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  • This is me. I'm a human.

    這是我。我是一名人類。

  • These are my parents, they're clearly humans too.

    他們是我的父母,也很明顯都是人類。

  • My grandfather, human.

    我的祖父,還是人類。

  • My great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather?

    那我的曾祖父和曾曾祖父呢?

  • Humans without a doubt.

    絕對都是人類。

  • But my grandfather 185 million generations removed?

    但是我那一億八千五百萬年前的祖先呢?

  • Not a human.

    牠不是人類。

  • He was a fish.

    牠是條魚。

  • So imagine you could take a picture of every ancestor down the line and put them in a big stack.

    想像一下我們能把自己過去的每一代祖先都拍照下來,整理成一大疊照片。

  • Every father's father's father's father's [etc.] father.

    每一代的爸爸的爸爸的爸爸的爸爸的... (不斷重複) 爸爸。

  • And well, that would be a very big stack, with me at the top and my fishy forefather all the way down at the bottom.

    最後手邊會有非常厚的一疊照片,我在最上面,而我的魚類祖先則在最下面。

  • Maybe we should lay this stack down on its side, that would be a little safer.

    或許我們應該把這疊照片橫著放,這樣比較安全。

  • As we journey back in this stack, let's pull out a few snapshots from history.

    隨著我們越往這疊照片的後面走去,讓我們也一邊記錄下來歷史的進展吧。

  • 1,000 generations back we're just a few inches in, and we find a human.

    才在照片堆前幾英吋的一千代以前,我們到了一名人類。

  • 10,000 generations ago, just two steps further and well, still human but not like we'd recognize.

    僅是兩步之遙的一萬代以前,仍然是名人類,但和我們一般認知的人類有些不同。

  • 75,000 generations ago, that's a million and a half years back, not a human.

    七萬五千代以前,也就是一百五十萬年前,就不是人類了。

  • That's Homo erectus.

    這是直立猿人 (Homo erectus)。

  • Now here we are just a few hundred steps back in our journey, a million and a half generations ago.

    現在我們來到了距離起點數百步的距離,大約是我們的一百五十萬代以前。

  • This ancestor looks more like today's Old World monkeys, but still a primate.

    這位祖先看起來更像是我們現今稱為舊世界猴的猴科動物,但仍然是靈長類。

  • 15 million generations ago and this ancestor looks more like a tree rodent than a monkey.

    來到一千五百萬代以前,比起猴子,這位祖先看起來則更像是隻樹鼠。

  • Let's jump all the way back to my 120 millionth great-grandparent, this is 12 kilometers back down the line.

    讓我們再繼續跳到一億兩千萬代祖先以前,也就是離起點十二公里的地方。

  • This is a decidedly non-human, non-primate shrew-like mammal, but it's kinda cute!

    這是隻絕對既不是人類也不是靈長類,長得像是隻尖鼠的哺乳類動物。不過看起來挺可愛的!

  • My 165 millionth great-grandparent is not even a mammal, it's a prehistoric lizard that predates even the dinosaurs.

    我的一億六千五百萬代前的祖先甚至不是哺乳類,而是比恐龍還更早出現的史前蜥蜴。

  • They've got their own photo album, their own stack, that joins up with ours somewhere around here.

    牠們有著屬於自己的相簿,屬於自己的照片堆,並且在大約這裡與我們的相片堆交會。

  • In fact, every species has their own stack that branches off somewhere down the line.

    實際上,每個物種都有屬於自己的照片堆,並且會在途中分枝散葉。

  • And here we are 185 million generations ago at our ancestral fish.

    現在我們來到了一億八千五百萬代以前,看到了我們的魚類祖先。

  • You see the resemblance?

    你覺得我們看起來像嗎?

  • So where along the stack was the first human?

    所以世界上第一名人類出現在哪裡呢?

  • There wasn't one.

    其實並沒有這樣的存在。

  • Photo #4,632?

    第 4,632 張照片?

  • Human.

    是人類。

  • Photo #79,221?

    第 79,221 張照片?

  • Well, that's Homo erectus.

    嗯,這個是直立猿人。

  • There's no single point where one became the other.

    猿人演變到人類的過程並不是單一的時間點。

  • Every photo that we pull from this stack looks pretty much like the photo on either side.

    我們從照片堆中拿出的每一張照片看起來都可能屬於其中一邊。

  • Every generation is the same species as its parents, and the same species as its children.

    每一代都有著相同的物種做為牠們的父母,並生出相同物種的後代。

  • Homo erectus had Homo erectus parents and Homo erectus kids.

    直立猿人有著直立猿人的父母,還有直立猿人的小孩。

  • Our fishy ancestor?

    我們的魚類祖先呢?

  • Had fishy fathers and fishy children.

    一樣有著魚類父親和魚類小孩。

  • You can never pinpoint the exact moment that a species came to be, because it never did.

    我們沒辦法準確標明一個物種轉變成另一個物種的瞬間,因為實際上這種事情並不會發生。

  • It's just like how you used to be a baby, and now you're older.

    這就好像你過去是個小嬰兒,但現在變老了一些。

  • But there was no single day when you went to bed young and woke up old, although sometimes it feels that way.

    但你不會某天上床睡覺的時候還是個年輕人,但起床之後就變成老人了。雖然有時候是會有這種感覺啦。

  • There was no first human.

    史上並沒有所謂的第一位人類。

  • It sounds like a paradox, it sounds like it breaks the whole theory of evolution.

    這聽起來或許有些矛盾,而且好像違背了進化論。

  • But it's really a key to truly understanding how evolution works.

    但這卻是真正理解演化機制運作方式的關鍵。

  • Evolution happens like a movie, with frames moving by both quickly and gradually, and we often can't see the change while it's occurring.

    演化的過程就好像一部電影一樣,每一個影格都快速且逐漸地播放下去,而我們很常沒有辦法及時看到當中所發生的變化。

  • Every time we find a fossil, it's a snapshot back in time, often with thousands of frames missing in between, and we're forced to reconstruct the whole film.

    每當我們找到一個化石,就好像是找到過去一個瞬間的畫面,中間缺失了數以千計的影格,而我們則被迫要自己重新建構出整部電影。

  • Life is what happens in between the snapshots.

    生命進化的過程就在這一個個瞬間之間。

  • Instead of a nice smooth road, this is a journey on stepping stones, and we give each one their own name.

    它不是一個平坦的過程,而我們都是在摸著石頭過河,給予每一個化石屬於它們自己的名字。

  • Stay curious.

    保持好奇心。

  • This journey was inspired by Richard Dawkins' book "The Magic of Reality" and there is a link down in the description.

    本次的影片的靈感來自理查·道金斯的著作《現實的魔力》。該書的連結放在影片資訊欄位中了。

This is me. I'm a human.

這是我。我是一名人類。

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人類演化史大發現!人類到底從哪時開始出現的? (There Was No First Human)

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    jyabc 發佈於 2021 年 12 月 20 日
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