Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • I'm going to talk to you about some stuff that's in this book of mine

    我要和你們談談我書裡的一些內容

  • that I hope will resonate with other things you've already heard,

    我希望這會和你們已經得到的資訊獲得共鳴

  • and I'll try to make some connections myself, in case you miss them.

    我也會嘗試做一些連接﹐免得你遺漏了什麼

  • I want to start with what I call the "official dogma."

    我想從”定律“開始談

  • The official dogma of what?

    什麼定律﹖

  • The official dogma of all western industrial societies.

    所有西方工業社會的定律

  • And the official dogma runs like this:

    這定律是這麼說的﹕

  • if we are interested in maximizing the welfare of our citizens,

    為了人民的福利和幸福著想

  • the way to do that is to maximize individual freedom.

    我們必須讓每個人擁有最大的個人自由

  • The reason for this is both that freedom is in and of itself good,

    因為自由本身是好的

  • valuable, worthwhile, essential to being human.

    有益的﹐是身為人的基本價值之一

  • And because if people have freedom,

    如果人們有了自由

  • then each of us can act on our own

    每個人都可以自發地

  • to do the things that will maximize our welfare,

    去追求屬於自己的最大幸福

  • and no one has to decide on our behalf.

    我們不需要別人來幫我們做決定

  • The way to maximize freedom is to maximize choice.

    最大的自由的方法就是擁有最多選擇

  • The more choice people have, the more freedom they have,

    人們的選擇性越多﹐他們擁有的自由也越多

  • and the more freedom they have,

    他們擁有的自由越多

  • the more welfare they have.

    他們就越幸福快樂

  • This, I think, is so deeply embedded in the water supply

    這件事深深地銘刻於我們的思源中

  • that it wouldn't occur to anyone to question it.

    沒有人會質疑它

  • And it's also deeply embedded in our lives.

    它在每個方面存在我們的生活中

  • I'll give you some examples of what modern progress has made possible for us.

    讓我給你們一個例子﹐看看現代社會發展帶來的可能性

  • This is my supermarket. Not such a big one.

    這是我家附近的超市﹐不算很大

  • I want to say just a word about salad dressing.

    我想談談沙拉醬

  • 175 salad dressings in my supermarket,

    我的超市裡有175種沙拉醬

  • if you don't count the 10 extra-virgin olive oils

    如果我們不把那10種特級初榨橄欖油

  • and 12 balsamic vinegars you could buy

    還有12種紅酒醋算進去的話

  • to make a very large number of your own salad dressings,

    你也可以買這兩種東西回去自己調專屬你自己的沙拉醬

  • in the off-chance that none of the 175 the store has on offer suit you.

    如果175種沙拉醬裡沒一樣合你意的話

  • So this is what the supermarket is like.

    這就是我們今日的超市。

  • And then you go to the consumer electronics store to set up a stereo system --

    如果你去電子用品店﹐想要裝一套音響系統

  • speakers, CD player, tape player, tuner, amplifier --

    音箱﹐CD播放器﹐卡帶播放器﹐調節器﹐擴音器

  • and in this one single consumer electronics store,

    在任何一家電子用品店裡

  • there are that many stereo systems.

    都有許多不同的音響系統

  • We can construct six-and-a-half-million different stereo systems

    我們可以從一家電子用品店裡所提供的不同零件裡

  • out of the components that are on offer in one store.

    組裝出六百五十萬種不同的音響

  • You've got to admit that's a lot of choice.

    你必須承認這些選擇還真多

  • In other domains -- the world of communications.

    在其他領域 - 在傳播的世界裡

  • There was a time, when I was a boy,

    曾幾何時﹐在我還是個小男孩的時候

  • when you could get any kind of telephone service you wanted,

    你可以選擇任何電信公司

  • as long as it came from Ma Bell.

    只要確定它連接到貝爾公司

  • You rented your phone. You didn't buy it.

    你租你的電話﹐你不是買

  • One consequence of that, by the way, is that the phone never broke.

    這樣做其中一個結果是﹐那種電話從來就不會壞

  • And those days are gone.

    這些時光過去了

  • We now have an almost unlimited variety of phones,

    現在我們有無盡的選擇

  • especially in the world of cell phones.

    尤其是手機

  • These are cell phones of the future.

    這些是來自未來的手機

  • My favorite is the middle one --

    我最喜歡中間那個

  • the MP3 player, nose hair trimmer, and creme brulee torch.

    有播放音樂﹐剪鼻毛﹐還能烤布丁

  • And if by some chance you haven't seen that in your store yet,

    如果你還沒有在商店裡看到這隻手機

  • you can rest assured that one day soon you will.

    你大可放心﹐總有一天你會看到它

  • And what this does is

    它的功能是

  • it leads people to walk into their stores asking this question.

    讓人們走進店裡問﹕你們有那種功能很少的電話嗎﹖

  • And do you know what the answer to this question now is?

    你知道答案是什麼嗎﹖

  • The answer is "No."

    答案是“沒有“”

  • It is not possible to buy a cell phone that doesn't do too much.

    你無法買到一支功能剛好就好的手機

  • So, in other aspects of life that are much more significant than buying things,

    在我們人生其他那些比買東西還要更重要的部份

  • the same explosion of choice is true.

    我們也面臨相同的“選項爆炸”

  • Health care -- it is no longer the case in the United States

    醫療 - 現在在美國﹐你去看醫生

  • that you go to the doctor, and the doctor tells you what to do.

    醫生不會直接告訴你該怎麼做

  • Instead, you go to the doctor,

    你去看醫生

  • and the doctor tells you, "Well, we could do A, or we could do B.

    醫生告訴你﹐好吧﹐我們可以選A 或是選B

  • A has these benefits, and these risks.

    A有這些好處﹐有這些危險性

  • B has these benefits, and these risks. What do you want to do?"

    B有這些好處﹐有這些危險性。你想怎麼做﹖

  • And you say, "Doc, what should I do?"

    你回答﹕醫生﹐我該怎麼做!

  • And the doc says, "A has these benefits and risks, and B has these benefits and risks.

    醫生再重複﹕A有這些利弊﹐B有這些利弊

  • What do you want to do?"

    你想怎麼做﹖

  • And you say, "If you were me, Doc, what would you do?"

    然後你說“醫生﹐如果你是我﹐你會怎麼做”

  • And the doc says, "But I'm not you."

    醫生說“但我不是你。”

  • And the result is -- we call it "patient autonomy,"

    結果是﹐我們說這是“病人的自主權”

  • which makes it sound like a good thing,

    聽上去好像是件好事

  • but what it really is is a shifting of the burden and the responsibility

    但實際上它不過是把做出選擇的重擔和責任

  • for decision-making from somebody who knows something --

    從一個真正有能力的人

  • namely, the doctor --

    也就是醫生

  • to somebody who knows nothing and is almost certainly sick

    轉移到一個相對無知而且正在生病狀態中

  • and thus not in the best shape to be making decisions --

    可能無法做出什麼好決定的人 -

  • namely, the patient.

    也就是患者

  • There's enormous marketing of prescription drugs

    處方藥的廣告很多

  • to people like you and me,

    針對像你我這種人

  • which, if you think about it, makes no sense at all,

    如果你認真地想﹐其實並不怎麼合理

  • since we can't buy them.

    既然我們不能買

  • Why do they market to us if we can't buy them?

    對我們下這麼多廣告幹嘛﹖

  • The answer is that they expect us to call our doctors the next morning

    答案是﹐他們希望我們隔天早上打電話給我們的醫生

  • and ask for our prescriptions to be changed.

    希望修改處方

  • Something as dramatic as our identity

    甚至更戲劇性地﹐我們的身份

  • has now become a matter of choice,

    都可以是一種選擇

  • as this slide is meant to indicate.

    這投影片寫著“等孩子長大了﹐他們自己能選擇性別”

  • We don't inherit an identity; we get to invent it.

    我們的身份不是與生俱來的﹐我們可以自己創造

  • And we get to re-invent ourselves as often as we like.

    還能在任何時候﹐隨時“再造”

  • And that means that everyday, when you wake up in the morning,

    這代表著每天早上﹐你醒來以後

  • you have to decide what kind of person you want to be.

    你可以選擇你想做怎樣的人

  • With respect to marriage and family,

    以婚姻和家庭關係為例

  • there was a time when the default assumption that almost everyone had

    在過去﹐社會的既定想法是

  • is that you got married as soon as you could,

    越早結婚

  • and then you started having kids as soon as you could.

    越早有孩子越好

  • The only real choice was who,

    唯一的選擇就是你的對象

  • not when, and not what you did after.

    不是何時﹐也不是之後你該做什麼

  • Nowadays, everything is very much up for grabs.

    今日﹐凡事都有可能

  • I teach wonderfully intelligent students,

    我教導一群聰明的學生

  • and I assign 20 percent less work than I used to.

    我給他們的功課比以前的學生少了兩成

  • And it's not because they're less smart,

    不是因為他們比較不聰明

  • and it's not because they're less diligent.

    也不是因為他們比較不勤奮

  • It's because they are preoccupied, asking themselves,

    而是他們還有其他事要做﹐他們自問

  • "Should I get married or not? Should I get married now?

    “我應該結婚嗎﹖我應該現在結婚﹖

  • Should I get married later? Should I have kids first, or a career first?"

    還是晚點再結﹖我應該先有孩子﹐還是先有事業”

  • All of these are consuming questions.

    這些都是很費時的問題

  • And they're going to answer these questions,

    他們必須要回答這些問題

  • whether or not it means not doing all the work I assign

    無論這代表著無法完成所有的功課

  • and not getting a good grade in my courses.

    或是無法在我班上拿到好成績

  • And indeed they should. These are important questions to answer.

    但他們的確應該思考﹐回答這些問題很重要

  • Work -- we are blessed, as Carl was pointing out,

    工作 - 如 Carl 剛剛所說﹐我們非常幸運

  • with the technology that enables us

    今日科技讓我們

  • to work every minute of every day from any place on the planet --

    在這個星球上的何時何地﹐每一刻都可以工作

  • except the Randolph Hotel.

    除了我們這次的旅館

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • There is one corner, by the way,

    其實有一個角落可以上網

  • that I'm not going to tell anybody about, where the WiFi works.

    但我不會告訴你們

  • I'm not telling you about it because I want to use it.

    因為我想獨佔它

  • So what this means, this incredible freedom of choice

    這些美好的選擇自由意味著什麼呢

  • we have with respect to work, is that we have to make a decision,

    意味著我們必須做出選擇

  • again and again and again,

    一次一次又一次地選擇

  • about whether we should or shouldn't be working.

    像是我們應不應該工作

  • We can go to watch our kid play soccer,

    我們可以去看孩子踢足球

  • and we have our cell phone on one hip,

    口袋裡裝著手機

  • and our Blackberry on our other hip,

    另一邊口袋裝著黑梅機

  • and our laptop, presumably, on our laps.

    腿上放著電腦

  • And even if they're all shut off,

    就算把它們全關上

  • every minute that we're watching our kid mutilate a soccer game,

    看著你的孩子用心踢球的每一分鐘

  • we are also asking ourselves,

    我們仍然自問著

  • "Should I answer this cell phone call?

    “我應該接手機嗎?

  • Should I respond to this email? Should I draft this letter?"

    我應該回這封Email嗎?我應該寫個草稿嗎?”

  • And even if the answer to the question is "no,"

    就算所有的回答都是“不”

  • it's certainly going to make the experience of your kid's soccer game

    這場看球經歷﹐一定會和

  • very different than it would've been.

    過去非常不同

  • So everywhere we look,

    無論我們往何處看

  • big things and small things, material things and lifestyle things,

    大小事﹐各種物質和生活方式

  • life is a matter of choice.

    人生就是做出選擇

  • And the world we used to live in looked like this.

    我們的世界中曾經有些事情是肯定的

  • That is to say, there were some choices,

    意思是﹐就算有些選擇性

  • but not everything was a matter of choice.

    但不是每件事都需要做出選擇

  • And the world we now live in looks like this.

    但現在我們的世界卻是這樣﹕十誡自己寫

  • And the question is, is this good news, or bad news?

    我們要問﹕這究竟是好事還是壞事﹖

  • And the answer is yes.

    解答是﹕是的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We all know what's good about it,

    我們都知道好處在哪

  • so I'm going to talk about what's bad about it.

    所以我想談談這有什麼壞處

  • All of this choice has two effects,

    所有的選擇都有兩種效果

  • two negative effects on people.

    兩種負面的效果

  • One effect, paradoxically,

    一種是

  • is that it produces paralysis, rather than liberation.

    選擇帶來的不是自由﹐而是癱瘓

  • With so many options to choose from,

    一旦出現這麼多選項

  • people find it very difficult to choose at all.

    人們發現做出選擇非常困難

  • I'll give you one very dramatic example of this:

    讓我給你一個比較戲劇性的例子

  • a study that was done of investments in voluntary retirement plans.

    一個就自願退休計劃投資的

  • A colleague of mine got access to investment records from Vanguard,

    我的一個同事取得了“先鋒”這家共同基金的

  • the gigantic mutual fund company

    投資記錄

  • of about a million employees and about 2,000 different workplaces.

    紀錄裡包括兩千多個不同公司的一百多萬個職員

  • And what she found is that

    她發現

  • for every 10 mutual funds the employer offered,

    公司每增加十個基金選項

  • rate of participation went down two percent.

    參與率就降低百分之二

  • You offer 50 funds -- 10 percent fewer employees participate

    如果你提供50個基金選項﹐而不是5個

  • than if you only offer five. Why?

    就會多出一成的職員放棄加入。為什麼﹖

  • Because with 50 funds to choose from,

    因為50個基金選項

  • it's so damn hard to decide which fund to choose

    讓人實在有夠難選

  • that you'll just put it off until tomorrow.

    不然還是明天再想吧

  • And then tomorrow, and then tomorrow,