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  • Among the great poets of literary history,

    文學史上偉大的詩人裡

  • certain names like Homer,

    有些名號,像是荷馬、

  • Shakespeare,

    莎士比亞、

  • Milton,

    彌爾頓、

  • and Whitman are instantly recognizable.

    和惠特曼,大家一聽立刻就知道是誰

  • However, there's an early 20th century great French poet

    但20世紀初期有一個偉大的法國詩人

  • whose name you may not know:

    你可能不知道他的名字:

  • Guillaume Apollinaire.

    紀堯姆·阿波利奈爾

  • He was a close friend and collaborator of artists

    他有一些很親近的藝術家朋友兼合作夥伴

  • like Picasso, Rousseau,

    像是畢卡索、盧梭、

  • and Chagall.

    和夏卡爾

  • He coined the term surrealism,

    他創造了「超現實主義」這個詞

  • and he was even suspected of stealing the Mona Lisa in 1911.

    他還是《蒙娜麗莎》1911年遭竊事件的犯罪嫌疑人

  • During his short lifetime,

    他在短暫的一生裡

  • he created poetry that combined text and image

    創作了詩集,把文字和影像揉合在一起

  • in a way that seemingly predicted an artistic revolution to come.

    這個創作方式,看似預測了即將到來的藝術革命

  • In the late 19th and early 20th century Paris,

    在19世紀晚期和20世紀初期巴黎

  • the low-rent districts of Montmartre and Montparnasse

    蒙馬特、蒙帕納斯的廉租地區 (註:免付稅金而物價低廉的巴黎郊區)

  • were home to every kind of starving artist.

    聚集了各種貧困的藝術家

  • It was all they could afford.

    他們只負擔得起這裡的生活

  • These painters, writers, and intellectuals, united

    這些畫家、作家和知識份子聚集在一起

  • in their artistic passion and counterculture beliefs,

    是因為懷抱著相同的藝術熱情,和反傳統文化信念

  • made up France's bohemian subculture.

    因此形成法國波希米亞式放蕩不羈的次文化

  • And their works of art, literature, and intellect would shake up the world.

    他們的藝術、文學作品和思想將顛覆整個世界

  • At the turn of the 20th century,

    在20世紀開始一開始

  • within this dynamic scene, art critic, poet, and champion of the avant-garde,

    活躍的時局之下,藝術評論、詩人,和前衛藝術運動的翹楚

  • Guillaume Apollinaire was a well-known fixture.

    紀堯姆·阿波利奈爾是其中不可或缺的著名角色

  • As an art critic, Apollinaire explained

    身為藝術評論家,阿波利奈爾向世界介紹了

  • the cubist and surrealist movements to the world,

    立體派和超現實主義運動

  • and rose to the defense of many young artists

    並挺身保護很多青年藝術家

  • in the face of what was often a xenophobic and narrow-minded public.

    幫助他們面對排外、思想狹隘的大眾

  • As a poet, Apollinaire was passionate about all forms of art

    身為詩人,阿波利奈爾熱衷各種藝術形式

  • and a connoisseur of medieval literature,

    他也是鑒賞中世紀文學的行家

  • especially calligraphy and illuminated initials.

    尤其是字體藝術和首字母裝飾藝術

  • As a visionary, Apollinaire saw a gap between two artistic institutions.

    做為有遠見的夢想家,阿波利奈爾看到兩種藝術體系之間的鴻溝

  • On one side was the popular, highly lauded traditional art forms of the time.

    一邊是受歡迎的、當時廣受好評傳統藝術形式

  • On the other, the forms of artistic expression made possible

    另一邊是藝術表現形式的可能性

  • through surrealism, cubism,

    包括超現實主義

  • and new inventions, like the cinema and the phonograph.

    和創新發明,例如電影和留聲機

  • Within that divide,

    處在分歧的兩者之間

  • through the creation of his most important contribution to poetry,

    透過他對詩歌的重要貢獻

  • the calligram,

    即「圖像詩」

  • Guillaume Apollinaire built a bridge.

    紀堯姆·阿波利奈爾搭起兩者之間的橋梁

  • Apollinaire created the calligram as a poem picture,

    阿波利奈爾創造圖像詩,也就是詩的形象描繪、

  • a written portrait,

    一幅書寫而成的畫像、

  • a thoughts drawing,

    思想的素描稿

  • and he used it to express his modernism

    他用圖像詩表達自己的現代思想

  • and his desire to push poetry beyond the normal bounds of text and verse

    他希望詩歌能超越原有的文字、詩韻規範

  • and into the 20th century.

    再進入20世紀

  • Some of his calligrams are funny,

    他做的圖像詩有些非常好玩

  • like the "Lettre-Océan."

    像是《文字海洋》(註:法文)

  • Some of them are dedicated to his young dead friends,

    有些獻給他幾個早逝的朋友

  • like "La Colombe Poignardée et le jet d'eau."

    像是《被刺傷的鴿子與噴泉》

  • Some of them are the expression of an emotional moment,

    有些詩,則用來表達感性時刻

  • as is "Il Pleut":

    例如《下雨》這首詩:

  • "It's raining women's voices as if they had died even in memory,

    「女子的聲音如雨下,彷彿在記憶中她們也已死去

  • and it's raining you as well, Marvellous encounters of my life,

    而你也如雨下,我生命中的奇遇,

  • o little drops.

    啊,那些點點滴滴

  • Those rearing clouds begin to neigh a whole universe of auricular cities.

    揚起的雲開始瀟瀟作響,整座城市在我耳邊

  • Listen if it rains while regret and disdain weep to an ancient music.

    你聽,是否下雨了,當遺憾和高傲把淚流成一首古調

  • Listen to the bonds fall off which hold you above and below."

    聽那墜落的聲音,將你繫在上與下之間」

  • Each calligram is intended to allow readers to unchain themselves

    每首圖像詩都有意要讓讀者從

  • from the regular experience of poetry,

    一般閱讀詩歌的經驗裡解脫

  • and feel and see something new.

    並感受到、看到不同的東西

  • "Lettre-Océan" is first an image to be seen before even the words are read.

    《文字海洋》這首詩是先看到圖像,才閱讀文字

  • Text-only elements combine with words in shapes and forms.

    只有「文字」這個元素,組成這些形狀和排列

  • Two circular forms, one locked in a square,

    有兩個圓形,一個放在方形裡

  • the other, morph beyond the page in the shape of a spiral.

    另一個以螺旋形旋轉開散

  • Together they create a picture that hints towards cubism.

    兩者創造出一個畫面,透露了立體派的線索

  • Then on closer reading of the text,

    那麼,再仔細地讀文字

  • the descriptive words within suggest

    裡面的描述讓人想起

  • the image of an aerial view of the Eiffel Tower.

    艾菲爾鐵塔的空照畫面

  • They give tribute to electromagnetic waves of the telegraph,

    是在向電報的電磁波致敬

  • a new form of communication at the time.

    電報在當時是一種新的通訊工具

  • Undoubtedly, the deeply layered artistic expressions in Apollinaire's calligrams

    毫無疑問的,阿波利奈爾的圖像詩裡,深刻且多層次的藝術表現

  • are not just a brilliant display of poetic prowess from a master of the form.

    不只展現這位表現形式大師,在詩的造詣上多麼才華橫溢

  • Each calligram itself is also a snapshot in time,

    每首圖像詩都是當時的縮影

  • encapsulating the passion, the excitement,

    捕捉了巴黎所有波希米亞式的藝術家的熱情、興奮

  • and the anticipation of all the bohemian artists of Paris,

    和期待的情感

  • including Apollinaire, most of whom are well ahead of their time,

    其中也包括這群藝術家當中,走在時代最前面的阿波利奈爾

  • and with their innovative work,

    以及他們的創新作品

  • eagerly grasping for the future.

    積極地掌握著未來

Among the great poets of literary history,

文學史上偉大的詩人裡

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 藝術 文字 詩人 藝術家 詩歌

【TED-Ed】用文字作畫的詩人--熱納維耶夫-艾米。 (【TED-Ed】The poet who painted with his words - Geneviève Emy)

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