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  • Hey, Vsauce Michael here, and a couple of weeks ago,

    嘿,我是維薩斯・麥可。幾個禮拜前

  • Vice's new channel Noisey blind folded me,

    Vice的新頻道Noisey,將我還有

  • the Gregory Brothers, about 200 other people,

    果戈里兄弟、以及其他兩百個人

  • and then bused us to a hidden skrillex show.

    蒙著眼,帶去一場搖滾DJ史克雷奇斯的地下秀

  • It was cool, but what is cool?

    很酷,但"酷"是甚麼呢?

  • I mean, what does it mean to be cool?

    我的意思是,"感覺很酷"是怎麼樣的?

  • Cool is a judgement of taste.

    "酷"這個詞用來評論品味

  • People who are cool are with it.

    很酷的人通常都很有品味

  • They exhibit a style people want to emulate, they're fashionable.

    因為他們很時尚,所以大家都想效仿他們的風格

  • But being cool isn't just about confidence or being above the situation.

    但被說"酷",不只是因為有自信或是像剛剛我所提到的那樣而已

  • In fact, what is considered cool changes all the time.

    其實,"酷"的概念隨著時代而變

  • Here's a fantastic illustration charting

    這裡有張很棒的圖表

  • by time and location what was generally considered cool.

    用來表示整體而言在不同時間和地點,人們對甚麼東西感到"酷"

  • To truly get the origin of what we today mean by cool,

    讓我們現在回到15世紀的西非

  • we're going to have to go back to West Africa in the 15th Century.

    一起來探討"酷"這個詞的的源起

  • The Yoruba language has a great word, itutu.

    約魯巴語有一個很棒的字: itutu

  • It means physical beauty, but also being calm

    它的意思是: 沉著平靜的身體之美

  • and detached from your circumstances,

    獨立於身處的環境

  • almost unnaturally so

    非常的不自然

  • in a superhuman kind of way.

    到了超乎常人的程度

  • And a similar, more specific term comes from the Italian concept of sprezzatura.

    義大利文中有個更具體描述這個概念的字: sprezzatura

  • This was a way of behaving favored by the wealthy upper class in 15th Century Italy.

    15世紀的義大利上流階級非常偏好這樣的行為舉止

  • And to exhibit this behavior,

    為了要能看起來

  • you wanted to act nonchalant, even if doing so would take a lot of work.

    無動於衷、冷漠的樣子,即使非常費力

  • You would hide your desires and emotions

    也要把自己的慾望跟情感隱藏起來

  • behind ironic detachment.

    以呈現出嘲諷式的脫俗感

  • But where can you see sprezzatura?

    但這樣哪裡是sprezzatura了?

  • Well, how about herethe Mona Lisa.

    看看這幅蒙娜麗莎

  • She doesn't laugh. She's exercising restraint.

    她不笑,而且非常自制

  • It almost feels like she's looking down on you, smugly.

    她看起來自視甚高,而且瞧不起觀賞她的人

  • Now, to make this more clear, let's take a look at a recent discovery, a painting,

    為了更清楚解釋"酷"的概念,來看看近期的一項發現

  • that used to be thought of as a copy of the Mona Lisa made years and years later.

    有一幅畫作,原本被認為是後世仿製蒙娜麗莎畫像的作品

  • Except, recent restoration has shown that the very same mistakes and corrections

    然而,最近修復畫作後發現

  • that DaVinci made on the original were also done on this painting,

    原作蒙娜麗莎上所有的錯誤跟修改,仿製品也全抄

  • leading restorers to believe that this painting

    修畫師認為仿作者在繪製這幅圖時

  • was made side by side with the actual Mona Lisa.

    肯定是把原作放在一旁對照著畫

  • Look at her expression.

    看看仿製圖裏蒙娜麗莎的表情

  • It's even more clear that she's looking at you like "Huh, really?"

    比原作的蒙娜麗莎更瞧不起人,像在對你說"哈! 是嗎?"

  • "You think you're cool. Okay."

    "你覺得你很酷啊? 隨你吧~"

  • Related is the Italian concept of omerta.

    有另一個類似意思的義大利文字: omerta

  • This is keeping your cool and not telling the authorities anything about anybody.

    指的是,保持"酷"的姿態,不向當權者告發任何人或報告任何事

  • It's the type of attitude you see in movies like Goodfellas or The Godfather.

    你能在"盜亦有道"或"教父"這類電影裡看到如此的行為態度

  • But our modern definition of cool

    但現在對於"酷"的定義

  • may most directly come from slaves

    大多數是來自於奴隸

  • and prisoners.

    還有囚犯

  • People in those positions are subjected to authority in a very direct way,

    處於這種狀況的人會完全的屈服於當權者

  • and any kind of rebellion against authority or fighting against it

    任何反抗或是對抗當權的行為

  • is most certainly going to be answered with nothing but punishment and very little chance of success.

    幾乎是難以成功,而且下場就是被懲處

  • And so instead, an attitude of ironic detachment is taken on,

    因此,做為替代,他們便會以嘲諷態度疏離現況

  • which allows you to distance yourself from that authority

    就能使自己和當權者疏離

  • to be away from it, against it without actively confronting it and getting in trouble.

    不但能疏離,同時又是以間接被動的方式反抗威權,而且也不會惹禍上身

  • Now, later on in the 1940s,

    之後,來到1940年代

  • the actual word cool began to stick to this attitude.

    "酷"這個詞開始和這種態度產生緊密連結

  • it came out of the smoke filled nightclubs

    這個詞來自當時的夜店

  • where jazz, beatnik, and bohemian culture thrived.

    夜店裏烏煙瘴氣,但也是爵士樂、嬉皮與放浪文化的溫床

  • The only way to freshen up that smoke filled air

    而唯一能讓整個夜店透透新鮮空氣的方法

  • was to open windows and let the cool

    就是打開窗戶

  • night air in.

    讓夜店在夜風的吹拂下"酷"涼一下

  • Saxophonist Lester Young is credited with making this connection

    讓"酷"和這個概念結合的人,是薩克斯風手Lester Young

  • and popularizing the use of the word cool,

    他也讓這個字廣為流傳

  • even cooler is the fact that Lester also popularized the use of the word bread

    更酷的是,Lester也讓"bread"這個字的使用普及化

  • to mean money. Well look at that, the sun has come out.

    用來表示"錢"的意思。看看窗外,太陽已經升起

  • That's cool. It also means that it's a good time to talk about the brain.

    很好,代表現在是談論腦的好時刻

  • Laurence Steinberg points out that there are systems in the brain that mature as we get older.

    Laurence Steinberg指出,腦內的系統隨著我們年紀漸長也會變得成熟

  • The first is the socioemotional network,

    首先就是腦內的社會性情緒網絡

  • and this deal with social and emotional inputs.

    負責處理社交與情緒方面的訊息

  • Second is the cognitive control network.

    再來是認知與控制的網絡

  • This deals with regulating behavior and making ultimate decisions.

    負責規範行為及下最終決定

  • But these two networks do not mature at the same rate.

    但以上兩種系統並非同步成熟

  • In fact, there's an awkward period in puberty and adolescence

    事實上,青春期都會有一段尷尬的時期

  • where the social emotional network in our brain

    當時我們腦內的社交情緒系統

  • is more active, and so, whether or not people

    正處於非常活躍的狀態,因此

  • think you are cool matters more to you

    你會非常非常在意

  • than is reasonable.

    周圍的人認為你酷不酷

  • So in a way, you could say that the less worried you are with

    就某方面來說,若是你比較不擔心自己酷不酷的話

  • being cool, the more developed your brain is.

    表示你的腦部發展比較成熟

  • Instead, focus on vocabulary.

    反之,多著重在你的語彙上吧

  • The only thing that doesn't change, the only coolness that doesn't fade

    因為唯一不會改變、永遠存在的

  • is coolthe word.

    就是"cool"這個字

  • Over the years, we have used all kinds of other words

    許多年來,我們用過不同的字

  • to mean cool, but the one that has never changed, the one that has always been cool to use

    來代表"酷",但唯一一個一直持續被使用,從未消失過的字

  • is cool.

    只有"cool"

  • And that's cool. Go check out that skrillex concert footage.

    真酷,去看看史克雷奇思演唱會影片吧

  • Noisey is the channel that uploaded that new MIA video

    Noisey頻道上傳了新的M.I.A影片

  • as well as MIAs responses to YouTube comments.

    也有M.I.A.的粉絲在下方留言

  • And according to this guy, fat people shouldn't be making music.

    而影片中這個人說,胖子不該做音樂

  • All I know is, as always, thanks for watching.

    嗯,總之,感謝您一直以來的收看

Hey, Vsauce Michael here, and a couple of weeks ago,

嘿,我是維薩斯・麥可。幾個禮拜前

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什麼是酷? (What is Cool?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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