaccurate in the sense

  • that a family of 6, even a very hungry one, cannot eat a buffalo.

  • But is extremely accurate in that a lot of people died of dysentery and cholera. Frickin

  • disease. So, Oregon at the time was jointly controlled

  • by the U.S. and Britain. Northern Mexico at the time included what are now Texas, Arizona,

  • Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and California. But New Mexico and California were the only

  • two with, like, big settlements. About 30,000 Mexicans lived in New Mexico, and about 3,500

  • in California, and in both places they were outnumbered by Native Americans. Okay, let’s

  • go to the Thought Bubble. When Mexico became independent, there were

  • only about 2,000 Tejanos there, so to encourage economic development, Mexico’s government

  • granted a huge tract of land to Moses Austin. Austin’s son Stephen made a tidy profit

  • selling off smaller parcels of that land until there were 7,000 American Americans there.

  • This made Mexico nervous so, backpedalling furiously, Mexico annulled the land contracts

  • and banned further emigration into Texas. Even though slavery was already abolished

  • in Mexico, up to now they had allowed Americans to bring slaves. Austin, joined by some Tejano

  • elites, demanded greater autonomy and the right to use slave labor. Thinking the better

  • of it, Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana decided to assert control over the restive

  • territory with an army, turning the elite’s demands for autonomy into a full-scale revolt

  • for independence. On March 13, 1836, Santa Ana defeated the

  • American defenders of the Alamo, killing 187 (or 188, sources differ) Americans including

  • Davy Crockett. The Texas rebels wouldremember the Alamoand come back to defeat Santa

  • Ana at the battle of San Jacinto. And Mexico was forced to recognize Texas’s independence.

  • So Texas became the Lone Star Republic and quickly decided that it would be much better

  • to be a less lonely star and join the United States. So, in 1837, TexasCongress called

  • for union but all they heard back was, “not so fast, Texas.” Why? Because Texas wanted

  • to be a slave state, and adding another slave state would disrupt the balance in the Senate,

  • so Jackson and Van Buren did what good politicians always do: they ignored Texas.

  • And then after Martin Van Buren wrote a letter denouncing any plan to annex Texas on the

  • grounds that it would probably provoke a war, Democratic convention southerners threw their

  • support behind slaveholding Andrew Jackson pal, James K. Polk.

  • Polk just managed to get a presidential victory over perennial almost-president Henry Clay,

  • and seeing the writing on the wall, Congress annexed Texas in March of 1845, days before

  • Polk took office. Congress then forged an agreement with Britain to divide Oregon at

  • the 49th parallel, which restored the slave state/free state balance in the Senate.

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. Hey, Stan, can I get the foreshadowing filter? I wonder if were

  • going to be able to keep that slave state/free state balance...forever.

  • The land-hungry James K. Polk had another goal as president: acquire California from

  • Mexico. He tried to purchase it from Mexico, but they

  • were like, “No,” which is Spanish forNo.”

  • So Polk decided to do things the hard wayhe sent troops under future president

  • Zachary Taylor into this disputed border region. As expected, by which I mean intended, fighting

  • broke out between American and Mexican forces. Polk, in calling for a declaration of war,

  • claimed that the Mexicans hadshed blood upon American soil,” although the soil in

  • question was arguably not American, unless you think of America as being, you know, all

  • of this. A majority of Americans supported this war,

  • although to be fair, a majority of Americans will support almost any war. I’m sorry,

  • but it is true. At least at first. It was the first war fought by American troops

  • primarily on foreign soil, as most of the fighting was done in Mexico. Among the dissenters

  • was a Massachusetts Transcendentalist who is probably better known than the war itself.

  • Henry David Thoreau was in fact thrown in jail for refusing to pay taxes in protest

  • of the war and wroteOn Civil Disobediencein his defence, which many American high-schoolers

  • are assigned to read and expected not to understand, lest they take the message to heart and stop

  • doing assignments like readingOn Civil Disobedience.”

  • Another critic was concerned about the increase in executive power that Polk seemed to show,

  • saying: “Allow the president to invade a neighboring country whenever he shall deem

  • it necessary to repel an invasion and you allow him to make war at pleasure

  • That critic was none other than noted peacenik Abraham Lincoln, who would go on to do more

  • to expand executive power than any president in the 19th century except maybe Andrew Jackson.

  • Right so Santa Ana’s army was defeated in February 1847 but Mexico refused to give up.

  • So Winfield Scott, who had the unfortunate nicknameold fuss and feathers,” captured

  • Mexico City itself in September. A final peace treaty, the Treaty of Guadalupe

  • Hidalgo was signed in 1848, under which Mexico confirmed the annexation of Texas and further

  • ceded California as well as several other places that would later become states but

  • we couldn’t fit on the map. In return, the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million

  • and agreed to a no backsies deal in re Texas thereby freeing Mexico from the shackles of

  • Amarillo. I’m sorry Amarillians. No I’m not. I am. I am. I’m not. I am.

  • This is great, Stan. The people of Amarillo hate me, also the people of New Jersey, Alaska

  • is in the green-parts-of-not-America, We don’t even have Arizona and New Mexico on the chalkboard.

  • Pretty soon I will have alienated everyone. Anyway, thanks to the land from Mexico, our

  • dream of expanding from the Atlantic to the Pacific was finally complete. And as always

  • happens when dreams come true, trouble started. After the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, between

  • 75,000 and 100,000 Spanish-speaking Mexicans and 150,000 Native Americans were under the

  • jurisdiction of the United States. Despite the fact that the treaty granted Spanish

  • descended Mexicanmale citizenslegal and property rights, the Mexicans were still

  • seen as inferior to Anglo-Saxons whose manifest destiny it was, of course, to overspread the

  • continent. And the fact that these Mexicans were Catholic

  • didn’t help either, especially because in the eastern part of the United States, there

  • was a rising tide of anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant sentiment known as nativism.

  • And there was a new political party, The American Party, dedicated entirely to such sentiment.

  • They were referred to as theKnow-nothingsbecause when you asked them about their politics

  • they would answer that they didn’t know anything.

  • And indeed, they didn’t. This was not an expert branding strategy,

  • although they did manage to win an unexpected number of local offices in a state heralded

  • for its ignoranceMassachusetts. You thought I was going to say New Jersey, but I’m trying

  • to make nice with the New Jersey people because they take it pretty personally.

  • Meanwhile, in California, there weren’t enough white, English speaking American residents

  • to apply for statehood until gold was discovered in 1848, leading of course to San Francisco’s

  • NFL team, the San Francisco 48ers. By 1852, the non-Indian population in California

  • had risen from 15,000 to 200,000 and it was 360,000 on the eve of the Civil War.

  • Now not all of those migrantsmainly young men seeking their fortuneswere white.

  • Nearly 25,000 Chinese people migrated to California, most as contract workers working for mining

  • and railroad companies. And there were women, too, who ran restaurants,

  • and worked as cooks, and laundresses, and prostitutes, but the ratio of men to women

  • in California in 1860 was 3 to 1. Aw shmerg. It’s time for the Mystery Document?

  • The rules here are simple. I read the Mystery Document and I’m either

  • shocked by electricity or by the fact that I got it right.

  • We would beg to remind you that when your nation was a wilderness, and the nation from

  • which you sprung barbarous, we exercised most of the arts and virtues of civilized life;

  • that we are possessed of a language and a literature, and that men skilled in science

  • and the arts are numerous among us; that the productions of our manufactories, our sail,

  • and workshops, form no small share of commerce of the world; and that for centuries, colleges,

  • schools, charitable institutions, asylums, and hospitals have been as common as in your

  • own land. (…) And we beg to remark, that so far as the history of our race in California

  • goes, it stamps with the test of truth that we are not the degraded race you would make

  • us.” So it’s someone who said thatwehad

  • a great civilization whenyouwere a wilderness, plus they called usbarbarous,”

  • so it’s either ancient Rome or China. I’m gonna lean toward China.

  • That only gets me halfway there. Now I have to think of the name of the person. And I

  • don’t know any famous people from mid-19th century China who lived in the U.S. ...People

  • say I can’t sing. Norman Asing? Who the hell is Normal Asing?

  • AHHHH. So these days California is known for its

  • groovy, laid back, “oh your back hurts? here’s some potattitude, but that was

  • not the case in the 19th century. The California constitution of 1850 limited

  • civil participation to whitesno Asians, no Black people or Native Americans could

  • vote or testify in court. Indians were kicked off their land if it had any mineral value,

  • and thousands of their orphaned children were sold as slaves.

  • And all of this led to the Indian population of California dropping from 150,000 to about

  • 30,000 between 1848 and 1860. So it wasn’t at all clear whether California

  • was the kind of place to be admitted to the U.S. as a free state or as a slave state.

  • The Missouri Compromise was of no help here because half of California is below the 36

  • 30 line, and half is above it. A newFree Soilparty formed in 1848

  • calling for the limiting of slavery’s expansion in the west so that it could be open for white

  • people to live and work. I just want to be clear that most of the people

  • who were for limiting slavery were not, like, un-racist.

  • So, they nominated the admirably-whiskered Martin Van Buren for the presidency, and Van

  • Buren and Democratic nominee Lewis Cass then split the northern vote, allowing the aforementioned

  • Zachary Taylor, to win. So in 1850, when California finally did ask

  • to be admitted into the Union, it was as a free state.

  • Southerners freaked out because they saw it as the beginning of the end of slavery, but

  • then, to the rescue came Henry Clay, for his last hurrah.

  • He said, “We can kick this problem down the road once moreand brokered a four-part

  • plan that became known rather anticlimactically as the Compromise of 1850. Historians, can

  • you name nothing?! The four points were:

  • 1. California would be admitted as a free state

  • 2. The slave trade, but not slavery, would be outlawed in Washington D.C.

  • 3. A new, super harsh fugitive slave law would be enacted, and

  • 4. Popular sovereignty The idea was that in the remaining territories

  • taken from Mexico, the local white inhabitants could decide for themselves whether the state

  • would be slave or free when it applied to be part of the U.S.

  • Ah, the Compromise of 1850. A great reminder that nothing protects the rights of minorities

  • like the tyranny of the majority. There was a huge debate over the bill in which

  • noted asshat John C. Calhoun was so sick that he had to have his pro-slavery, anti-compromise

  • remarks read by a colleague. On the other side, New York’s Senator William Seward,

  • an abolitionist, also argued against compromise, based on slavery’s being, you know, wrong.

  • But, eventually the compromise did pass, thus averting a greater crisis for ten whole years.

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson predicted that if the United States acquired part of Mexico, it

  • would be like swallowing arsenic. And indeed, arsenic can be a slow-acting poison.

  • Now I don’t think Ralph Waldo Emerson was a good enough writer to have thought that

  • far ahead, but he was right. Some people say that manifest destiny made

  • the Civil War inevitable. But, as well see next week, what really made the Civil

  • War inevitable was slavery. But, we see in the story of manifest destiny

  • the underlying problem, the United States didn’t govern according to its own ideals.

  • It didn’t extend liberties to Native Americans or Mexican Americans or immigrant populations

  • or slaves. Thanks for watching. And well see you next

  • week when things will get much worse. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan

  • Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my high school

  • history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And

  • our graphics team is Thought Café. If you’d like to contribute to the libertage,

  • you can suggest captions. You can also ask questions in comments where they will be answered

  • by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown,

  • don’t forget to be awesome.

Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. history and today were going to discuss

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級

戰爭與擴張。美國曆史速成班 #17 (War & Expansion: Crash Course US History #17)

  • 40 8
    NNN 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字