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  • Have you ever wondered

    你有沒有想過

  • why extremism seems to have been on the rise in Muslim-majority countries

    為什麼在過去十年歷程在穆斯林佔多數的國家

  • over the course of the last decade?

    極端主義似乎有上升?

  • Have you ever wondered

    你有沒有想過

  • how such a situation can be turned around?

    這樣的情況如何可以翻轉?

  • Have you ever looked at the Arab uprisings

    你有沒有在看阿拉伯起義時

  • and thought, "How could we have predicted that?"

    想著: 「我們怎樣能預測這件事情呢?」

  • or "How could we have better prepared for that?"

    或「我們怎麼能更充分的準備呢?」

  • Well my personal story, my personal journey,

    那麼這是我個人的故事,我個人的旅程,

  • what brings me to the TED stage here today,

    是為什麼我今天在TED這裡,

  • is a demonstration of exactly what's been happening

    準確演示在在過去至少幾十年

  • in Muslim-majority countries

    或甚至更長時間內

  • over the course of the last decades, at least, and beyond.

    穆斯林佔多數的國家發生過什麼。

  • I want to share some of that story with you,

    我想與你分享一些故事,

  • but also some of my ideas around change

    並且也有一些我認為轉變的想法

  • and the role of social movements in creating change

    及社會運動對改變

  • in Muslim-majority societies.

    穆斯林佔多數社會的角色。

  • So let me begin

    如果我可以放任發揮,

  • by first of all giving a very, very brief history of time,

    讓我首先給你的一個

  • if I may indulge.

    非常非常濃縮的歷史簡介。

  • In medieval societies there were defined allegiances.

    在中世紀社會中忠誠是有定義的。

  • An identity was defined

    一個身份的定義

  • primarily by religion.

    主要是來自宗教。

  • And then we moved on into an era in the 19th century

    然後我們就進入在19世紀時代

  • with the rise of a European nation-state

    歐洲民族國家的身份

  • where identities and allegiances were defined

    和忠誠的定義

  • by ethnicity.

    是來自種族。

  • So identity was primarily defined by ethnicity,

    因此,種族主要是界定身份,

  • and the nation-state reflected that.

    而國家民族也反映如同。

  • In the age of globalization, we moved on.

    在全球化時代,我們繼續前行。

  • I call it the era of citizenship --

    我把它稱為公民的時代 --

  • where people could be from multi-racial, multi-ethnic backgrounds,

    人們可以從多種族化,多民族化的背景,

  • but all be equal as citizens

    但都被視為一個國家

  • in a state.

    的平等公民。

  • You could be American-Italian; you could be American-Irish;

    你可能是美國的意大利人,你可能是美國的愛爾蘭人,

  • you could be British-Pakistani.

    你可能是英國巴基斯坦人。

  • But I believe now

    但我相信現在

  • that we're moving into a new age,

    我們正在進入一個新的時代,

  • and that age The New York Times dubbed recently

    而且最近這個時代被紐約時報

  • as "the age of behavior."

    稱為「 行為的時代」。

  • How I define the age of behavior

    我如何定義行為的時代

  • is a period of transnational allegiances,

    是以一個跨國的忠誠準則,

  • where identity is defined more so

    其中身份的標定是指

  • by ideas and narratives.

    思想和敘事。

  • And these ideas and narratives that bump people across borders

    而這些越來越多的理念和敘事

  • are increasingly beginning to affect

    而簸動人們跨越國界開始影響

  • the way in which people behave.

    人們的行為。

  • Now this is not all necessarily good news,

    這並不一定是個好消息,

  • because it's also my belief

    因為我也相信,

  • that hatred has gone global

    仇恨跟愛一樣

  • just as much as love.

    已經全球化。

  • But actually it's my belief

    但實際上我是相信,

  • that the people who've been truly capitalizing on this age of behavior,

    已經真正把握這種行為的人,

  • up until now, up until recent times,

    到現在為止,直到近代,

  • up until the last six months,

    直到最近6個月,

  • the people who have been capitalizing most

    最能利用

  • on the age of behavior

    行為時代的人們

  • and the transnational allegiances,

    和跨國忠誠,

  • using digital activism

    用激進的數據化

  • and other sorts of borderless technologies,

    和其他各種無國界的技術,

  • those who've been benefiting from this

    那些已經從中受益的

  • have been extremists.

    是極端分子。

  • And that's something which I'd like to elaborate on.

    這便是我想闡述的東西。

  • If we look at Islamists,

    如果我們看一下伊斯蘭主義,

  • if we look at the phenomenon

    如果我們看一下

  • of far-right fascists,

    在極右翼法西斯的現象,

  • one thing they've been very good at,

    他們有一點已經很好,

  • one thing that they've actually been exceeding in,

    他們實際上已經超過這一點,

  • is communicating across borders,

    是跨越國界的通信,

  • using technologies to organize themselves,

    採用技術組織起來,

  • to propagate their message

    傳播他們的信息,

  • and to create truly global phenomena.

    並建立真正的全球性現象。

  • Now I should know,

    現在我應該知道,

  • because for 13 years of my life,

    因為我13年的生活,

  • I was involved in an extreme Islamist organization.

    我是在參與一個極端的伊斯蘭組織。

  • And I was actually a potent force

    而實際上我是一個在傳播

  • in spreading ideas across borders,

    跨越國界的想法的強大力量。

  • and I witnessed the rise of Islamist extremism

    我親眼目睹了伊斯蘭極端主義的興起,

  • as distinct from Islam the faith,

    顯明不同於伊斯蘭教的信仰,

  • and the way in which it influenced my co-religionists

    和影響了我在世界各地教友

  • across the world.

    作為的和方式。

  • And my story, my personal story,

    而我的故事,我個人的故事,

  • is truly evidence for the age of behavior

    是真正的行為時代的證據,

  • that I'm attempting to elaborate upon here.

    我試圖在這裡闡述的憑證。

  • I was, by the way -- I'm an Essex lad,

    順帶一提我 -- 我是個埃塞克斯郡的小伙子,

  • born and raised in Essex in the U.K.

    在埃塞克斯郡出生和成長。

  • Anyone who's from England

    任何人如來自英格蘭

  • knows the reputation we have from Essex.

    都知道我們這些來自埃塞克斯郡的聲譽。

  • But having been born in Essex,

    但出生在埃塞克斯郡,

  • at the age of 16,

    16歲,

  • I joined an organization.

    我加入了一個組織。

  • At the age of 17, I was recruiting people from Cambridge University

    在17歲,我從劍橋大學

  • to this organization.

    招募人員加入這個組織。

  • At the age of 19,

    在19歲,

  • I was on the national leadership of this organization in the U.K.

    我已是成為在英國的國家首領。

  • At the age of 21, I was co-founding this organization in Pakistan.

    在21歲,我在巴基斯坦共同創辦了這個組織。

  • At the age of 22,

    在22歲,

  • I was co-founding this organization in Denmark.

    我在丹麥共同創辦了這個組織。

  • By the age of 24,

    到了24歲,

  • I found myself convicted in prison in Egypt,

    我在埃及被定罪進入監獄裡,

  • being blacklisted from three countries in the world

    在世界上三個國家的黑名單

  • for attempting to overthrow their governments,

    被控企圖推翻他們的政府,

  • being subjected to torture

    在埃及監獄

  • in Egyptian jails

    遭受酷刑,

  • and sentenced to five years as a prisoner of conscience.

    並被判處為一個良心犯五年。

  • Now that journey,

    現在那一個旅程,

  • and what took me from Essex all the way across the world --

    什麼把我從埃塞克斯郡帶到跨越世界--

  • by the way, we were laughing at democratic activists.

    順便說一下,我們在嘲諷民主活動家。

  • We felt they were from the age of yesteryear.

    我們認為那些人是從昔日的時代。

  • We felt that they were out of date.

    我們覺得他們是過時的。

  • I learned how to use email

    我從極端組織

  • from the extremist organization that I used.

    學會了如何使用電子郵件。

  • I learned how to effectively communicate across borders

    我學會了如何有效地跨越國界溝通,

  • without being detected.

    而不被發現。

  • Eventually I was detected, of course, in Egypt.

    當然, 最後我被發現,在埃及。

  • But the way in which I learned

    不過,我學會了

  • to use technology to my advantage

    使用技術盡用優勢,

  • was because I was within an extremist organization

    是因為我是在極端主義組織

  • that was forced to think beyond

    被迫去思考超越

  • the confines of the nation-state.

    民族國家的範圍內。

  • The age of behavior: where ideas and narratives

    行為的年代:越來越多地以思想和說明

  • were increasingly defining behavior

    定義行為,

  • and identity and allegiances.

    身份和忠誠。

  • So as I said, we looked to the status quo

    因此,正如我所說的,我們看到現狀,

  • and ridiculed it.

    而嘲笑它。

  • And it's not just Islamist extremists that did this.

    而且不只是伊斯蘭極端分子這樣做的。

  • But even if you look across

    但是,即使你看如今,

  • the mood music in Europe of late,

    在歐洲極右的法西斯主義的

  • far-right fascism is also on the rise.

    音樂情緒也在上升。

  • A form of anti-Islam rhetoric

    反伊斯蘭言論的形式

  • is also on the rise

    也呈上升趨勢,

  • and it's transnational.

    和跨越國界。

  • And the consequences that this is having

    這後果便是

  • is that it's affecting the political climate

    影響了整個歐洲的

  • across Europe.

    政治氣候。

  • What's actually happening

    實際發生的是,

  • is that what were previously localized parochialisms,

    以前本地化的本位主義,

  • individual or groupings of extremists

    個人或彼此孤立的

  • who were isolated from one another,

    極端分子集團,

  • have become interconnected in a globalized way

    已在一個全球化的方式相互關聯,

  • and have thus become, or are becoming, mainstream.

    並因此成為或正在成為主流。

  • Because the Internet and connection technologies

    由於互聯網連接技術,

  • are connecting them across the world.

    連接世界各地。

  • If you look at the rise of far-right fascism across Europe of late,

    如果你看一下現時在整個歐洲崛起的極右法西斯主義,

  • you will see some things that are happening

    你會看到一些事情正在發生,

  • that are influencing domestic politics,

    影響到國內政治,

  • yet the phenomenon is transnational.

    但這種現象是跨越國界。

  • In certain countries, mosque minarets are being banned.

    在某些國家,清真寺的尖塔被禁止。

  • In others, headscarves are being banned.

    在其他國家,頭巾都被禁止。

  • In others, kosher and halal meat are being banned,

    在其他國家,猶太教和

  • as we speak.

    伊斯蘭教的肉正在被禁止。

  • And on the flip side,

    而在另一面,

  • we have transnational Islamist extremists

    我們有跨國伊斯蘭極端分子

  • doing the same thing across their own societies.

    在其自己的社會做同樣的事情。

  • And so they are pockets of parochialism that are being connected

    所以, 本位主義正在連接的方式

  • in a way that makes them feel like they are mainstream.

    使他們覺得他們是主流。

  • Now that never would have been possible before.

    在以前這個永遠不會有可能。

  • They would have felt isolated,

    他們會感到孤立的,

  • until these sorts of technologies came around

    直到這些技術來臨

  • and connected them in a way

    連接了周圍,

  • that made them feel part of a larger phenomenon.

    使他們覺得是一個大現象的一部分。

  • Where does that leave democracy aspirants?

    民主追求者可以去哪裡?

  • Well I believe they're getting left far behind.

    我相信他們遠遠被拋在後面。

  • And I'll give you an example here at this stage.

    我給你舉個現階段的例子。

  • If any of you remembers the Christmas Day bomb plot:

    如果你記得聖誕節炸彈陰謀:

  • there's a man called Anwar al-Awlaki.

    有一個名Anwar Al-Awlaki的人。

  • As an American citizen, ethnically a Yemeni,

    作為一個美國公民,種族也門,

  • in hiding currently in Yemen,

    目前藏匿在也門,

  • who inspired a Nigerian,

    他激發了一個尼日利亞人,

  • son of the head of Nigeria's national bank.

    尼日利亞國家銀行負責人的兒子。