字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Hello, My dear high school students. This course is to help you to conquer the most frequent 8000 English words in the top 20 University entrance exams in Japan. But first of all, you should learn 4 letter changing rules. With these 4 rules, you may use basic 1000 words to memorize the advanced 8000 words. Rule 1 : a, e, i, o, u, y so called the vowels, like a, i, u, e, o in Japanese. aeiouy are interchangeable to make similar words in a word family. Almost all the irregular forms of a verb go in this way. For example, sing, sang, sung. sink, sank, sunk. swim, swam, swum. As you can see, from the verb root to past tense and past participle, i- changes to a-, and to u-. Okay, a difficult one, simultaneously. This word appeared in the Osaka University entrance exam, 2013. If two things happen at the same time, we'll say they happen simultaneously. Simultaneously means same time. same time Same becomes simu-. a- e- in same is i- u- in simu-. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. The l- in the middle is useless. You may ignore it. And tane- is time. i- in time is a- in tane-. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. And n- and m- used to be the same thing in the ancient times. -ous is only a word end for adjective, which means much or a lot. Rule no. 2 g-k-c-, so called throat sounds, come from the throat. You see. Coming from your throat. g-k-c- are interchangeable to make similar words in a word family. For example, if someone walks like a snake, without making sound or being noticed, he sneaks. He sneaks. As you can see, a- in snake becomes ea- in sneak. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. And when a person sneaks into a country with illegal goods, he smuggles. From sneak comes smuggle. n- and m- are the same thing, as we just mentioned. ea- in sneak becomes u- in smuggle. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. And k- in sneak becomes g- in smuggle. g-k-, throat sounds, are interchangeable. Now, lets take a look at some words in the top 20 University entrance exams 2013. The first example is in University of Tokyo entrance exam 2013. Even if it has a lot of defects, the web still functions mechanically virtually the same way. The key word is virtually. Now let's find out the way to remember 'virtually.' First. Do you know the basic meaning of very? Well, 'very' means truly or actually. For example, I may say, 'She is very beautiful.' This means she is truly beautiful. So, from 'very' comes a word root, vir-/ver-, As you can see, i- and e- are interchangeable here. You don't have to distinguish them. Which means true. Therefore, virtually means truly or actually. The second example is in Waseda University entrance exam 2013. The sharp decline in bee queens may well have been caused by the sluggish growth of the pesticide-exposed nests as a whole. Sluggish is equal to slow. Therefore, you should choose (c) slow. Now, let's take a look at the way to remember 'sluggish.' In English, w- is often interchangeable with g-. For example, draw is equal to drag. Have you seen it? W- is equal to g-. Well, another two words. Tow is equal to tug. W- is also equal to g- in those two words. Another set. Guarantee is equal to warranty. Have you seen it? G- is equal to w-. Therefore, slug- in sluggish means slow. u- in slug- is o- in slow. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. And, g- in slug- is w- in slow. G-W-, they are interchangeable. And do't forget,-ish is a word end for adjective. But you got to remember such adjective is negative, is bad. For example, childish means something bad about a child. But childlike means something good about a child. Therefore, sluggish means bad slow. Not good slow. The third example is in Tohoku University entrance exam 2013. Well, the question is like this. Moreover, for all their culture and customs, they were, in many ways, parochial. Well, what's the meaning of parochial? 'Parochial' means having little knowledge. Therefore, you should choose answer (1). Well, how do we remember 'parochial'? When we speak of a pair, for example, a pair of glasses, or a pair of scissors, to cut. we know that two pieces of a pair must be near to each other. Side by side. So, from pair comes a root, par-, which means near. As you can see, ai- in pair is a- in par-. AEIOU, they are interchangeable. Well, par- is 'Close to each other.' Side by side. Well, the first word, parish. Parish is a very very small district with one small church, in this district. In other words, a parish is a very small area near your neighborhood, in your neighborhood, near your house. Don't forget 'near' here. Parochial is the adjective of parish, meaning small-minded. What a parochial person knows is his very little, very small parish only, instead of the whole world. He only sees his neighborhood. He doesn't see the whole world. The fourth example is in Keio University entrance exam 2013. The compelling success story, amply ____ over fifty photographs, is enlivened by sketches of notable politicians of the era. The correct answer is (3) illustrated with Therefore, you should choose (3). You should put 'illustrated with' into the blank. Now, let's take a look at the way to remember 'illustrate.' Have you used Lux Shampoo before? It makes your hair shine with light. Well, my wife likes Lux Shampoo. Lux means light in Greek. Lux is also a unit of lighting. From lux comes a word root, lus-, which means light. Luster is reflected light. When the sun shines on gold, beautiful luster will show up on the surface of gold. il- in illustrate is in-, which means inside. Well, you got to know when in- is followed by l-, in- should change into il-. Lustr- is luster. -ate is a word end for verb. So, illustrate means putting something into bright light, and making it look clear. To explain something is to make it clear. By the same token, there is an idiom, 'throw light on.' Well, what's the meaning of 'throw light on.' It also means 'explain' or 'illustrate.' You throw light on something, and make it clear, just like you explain something and make it clear.