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  • Rising temperatures and seas,

    上升的溫度及海平面

  • massive droughts,

    大規模的乾旱

  • changing landscapes.

    變化的地景

  • Successfully adapting to climate change is growing increasingly important.

    能成功適應氣候變遷 變得愈來愈重要

  • For humans, this means using our technological advancement

    對人類而言 這意味著用科技進步

  • to find solutions,

    去找答案

  • like smarter cities and better water management.

    例如更智慧化的都市 更好的水資源管理方法

  • But for some plants and animals,

    但是對某些動植物而言

  • adapting to these global changes involves the most ancient solution of all:

    適應這些全球性變化 要用最古老的解決方法:

  • evolution.

    演化

  • Evolutionary adaptation usually occurs along time scales of thousands

    演化適應通常要花上

  • to hundreds of thousands of years.

    數千到數十萬年的時間

  • But in cases where species are under especially strong selective conditions,

    但是如果物種 處在特別強的天擇條件下

  • like those caused by rapidly changing climates,

    如因快速變遷的氣候 引發的狀態

  • adaptive evolution can happen more quickly.

    適應演化可能更快速發生

  • In recent decades,

    最近幾十年

  • we've seen many plants,

    我們看到許多植物

  • animals,

    動物及昆蟲遷移

  • and insects relocating themselves

    改變自己的身體大小

  • and undergoing changes to their body sizes,

    及改變開花或交配時間

  • and the dates they flower or breed.

    但是這些改變易受外界影響

  • But many of these are plastic,

    或僅改變個體的身體性狀 而非遺傳性變化

  • or nonheritable changes to an individual's physical traits.

    而且生物改變自己的 生理機能

  • And there are limits to how much an organism can change its own physiology

    以適應環境的程度有限

  • to meet environmental requirements.

    這就是為什麼科學家要找出 因演化而改變

  • That's why scientists are seeking examples of evolutionary changes

    物種 DNA 密碼的例子 它們是能遺傳的、

  • coded in species' DNA that are heritable,

    維持長久

  • long-lasting,

    且是物種未來生存的關鍵

  • and may provide a key to their future.

    以灰林鴞為例

  • Take the tawny owl.

    如果 30 年前 你走在寒冷的北歐森林

  • If you were walking through a wintry forest in northern Europe 30 years ago,

    你大概會聽到而非看到

  • chances are you'd have heard, rather than seen,

    這種行蹤飄忽的鳥

  • this elusive bird.

    在雪白的背景下

  • Against the snowy backdrop,

    幾乎看不見牠的羽毛

  • its plumage would have been near impossible to spot.

    今天的地景已大不相同

  • Today, the landscape is vastly different.

    1980 年代起

  • Since the 1980s,

    氣候變遷造成降雪顯著減少

  • climate change has led to significantly less snowfall,

    不過你還是很難看到灰林鴞

  • but you'd still struggle to spot a tawny owl

    因為現在牠們是褐色的

  • because nowadays, they're brown.

    褐色羽毛變種是該物種的 顯性基因表型

  • The brown color variant is the genetically dominant form of plumage in this species,

    但是在歷史上

  • but historically,

    隱性淺灰色表型一度稱霸

  • the recessive pale gray variant triumphed

    因為其選擇優勢 幫助這種獵禽融入背景

  • because of its selective advantage in helping these predators blend in.

    然而積雪覆蓋大不如前 降低了偽裝的機會

  • However, less snow cover reduces opportunities for camouflage,

    所以最近 這種灰色表型

  • so lately, this gray color variant

    已經在天擇戰場上敗退

  • has been losing the battle against natural selection.

    另一方面 褐色表型的後代

  • The offspring of the brown color morphs, on the other hand,

    在無積雪的森林占優勢

  • have an advantage in exposed forests,

    所以褐色灰林鴞 今天極為昌盛

  • so brown tawny owls are flourishing today.

    還有幾種物種也在近幾十年

  • Several other species have undergone

    經歷類似的例子 適應氣候變遷

  • similar climate-change-adaptive genetic changes in recent decades.

    豬籠草蚊快速演化

  • Pitcher plant mosquitoes have rapidly evolved

    趁著氣溫愈來愈暖

  • to take advantage of the warmer temperatures,

    在一年中愈來愈晚 進入蟄伏期

  • entering dormancy later and later in the year.

    二點瓢蟲族群

  • Two spot ladybug populations,

    原本為黑色與非黑色 二種表型各占一半

  • once comprised of equal numbers of melanic and non-melanic morphs,

    現在已經變成幾乎全是 非黑色的組合

  • have now shifted almost entirely to the non-melanic color combination.

    科學家認為 這能保護它們不會過熱

  • Scientists think that keeps them from overheating.

    同時駝背大麻哈魚 已經能適應更溫暖的水

  • Meanwhile, pink salmon have adapted to warmer waters

    讓自己在產卵季更早產卵 以保護敏感的卵

  • by spawning earlier in the season to protect their sensitive eggs.

    歐洲野生百里香 產生更多的驅除油

  • And wild thyme plants in Europe are producing more repellent oils

    以保護自己 不為草食動物所食

  • to protect themselves against the herbivores

    此現象在氣候溫暖時 愈來愈普遍

  • that become more common when it's warm.

    這些動植物屬於一群 已知的 20 種物種

  • These plants and animals belong to a group of about 20 identified species

    對快速氣候變遷 有演化適應能力

  • with evolutionary adaptations to rapid climate change,

    包括玳瑁

  • including snapping turtles,

    木蛙

  • wood frogs,

  • knotweed,

    銀班弄蝶

  • and silver spotted skipper butterflies.

    然而科學家希望能從 地球上八百七十萬種物種內

  • However, scientists hope to discover more species evolving

    發現更多因應氣候變遷 而產生的物種演化

  • in response to climate change out of 8.7 million species on the planet.

    對地球上驚人和珍貴的 生物多樣性而言

  • For most of our planet's astounding and precious biodiversity,

    演化不是解答

  • evolution won't be the answer.

    許多物種反而必須靠我們

  • Instead, many of those species will have to rely on us

    幫助它們 在不斷變遷的世界生存

  • to help them survive a changing world

    不然就面臨絕種

  • or face extinction.

    好消息是我們已經有方法

  • The good news is we already have the tools.

    地球公民做出決定

  • Across the planet, we're making on-the-ground decisions

    要幫助整個生態系統適應

  • that will help entire ecosystems adapt.

    目前正在找出並保留 緊急氣候避難所

  • Critical climate refuges are being identified and set aside,

    也在進行各式計畫 幫助可移動的物種

  • and projects are underway to help mobile species

    遷移到更合適的氣候區

  • move to more suitable climates.

    現存的公園及保護區 也在做檢查

  • Existing parks and protected areas are also doing climate change check-ups

    幫助野生動植物 對抗氣候變遷

  • to help their wildlife cope.

    幸好這還在掌控下

  • Fortunately, it's still within our power

    我們還能保留大部分 地球上奇妙的生物多樣性

  • to preserve much of the wondrous biodiversity of this planet,

    畢竟這在許多方面 讓我們能永續生存

  • which, after all, sustains us in so many ways.

    翻譯:Regina Chu

Rising temperatures and seas,

上升的溫度及海平面

字幕與單字

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 物種 氣候 變遷 演化 地景

【TED-Ed】野生動物能適應氣候變化嗎?- 艾琳-伊斯特伍德 (【TED-Ed】Can wildlife adapt to climate change? - Erin Eastwood)

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    黃于珍 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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