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  • Let's continue with the consumer behavior

    我們接下來繼續看到費者行為的一個

  • aspect of market sensing. Specifically

    面相:市場感知

  • in this lesson and we'll look at the influences on the purchase decision process.

    我們在這堂課中尤其會來探討購買決策的過程中的影響

  • Last lesson, we talked about consumer decision-making process

    在上一堂課中,我們談過關於消費者決策過程

  • being problem recognition, information search,

    包含問題認知、資訊蒐集

  • evaluation of altaernatives, purchase

    各種替代方案的評估

  • and post-purchase evaluation. you can find a nice

    購買前後的評價等等。在這個網站中,你可以找到一個

  • summary these stages at this website. and also

    對於這些不同階段,不錯的結論,並也能

  • this website you can find a summary the influences

    夠在這網站中找到我們即將要討論的

  • we're going to be discussing. Wouldn't it be nice if

    影響的總結。要是能夠

  • put consumers alone room and watch them

    將消費者放到一個獨立的房間然後盯著他們

  • go through this process. Unfortunately

    經歷整個過程該有多好。不幸地

  • for marketers consumers go through this process

    對於行銷者來說,消費者消費的過程

  • in a complex world with a variety of external influences.

    是處在一個複雜環境當中有著許多不同的外部影響因子存在

  • We can group those external influences

    我們可以將這些外部影響因子分類為

  • as situational, psychological

    情境式的、心理層面的

  • and sociocultural. take a look at these three categories

    以及社會文化層面的。來看看這三個外部影響因子的類別

  • at external influences on consumer decision-making

    對於消費者決策個別的

  • one by one. First of all

    影響為何。首先

  • situational influences. What are the physical surroundings

    情境的影響。消費者在購物時或者

  • like that the consumer is in when they're purchasing a product

    考慮要購物時

  • or considering purchase? For example look at

    所處的物理環境是怎麼樣的?舉例來說

  • how mcdonald's has changed its physical surrounding

    看麥當勞是如何改變它們的物理環境

  • from being a playground in primary colors

    從一個由它們商標的主要配色構成的遊樂場

  • to more cafe Starbucks competitors sort

    變成更類似星巴克那種競爭者的

  • of product. Big change in the physical surroundings

    產品面相。這是一個很大的物理環境的

  • there. Some people will choose

    改變。有些人會選擇

  • not to shop at Walmart simply because they do not like the physical surrounding

    不去沃爾瑪消費就僅僅因為他們不喜歡那裏的物理環境

  • there. Another major situational influence

    另一個主要的情境影響因素是

  • is social surrounding. What about the

    所處的社會環境脈絡。比如說

  • salespeople at a particular store? Have you ever shopped at a particular store

    某店內銷售人員的狀態、形象等如何?你是否曾經去某個特定的

  • because you liked

    店裡消費

  • salesperson there or did not shop at this store

    因為你喜歡那的銷售人員或者

  • because you didn't like the people who were in that particular setting?

    在某個特定情境下因為不喜歡那裏的人而選擇不消費呢?

  • Another situational

    另一個情境因素

  • influence is time. How much time a consumer has to go through

    是時間因素。消費者需要花多少時間

  • researching that process and also

    去研究購物的流程以及

  • what time day, week, or year it is.

    同時在一年、一週、一天裡的哪個時間點去做

  • For example certain products sell very well

    舉例而言,特定的商品在

  • in the second week of February because of

    二月的第二週會賣的相當好

  • Valentine's Day -- chocolate, lingerie,

    如巧克力、內衣

  • flowers, teddy bears -- all

    花束、泰迪熊等 ,因為是情人節

  • related to a situational influence.

    這些全都和情境影響因素有關

  • Another situational influence is the reason for purchase.

    另一個情境狀態影響因素是購買的理由

  • are you buying for yourself? Are you buying for a gift?

    你為了自己而買嗎?還是為了送禮而買?

  • If it is a gift, your how important is the person you're buying

    若是送禮,這個對象對你來說有多重要

  • for. Is their any risk involved in your purchase if you

    你如果因為買了這個禮物有多大的機會對方

  • make a wrong purchase? Another situational

    會不喜歡呢?另一個情境

  • influence the mode of the shopper. Some shoppers will buy more

    影響因素是購物者的購物模式。有些購物的人會

  • or less depending upon their mood and whether or not they like to shop.

    因為他們的心情而買更多或更少且不受他們對這家店的喜好如何影響

  • In addition to situational influences

    除了情境影響因素外

  • there are a number of psychological influences

    許多心理影響因素

  • on consumers as they go through this buying process. First of all

    在消費者購物進行的過程中扮演重要角色。首先

  • perception. perception

    是覺知。覺知

  • is our process of selecting all the

    是我們選擇接受的外界訊息和信號

  • signals and information that are going on outside of us.

    的過程

  • We can't possibly

    我們不可能

  • interpret everything that's happening in our marketing environment

    將所有在我們行銷環境中所發生的事情全盤接收

  • so we select and then

    所以我們會做選擇

  • organizing that information we select and

    然後組織者些我們所選擇的資訊

  • interpret that information. That process is the

    並且解讀這些資訊。這個過程

  • process of perception and we'll discuss that

    就是覺知過程,而我們將會探討更深入

  • more. Another psychological influence

    另一個心理影響因素

  • is motives or motivation. What's the internal

    是動機或驅力。影響我們行為的

  • force that affects our behavior

    內在動機是什麼

  • to listen to this particular lecture? My guess is

    讓我們專門來聽這堂課?我的猜測是

  • it was an assignment or you didn't understand a

    這可能是回家作業或者你對於

  • particular topic or you're trying to prepare for a quiz or a test.

    某個特定的主題不甚了解或者你要準備相關的考試

  • I'm guessing most of you aren't listening to this particular

    我猜你們中多數人並不是因為想要聽

  • lesson just because you wanted. There's probably

    而專門來上這堂課的。可能

  • some other driving force. Other psychological influences

    有些其他的驅動力在其中。這些心理影響因素

  • are learning, attitude, personality and

    是學習、態度、個性以及

  • self-concept and lifestyle. And look at the last four

    自我概念認知和生活型態。我們待會再看最後四個

  • later. Let's first take

    我們先來看第一個

  • at the first one -- perception.

    覺知

  • I mentioned earlier that we can't

    我們稍早之前提到過我們不可能

  • possibly perceive everything that's going on

    接收環境中所有的資訊

  • in our environment so we have a tendency to practice

    所以我們有所謂的選擇性接收的

  • what's called selective perception.

    傾向

  • Since we can't see everything we see what we think is important

    是因為我們無法看見所有我們認為重要的事情

  • or what currently supports our points of view.

    或者目前支持我們的看法的事物是什麼

  • For example in this Fed Ex logo which I think you've seen

    舉個例來說在 Fed Ex 的 logo

  • many times, how many see an arrow

    我假設你看過許多次了,你們其中有幾個人每次都看見

  • regularly? Or do you never process that?

    有個箭頭在裡面?或者你從來沒看見過?

  • are you saying what arrow? This arrow right here.

    你在問說什麼箭頭嗎?就是這裡這個箭頭

  • my guess is now that the arrow's been pointed

    我的猜測是假使你之前從沒發覺

  • out to you,every time you will see the Fed Ex logo

    而現在這個箭頭被我點出來

  • you are now notice it when previously you didn't.

    從今以後你看見Fed Ex 的 logo都會看見它

  • What about this image? What do you see?

    那這張圖片呢?你看見了什麼?

  • do you see a young man lady

    有看到一個年輕女子

  • or an old woman?

    或者一個老女人呢?

  • If you're seeing a young lady, this is her hair

    如果你看到的是年輕女子,這就會是她的頭髮

  • with her hat.

    這是她的帽子

  • Here's her eyes, her nose, her ear.

    這是她眼睛、鼻子、耳朵

  • On her chin on the right side

    在她頭的右側

  • her necklace and her

    有她的項鍊和她穿戴的

  • fur. If you're seeing an older lady,

    毛皮。你若看見的是一個老女人

  • this is her hair. This is her

    這就是她的頭髮。這是

  • bonnet.

    她的無邊帽

  • This is her nose.

    她的鼻子

  • what the other person's necklace is the older person's mouth.

    另一個人的項鍊會是這個老人的嘴巴

  • what was the other person's

    另一個人的頸線

  • neckline is her chin.

    會是她的下巴

  • And again this is her fur. So it's

    而這是她穿戴的毛皮。所以

  • interesting that sometimes we

    有趣的是我們有時

  • see what we want to see or hear what we want to hear.

    只會看到我們想看到的或只聽我們想聽的

  • And so if you have a particular perception

    而所以你若對一個商品或服務

  • about a product or service -- even

    有特定的覺知,要不是

  • a marketer tells you otherwise --

    一個行銷人員告訴你否則

  • you don't perceive it that way because we all tend to hear

    你根本沒覺知道他所說的那個樣子,因為我們全都傾向

  • things that support our personal

    聽見那些與我們個人信仰和覺知

  • beliefs and perception. That's why

    所相符的話。這也就是為什麼

  • we'll talk later about how we can go about changing

    我們之後會談到身為行銷人員

  • people's attitudes and perception

    我們如何去改變

  • as marketers. So we practice

    人們的態度和覺知。所以我們會做出

  • selective perception because we can't possibly

    選擇性接收因為我們不可能

  • perceive everything that's going on in our environment

    將環境中發生的所有事情都全盤接收

  • because we tend to hear things that support our own beliefs

    也因我們傾向去聽見那些與我們個人信仰相符和的事情

  • and not hear or pay attention to

    而不去聽或者注意

  • things that don't support their views.

    那些與我們觀點不符合的事情

  • this affects marketers when they're trying to convince you

    這會影響到行銷人員在試圖說服你

  • to buy their products and services.

    去購買他們的產品和服務時的結果

  • Let's talk next a little bit about motivation.

    接下來談一點關於動機的議題

  • there's a website for reference there. probably one of the most

    這裡有個可以參考的網站。可能是

  • well recognized theories on

    最被接受的其中一個動機理論

  • motivation is based upon Abraham

    那就是 Abraham Maslow的

  • Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    需求層級理論

  • He said that people are motivated by

    他陳述人們在不同時間點

  • different things at different times and so we can't motivate

    被不同的事物驅動著,所以我們不能夠

  • all people by the same technique.

    用同樣的技巧對所有的人引起動機

  • He says that the most basic level of need

    他說最基礎的需求階層是

  • in physiological. note -- that's not

    生理上的。注意 -- 不是

  • psychological. at the beginning it's like physical --

    心理上的。最初是由身體上

  • physiological needs are our most basic needs.

    生理需求為我們最基礎的需求

  • Needs for food,

    對食物的需要

  • water, shelter,

    對水、遮蔽處

  • basic clothing. Once our physical

    基本衣物的需要。一旦我們的身體需求

  • have been met they no longer

    被滿足之後

  • serve to motivate us and then

    就不再對我們有驅動力

  • move to a higher level of motivation

    然後我們就會移動到更高一層動的機階層

  • and is for safety. Once we feel

    就是對於安全感的需求,一旦我們滿足了

  • our physical needs met and we're safe,

    身體上的需求且我們感到安全後

  • we will then reach out trying to connect with other people.

    我們就會去試著與其他人做連結

  • You can understand most how someone who doesn't

    你能夠很清楚地了解為何某人

  • feel safe won't be reaching out to connect with other people.

    為何因為感覺不安而不去與他人有交集

  • Next after we connect with other people

    在我們與他人產生連結之後,下一個

  • our feeling about ourselves --

    我們會對自己產生一些感覺

  • our self-esteem -- is our next

    也就是我們的自尊感

  • and then at the very end -- self

    最後最後,就是自我

  • actualization -- being all we were created to be. if

    的實現,成就我們所有能達成的成就。如果

  • you think about college-- for example--

    你想要上大學,舉例來說

  • that's trying to market itself to a consumer

    就是嘗試去行銷某人自己給一個消費者

  • or perhaps to you, they might tell you that the reason to attend their

    或者也許是對你自己,他們可能會告訴你到他們

  • college is so that you can better provide

    大學就讀的原因是這樣你就能夠

  • for your physical needs. They might also say

    滿足於你對物質生活的需求。他們可能也會說

  • the reason to attend college is to provide

    加入他們大學的原因是要提供你

  • job security or safety within your job.

    未來就業的保障或者你在工作中的勝任感

  • They might say the reason to attend

    他們也許會說去就讀的原因是

  • college is to meet other people

    去與各式各樣的人交朋友,

  • and connected with other people in your age.

    與你同齡的人們認識、交往

  • Another reason to attend college would be to

    另一個去就讀的原因會是

  • feel good about yourself and her skills and

    讓你對自己感到更優越且對自己的技術和

  • abilities -- your own self-esteem. Another reason to attend college

    能力感到滿意,也就是滿足你的自尊感。另一個就讀的原因是

  • the highest level of need -- would be to be all that you can be.

    最高層次的需求,就是達成所有你能達成的

  • so the question is -- what motivates you to learn

    問題來了,你去就讀或者去大學學習的

  • or attend college? What level of need

    動機其實是什麼?是在需求理論中的

  • is there? We discussed one product

    哪一層?我們討論過一個產品

  • that might market itself at all different levels

    可能會對處在不同需求層級的人們

  • of needs. But we could also discuss

    行銷它自己,但是我們可能也討論

  • products designed for each level.

    過如何針對每個層級設計產品

  • Obviously most basic foods are designed to meet

    明顯地很多基本的食物都被設計符合

  • physiological. While security systems,

    生理需求,而對於安全感的層級

  • funeral planning, insurance is designed to meet

    葬禮規劃、保險都是針對這個安全層級來

  • safety needs. Events

    設計地。在你能夠遇到其他人的

  • or places where you can meet other people

    事件活動或地點場合

  • are designed and marketed to meet social needs.

    就是針對滿足社交需求行銷來設計地

  • Some again, motivation is a huge

    所以再次說明,動機對於那些經歷消費者決策過程的人們而言

  • psychological influence on people as they go through the consumer decision-making

    是一個強大的心理影響因素

  • process. Let's look at other psychological

    讓我們來看除了動機和覺知以外

  • influences besides perception and motives.

    其他的心理影響因素

  • Let's think about learning. we learn

    我們來看看學習。我們透過

  • through thinking or through behaviors.

    思考或行為來學習

  • If we try a product several times and we

    如果我們試用某個產品幾次之後我們

  • like it we might become what is called

    喜歡它的話,我們可能會

  • brand loyal. So brand loyalty

    形成所謂的品牌忠誠。所以品牌忠誠度

  • is a learned behavior. On flip side,

    是一種學習而來的行為。另一方面

  • we might try a product and not like it and

    我們可能試過某個產品但不喜歡它

  • and therefore we have learned that we do

    因此我們可能會因此得知

  • like that particular

    我們其實喜歡某個其他特定的

  • product. One of the biggest challenges marketers face

    產品。對於行銷人員來說

  • is people attitudes toward brand

    他們所面臨的其中一個最具挑戰性的工作是

  • or object -- their individual evaluation

    人們對於品牌或物品的態度,或說他們對於

  • of a brand or object. And a lot of that is based

    一個品牌或物件的個人評價。而那大部分是基於

  • on their perception. Some might say

    他們對這些東西的覺知。有些人會說

  • when you're talking to consumers perception

    當你談論到消費者覺知時

  • is reality to them. In other words

    其實是在談論關於消費者看見的事實。換句話說

  • if they perceive your brand that way it is

    如果他們覺得你的品牌是這樣

  • that way whether it is or not --

    不論這個品牌在你眼裡是不是那樣

  • unless we can change their attitude

    除非我們能夠改變他們的態度

  • or their perception. So let's look at some ways

    或覺知,不然其實我們怎麼想不重要。所以讓我們來看

  • we can change people's attitudes.

    一些我們能夠改變人們態度的方法

  • One-way would be to take a negative attribute

    有個方法可能會將負面的態度

  • and turn it into a positive one.

    轉化成正面的

  • Maybe a negative attribute might be

    也許這個負面的態度是關於

  • that your local community college

    你的當地社區大學

  • doesn't offer the ability to his participate

    並沒有提供類似

  • on collegiate athletic teams.

    大學運動員的隊伍

  • we could take that negative attribute and

    我們可以針對那個負面的影響

  • say that if you intend that local community college

    告訴大眾說你若來就讀當地社區大學

  • you'll be focused on learning activities

    你能夠得到非常集中的學習活動

  • that help you get a job/career and

    可以幫助你找到工作或發展職業生涯且

  • you won't have those distractions and you don't have to pay

    你不會有那些讓你分心的事情且你不用負擔

  • to support collegiate athletics when that's not really

    那些運動員隊伍的支出

  • why you go to college. Another way

    那些並不是你就讀大學的原因。另一個改變態度的方法

  • to change attitude is to capitalize

    是將

  • on a positive attribute. Perhaps

    正向的特質資產化。也許

  • your college has a positive

    你的大學有好的

  • attributes like small class

    特質像是小班制

  • sizes but maybe people don't realize how important that is.

    但也許人們不知道擁有較小人數的上課環境有和重要性

  • So what you could do would be to emphasize how importance it is to

    所以你要做的可能就是去強調

  • learn in environment where your professors know your name and

    在你的教授能叫出你的名字、與你溝通和關心你

  • and communicating and care about you. And all of a sudden

    的環境中學習有多重要。突然間

  • people realize the importance of

    人們了解到這個特質

  • that particular attribute.

    的重要性在哪

  • You might also add a new attribute. Maybe there's a new major

    你也許也會加入新的特質。也許是有個大家都很感興趣的

  • or program you hadn't previously offered that

    新的科系開設或者新的課程

  • people are very interesting in. You might add that attribute.

    但是是之前沒有提供的。你也許會加入那種特質

  • you might also change their belief

    你也可能會改變

  • about an existing attribute -- similar to what we talked about

    他們對於目前存有的特質的看法,根我們之前談的有點

  • before -- turning a negative attribute into a positive one. but it

    類似,將不好的特質轉換成好的。但要改變的對象

  • doesn't even have to be negative.

    也不一定要是不好的特質

  • It might be an attribute they just don't realize how

    也可以是他們不了解其

  • important that attribute is. So

    重要性的那種特質。所以

  • what we discussed here in the importance of

    我們這裡討論的是

  • consumers attitudes on going through that consumer decision-making process

    消費者經歷所謂消費者購買決策過程中的

  • of problem recognition, information search,

    問題認知、資訊蒐集

  • evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and post-purchase evaluation

    選擇評估、購買以及售後評價

  • and how we can affect

    和我們如何能夠

  • their attitudes. Additionally

    影響他們的態度的重要性。此外

  • a person's personality -- their consistent response to a situation --

    一個人的個性,他們各自對一個情況的習慣反應

  • some people might respond to a situation one-way

    有些人可能會對一個情況做出一種回應

  • and other another, another way.

    另一些做出另一種反應等等

  • People buy products that support

    人們會購買跟他們

  • their personality.Tthey wouldn't be caught wearing

    性格相符的產品。他們不會被發現穿著

  • particular type of clothing or using a

    特定類型的衣服或者使用

  • particular brand or drinking particular beverage

    一個特定品牌或著喝著某個特定的飲料

  • because it doesn't match their personality.

    因為那樣不符合他們的個性所致

  • Occasionally people buy a product or service

    偶而人會買一項產品或服務

  • to support an area of their personality that