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  • You unlock this world with a deep sea submersible.

    你們潛入到深海中來揭發這個世界

  • At 1000 meters youre moving into a world of both shadows and wet substance,

    你們潛入到1000公尺的海水中,一個既陰暗又潮濕的世界

  • of things and stranger things, you've just crossed intothe bathypelagic zone.

    充滿了奇形怪狀的生物。你們也就是進入到深海層

  • Hello there landlubbers, Julian here for DNews. Until July 10, 2016,

    哈囉!你們這些陸地仔。我是DNews的Julian。直到2016的7月10號

  • the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ship Okeanos

    國家海洋暨大氣總署(NOAA)的歐奇亞諾斯探索號

  • will be over the deepest part of the Pacific ocean, the Marianas Trench, working 24 hours a day studying the ocean floor.

    到達了馬里亞納海溝,位於太平洋的深海,經歷了整整24小時的海底研究

  • And luckily for you, you can watch the live stream and have the chance to see creatures no person has ever seen before.

    你們很幸運的,可以看到現場轉播,並且看到新的海底生物

  • Theyll be exploring areas of the ocean past the point where a little light gets through,

    在他們探索幾個海底區域時,會先經過較為亮的海底區域

  • called the mesopelagic ortwilightzone, into a sea of constant darkness called the bathypelagic ormidnightzone.

    就所謂的中深海層或是「灰色」地帶(這帶沒植物,一些喜愛冰冷黑暗的生物居住著,像是龍蝦)。然後,進入到深海層,永恆的「黑暗」處(沒什麼光,一些能自身發光的生物生活在此處)

  • Most of the volume of the world’s oceans is in the bathypelagic zone.

    世界大部分的海洋深度都有到深海層

  • Even deeper than that, from 4 km to 6 km down is the abyssopelagic zone, akaThe Abyss.”

    甚至有超過深海層的深度,深度從4公里到6公里就是所謂的超深層區(永恆黑暗,接近冰點的溫度),也簡稱為「The Abyss」

  • The Okeanos diving robots bottom out at 6 km in depth, where most of the seafloor is,

    歐奇亞諾斯探索號到達深度6公里,有著許多海床的地方

  • but the marianas trench can cut as deep as 11 km. When you look at the life forms at these depths,

    但是,馬里亞納海溝深達11公里。你們看著這個深度的海底生活型態

  • the bathypelagic and abyssopelagic might as well be another planet.

    深層區與超深層區可能會是你們從未感受過的世界

  • Giant isopods, viperfish, gulper eels, glowing jellyfish, almost everything looks like a nightmare or a fever dream.

    巨型深海大虱、毒蛇魚、吞噬鳗、發光水母,在這裡,每個東西看起來都既是恐怖又充滿想像的

  • Even shrimp that cluster around hydrothermal vents are oddly pale and ghostly,

    甚至小蝦會是慘白的,聚集在噴出熱泉(經由地熱加熱過的水,從海底的裂縫噴出)的裂縫邊

  • why does everything look so weird down here?

    為什麼在深海中的每個生物看起來都如此的怪異?

  • Well like all animals, their environment plays a huge role in their evolution,

    恩,就像每個動物一樣,環境是影響牠們進化的最大因素

  • and the deep sea is about as extreme an environment you can find. The biggest factor is the pressure.

    而深海就是屬於較為極端的環境。最大影響之處就是深海的壓力

  • For every kilometer you dive down, pressure becomes a hundred times greater than the air pressure we experience on the surface.

    只要你們潛入每一公里,相較於淺水區的氣壓,深海水中的壓力會是100倍的加深

  • That means at the ocean floor a body would have to withstand 600 times the pressure it would up here.

    這意思是在海底中,牠們的身體需要能夠承受600倍的壓力

  • To do that it helps to be flexible, with soft bodies or cartilage that bends without breaking.

    能夠熟悉這樣的壓力就能不受限的行動自如,而不會受傷

  • More watery bodies keep them from compressing, and

    含水的身體可以預防被抑制住,而且

  • it’s hypothesized that an elongated shape would help organisms cope with pressure too,

    它會被假定為細長形的,會幫助有機體能夠承受那樣的壓力

  • which would explain the abundance of eel-shaped fish in the depths.

    這也就是為什麼在深海中會有那麼多細長的魚

  • Flat rays would really feel the pounds per square inch across their large area bodies.

    扁平的魟魚會很容易感受到重量在牠們大面積的身軀上

  • The pressure even affects deep sea life at a cellular level.

    這樣的壓力甚至也會影響到深海生物的細胞質

  • Their cell membranes need more unsaturated fats to keep them liquid,

    牠們的細胞膜需要更多的不飽和脂肪酸來維持牠們的飽水性

  • otherwise their walls would become crushed and frozen solid and they wouldn’t function.

    要不然牠們的細胞壁會因而無法運作,變得脆弱並且凍僵

  • Inside they have more organic molecules called piezolytes, which bind to water and keep their proteins from being distorted.

    牠們有許多的有機分子,稱之為Piezolytes,能有效防止海水的壓力,不讓蛋白質受到扭曲

  • Fish also need to find new ways to manage their buoyancy down there.

    在深海中的魚類也需要學會控制浮力

  • Gas bladders that fish near the surface use would be crushed, so species develop workarounds.

    魚鰾平均密度比水小,就會一直往上浮。所以,物種們藉由演化來解決這樣的浮力問題

  • The blob fish’s flesh is gooey and low density. At depth the water crushes it into a workable shape, but

    水滴魚皮膚的密度與水相差無幾,同時也黏糊糊的。水壓極高的深海造就了水滴魚的外型

  • unfortunately for the blobfish when we catch them and bring them to the surface they puff out and

    不幸的是,我們抓到這樣的水滴魚,帶到岸上時,牠們會變得乾扁,而且

  • become the poster child for ugly animals. Other fish have fins so long they act as a tripod,

    成為代表性的醜陋動物。其牠魚類有很長的鰭,像是三腳架一樣

  • allowing them to stand on the ocean floor. The long stilts sense vibrations and help them catch prey.

    牠們因此可以站立在海底中。這樣長長的腳柱可以藉由偵測震動,來抓到獵物

  • That’s another problem in the deep: food scarcity. Since no light penetrates there is no plant life.

    居住在深海還有另一個問題:食物短缺。因為在深海中沒有足夠的光源,沒有植物可以生存

  • Everything either survives off falling dead organic matter, chemicals coming out of occasional plumes,

    每一個生物體不是吃有機體的腐肉來維持生命、偶爾攝取從羽毛掉落下的化學物質

  • or the rare other living organisms they find. Unique hunting

    就是找到稀有的活跳跳有機體來維持生命。獨特的獵食

  • strategies are adopted, like anglerfish that lure in prey with bioluminescent light.

    策略是需要的,像是鮟鱇魚會利用發光來吸引獵物

  • They rely on ambush because it takes less energy, and have slow metabolisms to stretch out each meal.

    牠們主要進攻方式是埋伏,因為牠們能消耗較少的熱量

  • Anglers, viperfish and fangtooths have long teeth that trap prey like a cage.

    鮟鱇魚、毒蛇鱼、和尖牙魚有著長長的牙齒,就像監獄一樣把獵物牢牢關住

  • Other fish use lights to confuse predators, and some predators use lights to see, like lanternfish.

    其牠魚類藉著發光來混淆掠食者,還有一些掠食者會藉由發光來看四周,像是燈籠魚

  • Many animals have given up on sight entirely and may have non-functioning eyes or no eyes at all.

    許多深海動物,因為缺乏光線,視力功能則失去或是完全地消失

  • While it’s hard to see and find food this deep, it’s even harder to find a mate.

    但是,在這樣的深海中,沒有眼睛是很難找到食物的,甚至沒辦法找到另一半

  • To overcome this, some fish are hermaphroditic, so no matter what mate they bump into they can reproduce.

    為了克服這樣的問題,有些動物則是雌雄同體。所以,不管牠們遇到的是男是女,牠們都可以再繁殖

  • Anglerfish females release pheromones to attract tiny males. When a male comes along, it attaches himself to her,

    女性鮟鱇魚會釋放出費洛蒙來吸引較小的男性生物。只要男性生物一靠近,他就會附著在她的身上

  • eventually fusing to her and providing sperm in exchange for sustenance.

    最後,則會與她交配,提供精液,來獲得他所需的營養

  • It’s not a hospitable environment, but even at these depths there is still life. Aside from the bizarre nightmare fish,

    這不是一個和善的環境。但,即使是這樣,生命仍存在著。除了奇形怪狀的魚之外

  • there are also, sponges, sea stars, squid, and crabs. No word on pineapple houses though.

    深海中也有海綿動物、海星、和螃蟹。不過沒有大鳳梨房子

  • Even though there are lots of fish in the sea, were still taking a pretty big bite out of them.

    雖然在這樣的深海中有很多魚類,但我們仍然持續的扼殺牠們

  • To learn about one proposed solution to overfishing check out Trace’s video here.

    想要知道一個解決過度捕撈魚的方法,歡迎案這裡去看看Trace的影片

  • At the moment of international community has agreed to fish in seasons, with catch quotas and minimum size limits -

    在這時候的國際社會同意四季的適量、限制數量的捕撈

  • with the hope this would allow time for the fish to mature, spawn and build the population back. News flash, it ain't working.

    希望這樣的提案可以給予魚類足夠的時間長大、產卵、增加與恢復之前的魚類數量。但,總結:這樣的提案並不可行

  • More people have been to the moon than the bottom of the Marianas trench.

    比起馬里雅納深海溝,月球還比較多人到訪過

  • So would you rather travel to the ocean floor or the surface of the moon? Let us know in the comments. Subscribe for more. And I will see you next time on DNews.

    所以,你們寧願選擇探索海底還是月亮表面呢?留言讓我們知道。歡迎訂閱DNews,你們可以學到更多。我們下回DNews再見!

You unlock this world with a deep sea submersible.

你們潛入到深海中來揭發這個世界

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 深海 生物 魚類 發光 壓力 動物

深海生物奇形怪狀 (Why Does Deep Sea Life Look So Strange?)

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    Freyja 發佈於 2016 年 07 月 29 日
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