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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    很久以前,世界就像是一個大且運作不良的家庭。

  • Once upon a time, the world was a big, dysfunctional family.

    由一對強而有力的父母經營,

  • It was run by the great and powerful parents,

    而人們是無助

  • and the people were helpless

    且不懷抱希望的調皮小孩。

  • and hopeless naughty children.

    如果有比較吵鬧的小孩

  • If any of the more rowdier children questioned

    質疑父母的權威,他們會被責罵。

  • the authority of the parents, they were scolded.

    如果他們跑到父母的房間裡探險,

  • If they went exploring into the parents' rooms,

    或者甚至跑到隱密的檔案室內,他們會被處罰,

  • or even into the secret filing cabinets, they were punished,

    且被提醒為了他們好,

  • and told that for their own good

    他們絕對不能再走進去。

  • they must never go in there again.

    有一天,一個男人到鎮上來,

  • Then one day, a man came to town

    帶著從父母的房間裡偷來的

  • with boxes and boxes of secret documents

    裝著秘密檔案的好幾個箱子。

  • stolen from the parents' rooms.

    「看他們一直對你們隱瞞的是什麼」他說。

  • "Look what they've been hiding from you," he said.

    小孩們看了感到很驚奇。

  • The children looked and were amazed.

    這些是他們父母彼此怒罵過程的

  • There were maps and minutes from meetings

    圖像和會議記錄。

  • where the parents were slagging each other off.

    他們的舉止就像小孩。

  • They behaved just like the children.

    而且他們也會犯錯,就像小孩一樣。

  • And they made mistakes, too, just like the children.

    唯一的差異是,他們的錯誤

  • The only difference was, their mistakes

    放在秘密資料庫內。

  • were in the secret filing cabinets.

    鎮上有一個女孩,她不認為

  • Well, there was a girl in the town, and she didn't think

    這些資料應該放在秘密資料庫內,

  • they should be in the secret filing cabinets,

    就算放在那裡,應該要有條法律

  • or if they were, there ought to be a law

    允許小孩們能取得資料。

  • to allow the children access.

    所以她打算要這麼做。

  • And so she set about to make it so.

    我就是故事中的女孩,而我感興趣的秘密文件

  • Well, I'm the girl in that story, and the secret documents

    就位於這座建築物中,

  • that I was interested in were located in this building,

    也就是英國國會大廈,我要取得的資料

  • the British Parliament, and the data that I wanted

    是國會議員的

  • to get my hands on were the expense receipts

    開支收據。

  • of members of Parliament.

    我想這是民主社會中要問的基本問題。(掌聲)

  • I thought this was a basic question to ask in a democracy. (Applause)

    我不是在問核子避難所的密碼,

  • It wasn't like I was asking for the code to a nuclear bunker,

    或者那類的事情,但我出自於尋求資訊的自由

  • or anything like that, but the amount of resistance I got

    而遭遇到的種種阻力

  • from this Freedom of Information request,

    會讓人以為我在問那種機密的問題。

  • you would have thought I'd asked something like this.

    於是我花了大概五年在爭取,

  • So I fought for about five years doing this,

    而這只是我所提的好幾百個請求中的一個。

  • and it was one of many hundreds of requests that I made,

    事實上,我的本意不是要

  • not -- I didn't -- Hey, look, I didn't set out, honestly,

    徹底改革英國國會。

  • to revolutionize the British Parliament.

    那不是我的原本企圖,我只是為我第一本書的研究

  • That was not my intention. I was just making these requests

    提了這些請求。

  • as part of research for my first book.

    但卻演變成冗長,拖延的法律戰,

  • But it ended up in this very long, protracted legal battle

    於是過了五年跟國會抗戰後

  • and there I was after five years fighting against Parliament

    我站在英國最有名望的三位高等法院法官前,

  • in front of three of Britain's most eminent High Court judges

    等待他們裁定國會是否必須釋出這些資料。

  • waiting for their ruling about whether or not Parliament had to release this data.

    我必須誠實以告,當時我沒抱什麼希望。

  • And I've got to tell you, I wasn't that hopeful,

    因為我已經見識過這些機關組織。我心想,

  • because I'd seen the establishment. I thought,

    他們會聯合起來。我沒那麼幸運。

  • it always sticks together. I am out of luck.

    猜猜看?我贏了。萬歲。(掌聲)

  • Well, guess what? I won. Hooray. (Applause)

    但故事不是到此結束,因為問題是

  • Well, that's not exactly the story, because the problem was

    國會一再拖延釋出資料的時間,

  • that Parliament delayed and delayed releasing that data,

    接著他們試著回顧性地改變法律

  • and then they tried to retrospectively change the law

    以致於法律不適用於他們。

  • so that it would no longer apply to them.

    他們較早前通過的透明法適用於其他所有人,

  • The transparency law they'd passed earlier that applied to everybody else,

    但他們試著保存這法律以致於他們能置身事外。

  • they tried to keep it so it didn't apply to them.

    他們沒想到的是數位化,

  • What they hadn't counted on was digitization,

    因為這代表著所有紙張收據

  • because that meant that all those paper receipts

    都經過電子掃描存檔,於是若有人要

  • had been scanned in electronically, and it was very easy

    複製整個資料檔,這是易如反掌的事,

  • for somebody to just copy that entire database,

    插入一個磁碟,資料就流到國會外了,

  • put it on a disk, and then just saunter outside of Parliament,

    有人確實這麼做了,接著他們將磁碟

  • which they did, and then they shopped that disk

    賣給出價最高的競標者,也就是《每日電訊報》,

  • to the highest bidder, which was the Daily Telegraph,

    於是,你也都記得,接下來持續好幾周的披露,

  • and then, you all remember, there was weeks and weeks

    什麼都有,從色情電影

  • of revelations, everything from porn movies

    浴缸塞和新的廚房

  • and bath plugs and new kitchens

    還有從來沒有付清的貸款。

  • and mortgages that had never been paid off.

    結果是六個大臣辭職,

  • The end result was six ministers resigned,

    300年以來,第一個下議院議長被強迫辭職,

  • the first speaker of the house in 300 years was forced to resign,

    根據透明化的指令,一個新政府被推選成立了,

  • a new government was elected on a mandate of transparency,

    120個國會議員在此選舉中下台,

  • 120 MPs stepped down at that election,

    截至目前為止,四個國會議員和兩個上議院議員

  • and so far, four MPs and two lords

    因詐欺被而坐牢。

  • have done jail time for fraud.

    謝謝。(掌聲)

  • So, thank you. (Applause)

    我講這個故事是因為這並不只發生在英國。

  • Well, I tell you that story because it wasn't unique to Britain.

    這是文化衝突的例子,

  • It was an example of a culture clash that's happening

    發生在全世界戴假髮和穿襪子的官員身上,

  • all over the world between bewigged and bestockinged

    他們認為他們可以統治我們

  • officials who think that they can rule over us

    而不用受到大眾的窺探,

  • without very much prying from the public,

    接著突然間受到不滿於此種安排的

  • and then suddenly confronted with a public

    社會大眾對質,

  • who is no longer content with that arrangement,

    社會大眾不只是不滿足現狀,更常見地,

  • and not only not content with it, now, more often,

    還有官方資料當靠山。

  • armed with official data itself.

    於是我們進入資訊民主化的時代,

  • So we are moving to this democratization of information,

    而我已經在這領域有一段時間。

  • and I've been in this field for quite a while.

    有點難為情的自白:當我還是個孩子的時候,

  • Slightly embarrassing admission: Even when I was a kid,

    我有小本的間諜筆記本,我所做的是

  • I used to have these little spy books, and I would, like,

    看在我家附近每個人在做什麼,記錄下來。

  • see what everybody was doing in my neighborhood and log it down.

    我想那是我未來選擇

  • I think that was a pretty good indication

    作為一個調查型記者的好指標,

  • about my future career as an investigative journalist,

    而我在這個要取得資訊的領域待了這麼久,所看到的是

  • and what I've seen from being in this access to information field for so long

    過去大家為的是利基利益,

  • is that it used to be quite a niche interest,

    現在這已經成為主流。全世界裡,愈來愈多人

  • and it's gone mainstream. Everybody, increasingly, around the world,

    想要知道有權力的人在做什麼。

  • wants to know about what people in power are doing.

    對於以他們之名和花他們金錢下所做的決定, 他們有權表達意見。

  • They want a say in decisions that are made in their name

    我認為資訊民主化

  • and with their money. It's this democratization of information

    就像是資訊的啟蒙期,

  • that I think is an information enlightenment,

    它跟第一個啟蒙時代有很多相同的原則。

  • and it has many of the same principles of the first Enlightenment.

    都是要尋找真相,

  • It's about searching for the truth,

    不是因為有人說那是真的,「因為我這麼說。」

  • not because somebody says it's true, "because I say so."

    不是的,而是根據你所看到的,

  • No, it's about trying to find the truth based on

    還有可以被驗證的,來試圖找出真相。

  • what you can see and what can be tested.

    在第一個啟蒙時代,這點引發種種問題,

  • That, in the first Enlightenment, led to questions about

    像是國王的權利,國王統治人民的神聖正當性,

  • the right of kings, the divine right of kings to rule over people,

    或者女性應該順從男性,

  • or that women should be subordinate to men,

    或者教會是上帝的官方語言。

  • or that the Church was the official word of God.

    顯然教會不樂見此情形,

  • Obviously the Church weren't very happy about this,

    於是他們試著壓制它,

  • and they tried to suppress it,

    但他們沒想到的是科技,

  • but what they hadn't counted on was technology,

    接著報紙印刷出現了,

  • and then they had the printing press, which suddenly

    突然間這些想法可以很便宜地散播出去,又遠又快,

  • enabled these ideas to spread cheaply, far and fast,

    於是人們會聚集在咖啡店,

  • and people would come together in coffee houses,

    討論這些想法,策畫革命。

  • discuss the ideas, plot revolution.

    在我們的時代,我們有數位化。 刪減了資訊的實體體積,

  • In our day, we have digitization. That strips all the physical mass out of information,

    所以現在複製和分享資訊幾乎是不需要成本的。

  • so now it's almost zero cost to copy and share information.

    我們的報紙印刷是網際網路, 我們的咖啡店是社群網路。

  • Our printing press is the Internet. Our coffee houses are social networks.

    我們進入我所認為的一個完整連接的系統,

  • We're moving to what I would think of as a fully connected system,

    在這個系統內,我們可以作全球的決定,

  • and we have global decisions to make in this system,

    關於氣候、關於財政系統、

  • decisions about climate, about finance systems,

    關於資源等的決定。仔細想想 --

  • about resources. And think about it --

    如果我們要做買房子的重大決定,

  • if we want to make an important decision about buying a house,

    我們不會一次決定。我不清楚你們會怎麼做,

  • we don't just go off. I mean, I don't know about you,

    但在我花了這麼多錢之前,我會去看很多房子。

  • but I want to see a lot of houses before I put that much money into it.

    如果我們想到一個財政系統,

  • And if we're thinking about a finance system,

    我們需要吸收很多的資訊。

  • we need a lot of information to take in. It's just not possible

    一個人不可能吸收這麼大量的資訊,

  • for one person to take in the amount, the volume

    進行分析而下對決定。

  • of information, and analyze it to make good decisions.

    這也是為什麼我們可看到日漸增加的

  • So that's why we're seeing increasingly this demand

    取得資訊的需求。

  • for access to information.

    這也是為什麼我們開始看到愈來愈多的

  • That's why we're starting to see more disclosure laws

    揭露法出現,舉例來說,在環境方面,

  • come out, so for example, on the environment,

    有奧胡斯公約,

  • there's the Aarhus Convention,

    這是一個歐洲的指令,賦予人們強烈的

  • which is a European directive that gives people

    可得知的權力,於是如果你的自來水公司

  • a very strong right to know, so if your water company

    將汙水排放到你的河流裡,

  • is dumping water into your river, sewage water

    你有知道的權力。

  • into your river, you have a right to know about it.

    在金融業裡,你絕對有權力

  • In the finance industry, you now have more of a right

    知道目前發生什麼事,於是我們有

  • to know about what's going on, so we have

    不同的反賄絡法,金錢管制,

  • different anti-bribery laws, money regulations,

    增加的企業揭露,所以現在你可以跨界追蹤資產。

  • increased corporate disclosure, so you can now track assets across borders.

    而且要隱藏資產,避稅,支付不平等工資都日漸困難。

  • And it's getting harder to hide assets, tax avoidance,

    這很棒。我們正開始要在這些系統中

  • pay inequality. So that's great. We're starting to find out

    挖掘愈來愈多的東西。

  • more and more about these systems.

    而且這些都往中央系統移動,

  • And they're all moving to this central system,

    這個完全連接的系統,

  • this fully connected system,

    只缺了一個就完整了。你猜得到是哪一個嗎?

  • all of them except one. Can you guess which one?

    它是所有其它的系統的基礎。

  • It's the system which underpins all these other systems.

    是我們組織且操用權力的根據,

  • It's the system by which we organize and exercise power,

    我指的是政治,因為在政治方面,

  • and there I'm talking about politics, because in politics,

    我們回歸到這個系統,這個綜合的等級制度。

  • we're back to this system, this top-down hierarchy.

    於是需要在此系統中的大量資訊,

  • And how is it possible that the volume of information

    怎麼有可能會被分析呢?

  • can be processed that needs to in this system?

    嗯,答案就是不可能。就是如此。

  • Well, it just can't. That's it.

    我認為這是大量隱藏在我們現有不同政府的

  • And I think this is largely what's behind the crisis

    合法性的危機底下。

  • of legitimacy in our different governments right now.

    我已經跟你們分享一些我做過的事,

  • So I've told you a bit about what I did

    無所不用其極地想把國會帶進

  • to try and drag Parliament, kicking and screaming,

    21世紀,我要再說兩個

  • into the 21st century, and I'm just going to give you

    其他我認識的人正在做的事

  • a couple of examples of what a few other people I know

    的例子。

  • are doing.

    有的名叫 Seb Bacon 的人。他是個電腦程式

  • So this is a guy called Seb Bacon. He's a computer

    設計師,他架了一個叫做 Alaveteli 的網站,

  • programmer, and he built a site called Alaveteli,

    這網站是一個資訊自由的平台。

  • and what it is, it's a Freedom of Information platform.

    它是開放原始碼的,有文件資料,

  • It's open-source, with documentation, and it allows you

    且允許人們提出資訊自由的請求,

  • to make a Freedom of Information request,

    詢問相關大眾一個問題,

  • to ask your public body a question, so

    它把所有的麻煩都刪去,我跟你保證