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  • Alright, so we all know that person

    好吧!所以我們都認識那個

  • who, every time you say anything,

    每當你說些什麼

  • they're like "Actually, technically, tomatoes aren't vegetables!"

    就會說「事實上,技術上來說,蕃茄不是蔬菜!」的人

  • And... I just.. before we do this episode,

    且...我只是...在我們開始做這集之前

  • I just want to encourage you not to be that person

    我只是想要鼓勵你不要成為那樣的人

  • But, knowing the real classifications of the stuff that we eat

    但是,知道我們所吃的東西的真正分類

  • can tell you a lot about where fruits and vegetables

    可以讓你知道更多食物跟蔬菜到底來自哪裡

  • come from and how they're developed.

    以及他們是怎麼生長的

  • So it's pretty interesting

    所以還蠻有趣的

  • just don't use it to be an insufferable pedant.

    但不要把這些知識用於當一位惹人厭的嘴砲王

  • For example, officially speaking,

    例如,依照正式的分類

  • Anything that is a root, stem or leaf of a plant

    任何植物的根莖葉部分

  • qualifies as a vegetable.

    都被認定是蔬菜

  • meaning that some things that you might ordinarily

    也就是說,有些你一般認為

  • consider a fruit, is actually a vegetable.

    是水果的東西,其實是蔬菜

  • Rhubarb, for instance, we think of a

    大黃,例如,我們覺得是一種

  • kind of like a fruity thing because

    像是水果般的東西,因為

  • it's in pie and it tastes so sweet

    在派裡面且嚐起來很甜

  • but it's the stalk of a plant, so its a vegetable.

    但他是植物的莖,所以他是蔬菜

  • Vegetable pie...who thought of that?

    蔬菜派...誰會想到這個啊?

  • Corn, zucchini, and green beans, on the other hand

    另一方面,玉米、密生西葫蘆(夏季的一種南瓜)和綠豆

  • all fruit, so are tomatoes.

    都是水果,番茄也是

  • That's because these foods are not

    因為這些食物不是

  • roots, stems, or leaves.

    根、莖或葉子

  • They're ovaries.

    他們是果實(子房)

  • Hopefully that doesn't make you feel too weird.

    希望這不會讓你覺得太奇怪

  • So yeah, fruits are the ovaries of a flowering plant

    好吧!水果是開花植物的果實(子房)

  • that develop after its seeds are fertilized

    是種子受精後開始生長而成的

  • or, sometimes, after they've been triggered to

    或者,有時候,他們被觸發而

  • develop without fertilization.

    未受精就生長了

  • From the plant's perspective, surrounding its seeds

    就植物來說,在其種子周圍

  • with something soft and juicy and delicious

    有一些軟軟、多汁跟美味的(部分)

  • increases the chances that those seeds will get eaten

    會增加種子被吃的機會

  • and then spread around in nice fertile

    然後被散播在肥沃(營養)的

  • piles of poo.

    大便堆旁。

  • So broccoli and cauliflower are not fruit

    所以花椰菜不是水果

  • even though they are flower buds because they're unopened

    即便他們是花蕊,但因為他們還沒開花

  • the flower hasn't transformed.

    花還沒有變化

  • True fruits come in lots of different types

    真的水果有很多種形態

  • and some of them make for excellent anatomy lessons

    其中有些有利於作為超棒的解剖學課程

  • One key factor for botanists in categorizing fruits is

    對植物學家來說,在分類水果時有一個關鍵因素是

  • is how many ovaries the flower had.

    這朵花有多少個子房

  • So berries by definition are fruits that come from

    所以根據定義,漿果是

  • from a single ovary with multiple seeds.

    來自一個有很多種子的子房的水果

  • That makes grapes, bananas, peppers and tomatoes

    這讓葡萄、香蕉、胡椒跟番茄

  • all different types of berries.

    都被定義為莓果,只是型態不同

  • So hold onto your shorts because raspberries

    所以抓好你的褲子,因為覆盆子

  • and blackberries are something totally different

    跟黑莓是完全不一樣的東西

  • They're called aggregate fruits

    他們被稱作聚合果

  • a whole bunch of little fruits grouped together.

    一堆小水果聚集在一起

  • And strawberries aren't berries either

    且草莓也不是漿果類的

  • in fact, the tasty red part of the strawberry isn't

    事實上,草莓的紅色可食用部分甚至不是

  • even a fruit. Its a special kind of plant structure

    一種水果。它是一種植物的特殊結構

  • called a fleshy receptacle.

    叫做肉體花托

  • You actually have to look much closer at the receptacle

    事實上,你必須更靠近一點去看花托

  • to see the fruit, which are called achenes.

    才能看到真正的水果,也被稱為瘦果

  • They're dry, one-seeded fruits that speckle

    瘦果是乾燥,只含有一顆種子的水果

  • the red surface of the strawberry

    並散布在草莓的紅色表面

  • Sunflowers produce another achene that you probably

    向日葵製造另一種瘦果,你可能

  • know as sunflower seeds.

    認識並稱它為向日葵種子(葵瓜子)。

  • Nuts are fruits too and their shells are coats

    堅果也是水果,且他們硬殼

  • developed from the ovary wall.

    是從子房壁發展而來的

  • That includes things like chestnuts and hazelnuts

    這個種類就包含像是栗子跟榛果

  • But technically, walnuts and pecans are not nuts,

    但技術上來說,胡桃跟山胡桃不是堅果類

  • along with other single ovary fruits like peaches and

    連同其他單子房水果,像是桃子跟

  • and plums and coconuts, they're called drupes.

    李子跟椰子一樣,他們被稱作是核果

  • Drupes only have one seed with a distinct skin,

    核果只有一個有著獨特外皮的種子

  • covering a fleshy middle layer.

    覆蓋在多肉的中層

  • In a drupe, the inner layer is often called stone-like,

    在核果中,最內層通成被稱作為如石頭一般

  • and if you've ever accidentally chomped on a peach pit,

    如果你曾經不小心咬了桃子的內核

  • you understand why.

    你會知道為什麼

  • Now if you want to get super fancy with your botanical terminology

    現在,如果你想要用你的植物學術語來耍花樣

  • raspberries and blackberries are specifically

    樹莓跟黑莓在類別上特別是

  • aggregate drupes, and each small section is called a druplet.

    聚集核果,每一小部分稱作小核果

  • But many fruits are more than just a ripened flower ovary.

    但很多水果都不只是個成熟的花子房

  • Take pome fruits, for instance, like apples and pears.

    例如梨果類,就像蘋果跟梨子

  • Pome fruits are known as accessory fruits because

    梨果類水果被視作是假果,因為

  • there's so much more going on in them than a simple ovary

    他們不只是區區的一個子房

  • The ovary makes up only the core of the fruit.

    子房僅能夠長成果核

  • The flesh of the fruit is actually modified

    果肉其實是變形的

  • flower petals and sepals, the flower parts that cover a bud

    花瓣和萼片,即是覆蓋花蕾的構造

  • and even the knobby receptacle at the base of the flower.

    甚至是花朵底部多節的花托也會長成果肉

  • And when you eat hesperidium fruits

    且當你吃柑橘果類水果時

  • you're also getting a mouthful of the unexpected

    你其實是滿口的未知

  • This category includes fruits with tough rinds

    這分類包括了據有粗糙外皮

  • and little partitions, like lemons and grapefruits

    和一瓣瓣果肉的水果,像是檸檬跟葡萄柚

  • and oranges. Turns out that those small packed together

    以及橘子。那些聚集起來,小小滿是

  • juicy bits in each section, called juice sacs

    多汁的果粒被叫做果汁袋

  • were once tiny hair like cells on the inside of the ovary,

    原來,這些果汁袋曾經是在子房內像毛髮般的微小細胞

  • but they filled bursting with goodness as the fruit ripened.

    但隨著果實成熟,他們充滿了精華

  • So the next time you drink a pulpy glass of OJ

    所以下次你在喝一杯多果肉的橘子汁時(Orange Juice)

  • enjoy your mouthful of fruit hair.

    好好享受滿嘴的果肉毛髮吧

  • Thank you for watching this SciShow Dose

    謝謝觀看這集的 SciShow Dose

  • which was brought to you by our patrons on Patreon

    由 Patreon 上的贊助者贊助播出

  • who allow us to explore the weird majesty of

    讓我們能夠探索這壯麗的

  • fruit science. If you want to get behind the scenes

    水果科學。如果你想要得到幕後的

  • pictures or blooper reels or other cool stuff

    照片、NG片段或是其他酷東西

  • and support us, you can go to Patreon.com/scishow

    並支持我們,你可以去Patreon.com/scishow 這個網頁

  • and if you wanna keep getting smarter with us

    如果你想要繼續跟著我們變得更聰明一些

  • you can always, please, go to youtube.com/scishow.

    請到youtube.com/scishow就可以了

Alright, so we all know that person

好吧!所以我們都認識那個

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 水果 種子 蔬菜 植物 草莓 分類

為什麼番茄不是蔬菜,草莓不是莓 (Why Tomatoes Are Fruits, and Strawberries Aren't Berries)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2017 年 07 月 14 日
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