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  • For a long time the measurement of a healthy baby was having 10 fingers and 10 toes. Wait,

    長久以來衡量寶寶健康的方式都是看十指是否健全。等等,

  • why didn't anybody care about the eyes, nose, or anything else?

    為什麼沒有人在乎眼睛、鼻子或是其他東西呢?

  • Hey digitals, Lissette here for Dnews. I am the proud owner of 10 fingers and 10 toes,

    嗨, 我是DNews的Lissette。我可以很開心的說我有十根手指與腳指

  • I can prove half of this just right now. Youll just have to trust me on the 10 toes thing. But,

    我可以證明一半給你看,另一半腳趾的部分你只能選擇相信我了。但,

  • have you ever wondered why that is? Why don’t we have 12 fingers and 14 toes? Or 6 fingers

    你有沒有想過為什麼是十根?為什麼不是12根手指與14根腳指?或者六根手指

  • and 1 toe? Well, this may not come as a shocker to you DNews fans out there, but no one really

    與一根腳趾?各位 DNews 的忠實粉絲可能不會太意外:但是

  • knows. It might all come down to math.

    從來沒有人知道切確原因。可能一切得回歸數學來探討

  • Mark Changizi, a theoretical neurobiologist, developed a hypothesis called the Limb Law,

    Mark Changizi是個神經生物學家,研發了一套「四肢法則」的理論

  • first published in the Journal of Theoretical Biology in 2001. It’s a mathematical equation

    首次於2001年在生物理論日報出刊,這個數學公式是

  • that tries to figure out the correct number of limbs an animal needs in order to connect

    用以求出動物為了符合這世界的生活環境,所演化出的四肢切確數量,

  • to the world around it based on the length of its limbs relative to it’s body size.

    以及與他們的軀幹大小的相對關係

  • Okay, wow. The equation looks like this. Confusing, I know. But he used this equation with 190

    Okay,哇。這個公式是這樣的。我知道很難理解。這個公式是以190

  • different animal species from seven different animal Phyla, and the math seems to check

    種動物,分別從七個不同的生物分類法演算出來的。而這數學公式似乎是

  • out. Mark thinks this same equation could be used to figure out why humans have five

    可行的。Mark認為這個公式可以用來算出為什麼人類一隻手

  • fingers on each hand.

    有五根手指頭

  • The calculation treats our palms as the animal and our fingers as limbs. Also it takes into

    在運算中,他們把人類的手掌比擬做動物體,而人類的手指比擬做動物的四肢。也有另一

  • account that the whole reason behind having fingers is that theyre able to fold over

    重點是,手指的存在是為了彎曲摺疊時能夠

  • our entire palm, in order to grasp things. So, first, fingers have to be at least as

    覆蓋住整個手掌,以便於抓取東西。所以,手指必須至少跟我們的

  • long as our palms, also known as length need to connect to the outside world. When you crunch the

    手掌一樣長,並與外界連接,計算出的

  • numbers, you'll get 9.42 digits per hand. But, he argues, since our hand is not a free

    數字是,每隻手應該要有9.42根手指。但是,我們的手不單單是個

  • roaming creature, but is attached to our arm, it doesn't need limbs protruding from all

    漂浮的物體。由於手與手臂相連接,因此不需要四面八方都有指頭,

  • sides. Hands only need half the total number of limbs. That gets us to 4.71 fingers per

    只需要一半的數字就夠了。所以算出一隻手平均會有4.71根

  • hand. Just based on math. Pretty amazing.

    手指頭。這只是光靠數學公式算出的,蠻讓人驚艷的

  • But other explanations are simpler than that. Evolutionary biologists say that we have 10

    但有其他的解釋比這個簡單多了。生物演化學家指出我們的十根

  • fingers and 10 toes because that’s the best combination for us. If 8 fingers and 8 toes

    手指、腳趾恰逢其所。如果八根手指、腳趾

  • would have given us an evolutionary advantage, humans would have 4 fingers on each hand.

    有利於演化,則人類就會一手有四根手指

  • Cliff Tabin, a Harvard Medical school geneticist focusing on limb development in vertebrates,

    哈佛遺傳學家Cliff Tabin則是著重在脊椎動物的四肢演化

  • pointed out that our motor skills come down to our thumb and index finger, and that another

    他指出,我們之所以如此靈巧是由於大拇指與食指的存在,若是生長出

  • small, 6th finger wouldn’t really change anything. And if we ever did grow a 6th finger,

    第六跟小指頭,則不會對人類有什麼改變。而若我們真的有第六根指頭

  • Tabin argues, it would probably grow out of our wrists, like panda’s . It gives

    Tabin認為,第六根應該會長在我們的手腕內側,就像熊貓一樣。這讓

  • them extra support when gripping bamboo, which gives them an evolutionarily advantage. So,

    熊貓們在抓竹子的時候有更多的支撐力量,這也有利於熊貓的演化。所以

  • basically, we'd have six if people with six fingers got an advantage.

    基本來說如果人類有六根手指頭是有利於演化的話,我們就會有六根手指頭了

  • Then, there is this more complicated science answer to why we have the number of digits

    除此之外,還有更複雜的科學解釋我們五根手指的原因

  • we do. James Sharpe from the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona discovered

    位於巴賽隆納染色體編號規則中心的James Sharp發現

  • it all comes down to three molecules in our body. Bmp, Wnt and Sox9. Theyre responsible

    我們身體中的三個分子Bmp、Wnt 跟 Sox9 負責

  • for marking out in an embryo where fingers will go and how far apart theyll grow.

    胎兒生長時手指該長的方向與間隙

  • And for the most part it marks out space for five fingers on each hand and five toes on

    還有最大的功用是那些分子決定了指頭的分隔

  • each foot. But of course sometimes things can go wrong, resulting in the gaps between

    但當然有時候可能會出錯,造成手指間的空隙

  • fingers being bigger and only having room for four fingers. Or, sometimes it screws

    太大而只容得下四根手指;或者有時候也會搞砸

  • up and you have room for an extra finger. Oh and fun fact, the basis for this discovery

    而使你多長出一根指頭。有趣的是,首先提出這個理論的人是

  • was a theory first proposed by Alan Turing back in 1952 about how animals get their spots and

    是Alan Turing,他在1952年研究動物為什麼有斑紋

  • stripes. Love you, Alan.

    或者是線條。愛你,Alan

  • So why 10 fingers and 10 toes? Again, were still not entirely sure. But it all seems

    所以為什麼有十根手指、腳趾?再一次說明,我們仍然不確定原因。但似乎

  • to come down to because that’s exactly the number of fingers and toes we need. Sometimes

    結論是因為十根手指、腳恰恰符合需求。有時候,

  • it’s best to just trust evolution and be thankful we don’t have hoofs. Amirite?

    直接信任演化的結果就好了呀!而且得心存感激我們有手指而非蹄,對吧?

  • So that’s hands. But what about feet?

    這是講到手,那腳呢?

  • When did they evolve and why do they look

    腳是什麼時候演化的?而且為什麼腳看起來

  • different from hands? Julia walked a mile in those shoes, here.

    跟手差那麼多?Julia深入探討了一番

  • Toes likely evolved from the same bones that became fins, wings and hoofs in other species.

    演化出腳趾的骨頭跟演化初鰭、翅膀、蹄的骨頭相同。

  • The dominating scientific theories are that fingers and toes are exclusive features of tetrapods.

    較有說服力的科學理論是,手指根腳趾是四足類動物的身體特徵

  • Or vertebrates with limbs.

    還有有四肢的脊椎動物

  • But according to one study toes may evolve even before our fishy ancestors left the ocean.

    但一份研究顯示,腳趾的演化或許比魚類祖先離開海洋的時間還早

  • Why do you think we have 10 fingers and toes? Would you rather have more or less?

    你覺得為什麼我們有十根手指、腳趾?你想要更多還是更少呢?

  • Let us know on the comments and remember to subscribe to DNews for more episodes everyday.

    在下面留言處跟我們說你的想法,並且不要忘記訂閱DNews,可以看到更多的節目喔

  • Thanks for watching, guys.

    謝謝收看

For a long time the measurement of a healthy baby was having 10 fingers and 10 toes. Wait,

長久以來衡量寶寶健康的方式都是看十指是否健全。等等,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 腳趾 演化 公式 指頭 手指頭 動物

有想過為什麼我們有十根腳趾手指嗎?(Why Do We Have 10 Fingers and 10 Toes?)

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    Angela Hsu 發佈於 2016 年 05 月 26 日
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