Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Hey. This is Mr. Sato and I'm going to help you organize your essay.

    嘿。我是佐藤老師,我要來幫你架構你的文章

  • Organization in an essay is actually pretty easy once you learn it. You may be writing

    一旦你學會了,要架構一篇文章實際上是很容易的,你可能會寫

  • an essay about a work of literature, a research paper for your social studies class, or answering

    一篇關於文學作品的短文,一篇社會學的研究論文,或是回應

  • a writing prompt on a standardized test; argument or explanatory;

    一次標準考試寫作提示,不管是論述性或解釋性的回應

  • it doesn't matter. They all require the same basic organization.

    都沒有關係,他們都需要相同的基礎架構

  • Let's make a quick distinction between those two kinds of essays. An argument essay, sometimes

    讓我們快速區分這兩類的短文。一個論述性文章,有時

  • called a persuasive essay, contains a thesis; it's an opinion that you'll be supporting with evidence.

    又稱說服性文章。包括論文亦同,它是意見表達,而你需要有證據

  • with evidence.

    來支持

  • On the other hand, an explanatory essay, sometimes called expository or informative, uses a topic

    另一方面,解釋性文章,有時也被稱做說明性或資訊性文章,則會使用一個

  • sentence; it's a factual topic that you'll be explaining more about in your essay.

    主題句來導引,它是你必須在論文中多做解釋的事實主題

  • Yes, these two things are different, a thesis is an opinion while a topic sentence is factual;

    是的,兩件事截然不同,一個論點常是一個意見,而主題句則是事實;

  • but the organization around them is pretty much the same. But be sure you know what kind

    然而架構它們卻非常相像。要確定的是,

  • you're supposed to be writing.

    你必須知道你要寫些什麼

  • OK, now. Look at this diagram of what I like to call "The Machine." It's pretty simple.

    好了,現在來看看這張我想稱為「機器」的圖,它很簡單

  • The triangle on the top represents the beginning. It will open with your hook, and end with

    三角型的頂端,代表開始。從那裡開啟你勾引讀者的「勾子」,然後以

  • your thesis or topic sentence, represented by this little gold star here.

    你的論點來結尾,或主題句,我們用這裡的小金星來代表

  • I drew a star because the thesis (in an argument essay) or topic sentence (which is what you

    我畫了一顆星,因為論文(在論述性文章中)或主題句(這是你

  • use in an explanatory essay) is kind of the star of the show. It is the single most important

    在解釋性文章會使用的)是一場表演秀中的明星。它是整篇文章中,單一且最重要的

  • sentence in the entire essay because everything else in the essay is there to serve that sentence.

    句子,因為文章中其它的文句,全都在支持這個句子

  • The blocks in the middle are usually called the body of the essay. That's where you support

    中間的這幾塊通常被稱為文章的主體。也就是你用

  • your thesis or topic sentence with evidence and arguments. The word "proof" is a little

    證據或論點來支持自己論述或主題句的所在。「證明」這個字有點小小的

  • strong, but it might help you to think that what you're doing in the middle section of

    強烈,但它能幫你思考在你的論述中間那一段所做的

  • an argument or persuasive essay is proving your thesis. In an informative or explanatory

    或者說服性文章中你想證明的。在一篇資訊性或者解釋性

  • essay, you would say you're developing your topic in more detail with examples and relevant

    論文中,你會說你在使用例子或相關資訊來發展更多

  • information.

    主題的細節

  • The triangle at the bottom is the end, your conclusion. That's where you remind your reader

    三角形的底部是結尾,也就是你的結論。亦即用來提醒你的讀者

  • what the point of the whole essay has been, and explain why it matters.

    整篇論文的觀點之處,並解釋它為何重要

  • Think of this structure as a machine. You know how on a car, all the basic parts work

    把整個結構想成一部機器,你知道在一輛汽車上,所有基礎零件共同

  • together to achieve a single purpose? to drive you safely from point A to point B? That's

    運作只為達成一個單一目標? 就是把你從A點安全地載運到B點? 那就是

  • what the tires are for, that's what the brakes and the drive shaft are for, that's what all

    輪胎、煞車和汽車軸承設計的目的,也是引擎中的所有零件

  • the parts in the engine are for. They all exist and work together to make one thing

    設計的目的,它們的存在和共同運作都只為讓一件事

  • happen.

    成真

  • This structure is like that. The hook smoothly introduces your thesis. The body of your essay

    整個結構就是如此。從文章的「鉤子」平順地引入了你的論點。並用文章的主題

  • supports or "proves" your thesis. Your conclusion restates your thesis and extends it a step

    來支持或「證明」你的論述。結論則重述你的論點並且進一步

  • further to provoke a thought or to show how that idea can be applied in real life.

    延伸來引發想法,或呈現該如何把想法運用到真實生活中

  • And that's basically it. But let's now look at the individual parts of this machine a

    而這也是最基本的。而現在讓我們來看看這部機器的個別部分

  • little more closely.

    稍微再靠近一點

  • In the first paragraph, begin with a hook, or attention-getting intro. I made another

    第一段,以「勾子」或是引人注意的介紹開頭。我拍了另一段短片

  • video on exactly this topic, so I encourage you to check that out. You want to say something

    更仔細介紹這個主題,建議你去看一下,此處,你必須講一些

  • interesting here that makes your reader want to read on, and of course, it should relate

    讓讀者想要繼續讀下去的趣事,當然,它一定要

  • to whatever it is you're writing about. It's wide up here, because the introduction is

    跟你接下來要寫的內容有關。而在此它也要向外擴張,因為緒論

  • usually more general, broader. At the bottom of the triangle, it's narrow because that's

    通常比較一般,且更廣泛。在三角形的底部,會逐漸收縮,因為此處

  • where you narrow it down to your specific point: your thesis or topic sentence, represented

    你必須要收攏到你的特定觀點:呈現你的論點或主題句,

  • by this gold star.

    藉由這個金星

  • And since everything else in the essay serves this single statement, make sure you don't

    既然整篇文章的所有內容都只為表達一個想法, 你得確保不會

  • mess this up. Look carefully at the prompt or your assignment and make sure your thesis

    把它搞砸。仔細看一下提示或是作業規定,同時確定你的論文

  • or topic sentence is clearly and specifically addressing the assigned topic. If the prompt

    或主題句非常清晰且具體地陳述指定的題目。假設題目提示設定為

  • is to argue for or against deep fried candy bars in school lunches, then your thesis must

    請說明你贊成或反對學校午餐是否應提供油炸巧克力棒,那麼你的論文必須

  • do one of those two things: say that you support deep-fried candy bars in school lunches, or

    做這兩件事的其中一件:比方說你支持學校午餐油炸巧克力棒

  • that you oppose them. It must be a clear answer to the prompt. If you don't do that, your

    或者你反對。它必須清楚回應題目的提示。如果你不這樣做

  • essay will be vague at best, or off-topic at worst. All your evidence will stand around

    你的論文會非常模糊,或是離題甚遠。你的證據也會毫無說服力

  • uselessly with no claim to support.

    對支持自己的主張完全幫不上忙

  • The body, or middle, is the longest part of your essay. This is where you support or "prove"

    至於主體,或是中間部分,則是你論文最長的部分,此處是你支持或「證明」

  • your thesis. So, you think that candy bars in school lunches is a bad idea? Here's where

    自己論點的所在,因此,若你認為學校午餐供應巧克力棒不太好,此處是你要來解釋

  • you say why. You should have multiple reasons to support your position, and each of those

    為什麼的地方。你可能有多種理由來支持自己的立場,而每一個

  • reasons gets its own separate paragraph. The classic "5-paragraph essay" requires exactly

    理由都得有一個單獨的段落來說明。這也就是典型的「五段論論文」,它必須有實際的

  • three supporting paragraphs, like a stool with three legs, but many essays require more.

    三個支持段落,就像是一張有三條腿的凳子,儘管有許多論文要求更多段落

  • A few, like a letter to the editor, could require fewer.

    有些,像讀者來函,則會要求段落不要太多

  • In some essays, like a compare/contrast essay, you might describe the first thing in one

    某些文章,像是比較/對比性的文章,你可以在一個段落裡描述第一件事

  • paragraph and the second thing in the next paragraph, then analyze the differences in

    然後在下一段講第二件事,接著再下一段裡,分析其間的差異

  • the next one. Or maybe you could describe similarities between the two things here,

    或者,你也可以在此處,描述兩件事的相同性

  • and two differences here and here. But no matter how many supporting paragraphs you

    以及在這裡和這裡,描述兩者的差異。但是,無論有多少支持你的段落

  • have, or even what's in them, they all do the same job. They must support your thesis.

    或者段落裡有多少內容,他們都在做相同的工作,他們都在支持你的論述

  • If something isn't helping you prove the thesis, take it out.

    如果某些事情無法幫助你的論述,就把它移除。

  • So, this is how it works. If this was a trial, the defendant's plea (not guilty) would be

    所以,這是它的運作方式。如果這是一個審判,被告的抗辯(無罪)是

  • the thesis, and the evidence to prove his or her innocence would be the body of the

    你的論述,所有支持他或她無罪的證據,都會成為文章的

  • essay. This middle section should be the longest part of your essay.

    主體。中間的章節將是你論文最長的部分。

  • An explanatory essay is very similar. Rather than proving an assertion or claim, you explore

    一篇解釋性的文章也非常相似,它不用證明你的斷言或主張,而是你在主題

  • different aspects of your topic in each of the body paragraphs. Let's say your essay

    中利用每個段落來探索主題的不同面相。比方說,你的文章是有關

  • is about South African history. One paragraph might be about the colonial period, a second

    南非的歷史。其中一段可能是殖民時期,其次則是

  • might be about 20th century conflicts under apartheid, and a third might be about its

    種族隔離政策下20世紀的衝突,第三段則可能圍繞著它

  • present political situation. Three legs of a stool. The body of the explanatory essay

    目前的政治環境,像不像三條腿的板凳,解釋性文章的主體

  • develops different aspects of your topic.

    都在發展主題的不同面相

  • Another subtopic is the counterclaim and your rebuttal, but I'll put that in a separate

    另一個子題則是反面論訴和你自己的反駁,但我會把它放在一個單獨的

  • video.

    短片中來說明

  • At the end of your essay, you will remind your reader what point you're trying to make,

    在你的文章的結尾,你必須提醒讀者,自己究竟想要表達什麼觀點

  • so you will paraphrase your thesis. Paraphrase. Don't use the exact words you used in the

    所以你得再闡述自己的論點,「重新敘述」,不要再使用第一段中

  • first paragraph.

    你用過的相同字眼

  • Restating your thesis is like you're closing the deal. You're sort of saying, "So, after

    就像要做結尾一樣重述一次你的說法,因此你有點像說「所以,經過

  • all this, you can see that my thesis is true, right?"

    這些,你能了解我的論述都是真的,對吧?」

  • And then you add what I call the "broader significance." That isn't a term you'll find

    然後,把我所說的「擴大重要性」加進去。這並非你常看到的一個術語

  • in a textbook; it's what I call it. But it's where you explain why this idea matters, why

    在教科書中;它是我自己發明的,但它是你解釋自己的想法非常重要之處。

  • it's significant. It's where you take your conclusion one step farther. It's where you

    它為什麼很重要呢? 因為它會把你的結論再往前帶一步,也就是你

  • answer the question: "Yeah...so?"

    回答「是的...所以?」這個問題之所在

  • Using that candy bar example, in your conclusion, you might want to talk about how schools are

    再拿巧克力棒的例子來看,在你的結論,你可能想表達學校

  • places where kids can learn how to be adults, so schools have a responsibility to promote

    是學童學習成長的地方,所以學校有責任推動

  • healthy lifestyles. You're explaining why this idea matters.

    健康生活,你來解釋這種想法非常重要

  • You broaden your perspective, like a camera pulling back to show the landscape, the bigger

    藉此拓展你的觀點,它有點像攝影機把焦聚往後拉以拉大視野,擴大

  • picture. That's why I drew another triangle here. This time you begin narrow and specific

    構圖。這也是此處我要畫出另一個三角形的緣故,而這次你必須縮小和具體化

  • (you oppose deep-fried candy bars in school lunches), and broaden out to a wider, more

    (假設你反對學校午餐提供巧克力棒),並擴大到更廣泛的,更

  • general statement (schools have a responsibility to their students). It's just like the first

    一般性的陳述(學校有責任維護學生健康),有點像第一段

  • paragraph, but upside down; this time it starts narrow and ends broad, the opposite of your

    但這一次上下顛倒,此次先窄後寬,作法相反

  • first paragraph.

    跟你的第一段

  • A second way to end your essay is to, again, paraphrase your thesis, then give a call-to-action.

    結束文章的第二個辦法是,再一次,重新敘述你的論點,然後號召行動。

  • Tell your reader directly what he or she should do about all this new information you've given

    直接告訴你的讀者,依據你給他們這些全部的新資訊,他或她所應該起而行的

  • them. You might say, "So write to the school board and tell them that deep-fried candy

    你可能會,「所以寫件給學校董事會,告訴他們深炸巧克力棒

  • bars have no place in our school cafeteria." You're telling the reader what he or she can

    不應納進學校餐廳之內」,告訴你的讀者他們能

  • do, what action to take, if he or she now shares your opinion.

    做的,能採取的行動,如果他們認同你的想法

  • Before we finish, there's one more thing. The paragraph transition is a big topic, but

    在我們結束前,還有一件事。段落轉換是個大議題,但

  • briefly, look at the diagram again. See how these parts aren't actually touching one another?

    很簡單地,再看一下這張圖。看看這些部分有沒有相互觸及嗎?

  • They aren't actually connected yet. You need to put a little link between each one so the

    如果他們沒有真正觸及,你必須在此間擺一個小連結點,

  • machine runs smoothly. That's a paragraph transition.

    機器才會順暢運作,這就是段落轉換

  • Here, you might say something like, "First of all." Here, you might write, "Furthermore;"

    在這裡,你可能會說,「首先」。而在這裡,你可以這樣寫,「再者」

  • here at the last supporting paragraph, you could put, "Finally," and here you could say,

    而此處最後一段配套段落中,你可以說「最後」,而在這裡,你可以說,

  • "In conclusion" or "So." Those are pretty simple, mechanical transitions.

    「總結來說」或「所以」它們很簡單,機械性的轉換

  • They aren't very clever, but they'll do the job. They'll tell your reader that you're

    他們看起來不是很聰明,但他們各司其職。他們會告訴你的讀者,你正

  • moving on to the next part of the machine, and it's way better than not having transitions

    移動到機器的另一個部分,而它比完全不轉換會更好

  • at all. To continue with our car analogy, a paragraph transition is like the oil that

    如果再繼續拿我們的汽車來比喻,一個段落的轉換就像潤滑油

  • keeps the parts working smoothly without too much friction. The machine might work OK without

    就在沒有過度的摩擦,而能讓車子順利運轉。雖然機器可以不用潤滑油就能工作

  • them, but it would be clunky and awkward.

    但它會卡卡的,而且運作遲緩

  • For a better and fuller explanation, look at my video on paragraph transitions; here's

    為了有更棒和更全面的解釋,請收看我的轉換短片,連結

  • a link.

    在此

  • That's all there is to it. Every essay you will write, whether it's for English, Social

    這裡有所有的連結。每一種你要寫的文章類型,無論是英語、社會

  • Studies, Science, or a standardized test, argument or explanatory, will require some

    研究、科學報告或者標準考試文章,論述或解釋性文體,都需要些

  • version of this basic structure: introduction, development, and conclusion.

    基本結構、緒論、發展和結論的版本

  • In more advanced classes, the structure of your essays will still be pretty much the

    而在更多進階課程中,你的論文結構仍會更加

  • same; they'll just be longer, give more support, and the evidence might be grouped into categories

    類似,只是它們更長,需要更多支持論點,而支持的證據被分類到不同的類別

  • of evidence, or have subordinate theses that support a bigger one; they might have an exploratory

    或者有支持力更強大的一個附屬論點;他們可能有更好的探索力

  • but still orderly flow of ideas from one to the next rather than center around a single

    但在思路上,仍屬從一個到下一個的順序流動,而非圍繞單一的

  • thesis; but they're still basically this shape: a statement, supporting evidence, and a conclusion.

    中心思想,唯基本上維持這個外形,一種表達、支持證據和一項結論

  • So what I call the "machine" is a good place for writers to start. Here are some time indexes

    而我所稱的「 機器」則是讓作者起手的好地方,以下有些時間指標

  • so you can re-watch the parts you want.

    可以讓你從想要看的地方開始

  • Once you've mastered essay organization, you'll find your writing is easier because you know

    一旦你能掌握文章的架構,你會發現寫作更容易,因為你知道

  • what you're supposed to be saying at any given point in your essay. Just remember the diagram

    你的文章中任何給定之處,你所應該說的。請記得這張圖

  • and what the different parts do. Do that, and your organization will be clear, orderly,

    和每個不同部分的作用,照著做,你的架構就會很清晰,有次序

  • and effective.

    並且有效率

  • And remember this: people who can argue effectively, and who can show that they know what they're

    記住這一點:能夠有效論述的作者,以及夠展現所知、展現

  • talking about, tend to get what they want in life. And that's what I want for you. Happy

    自己所言為何,通常就能獲得生活中所欲,而這也正是我想帶給你們的,祝你們

  • essay writing..

    寫稿順利。

Hey. This is Mr. Sato and I'm going to help you organize your essay.

嘿。我是佐藤老師,我要來幫你架構你的文章

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 文章 段落 論文 論述 論點 讀者

如何組織你的論文(機器 (How to Organize Your Essay (The Machine))

  • 1366 132
    Chun-Neng Wang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字