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  • Being a teen can be an amazing time of discovery, learning, and friendship, but it’s also

    青春期是個可以探索、學習、社交的美好時期,但同時

  • a time of rapid change, and emotional highs and lows where things can feel reallytough’.

    也會有許多劇烈改變,包括情緒的起伏,使一切都十分「難熬」

  • So, what’s going on in our brains and bodies that makes us feel this way?

    所以,我們的大腦和生理發生了什麼事呢?

  • Why is being a teen so hard?

    為什麼青春期那麼難熬?

  • Were often told that the most important years of brain development are between 0-5,

    我們常聽說大腦發展最重要的時期是0-5歲

  • although recent research has found adolescent development to be equally important.

    但是近期研究發現青春期的發展也同等重要

  • During childhood, our brains continually grow, generating grey matter until they reach their

    在幼年時期,我們的大腦持續增長、增生灰質,直到成長至

  • maximum size, which for girls is around age 12 and boys around age 14. But even after this, the

    最大尺寸,而女生約12歲、男生約14歲。但就算過了這段時期,

  • the brain works to become more efficient by cutting away unused grey matter that isn’t ‘exercised

    大腦為了更加有效率而切除了沒有「運動」經驗的閒置灰質

  • by experience, and at the same time increasing myelin which is fatty tissue that insulates brain pathways.

    同時增生髓鞘:隔絕大腦傳遞途徑的脂肪組織

  • Puberty begins in the hypothalamus, where a protein called kisspeptin is produced,

    青春期的現象始於下丘腦:一個製造kisspeptin蛋白質的地方

  • triggering the pituitary gland to unleash the hormones testosterone, estrogen and progesterone.

    觸發腦下垂體分泌睪丸激素、雌激素和妊娠素

  • These activate the ovaries and testes, but also cause you to seek emotionally charged experiences

    這刺激了卵巢和睪丸,同時也促使你尋求情緒性的體驗

  • - whether it’s a movie to make you sob, or driving 180 km/h down the freeway.

    - 不管是一部令你啜泣的電影,或是在高速公路上以時速180公里狂飆

  • It causes your response to emotionally loaded images or sounds to be more intense,

    這使你對富有情緒性的影像或聲音的反應更加劇烈

  • which is why listening to One Direction may produce large bouts of the feels.

    就像聽一世代的音樂時心裡感到格外澎湃

  • The area of the brain responsible for planning ahead and assessing risk is still immature in teenagers.

    青少年大腦中負責預先計畫和評估風險的區域尚未成熟

  • Which is why teens are more likely to participate in high risk behaviour

    因此青少年較有可能從事高風險行為

  • like unprotected sex and drinking and driving. Interestingly, in a simulated driving experience,

    像是保護措施不足的性行為和酒後駕車。有趣的是,一個模擬駕車實驗顯示

  • adults and teens took the same amount of driving risks while alone; however, when surrounded

    成人和青少年獨自開車時願意承擔的風險一樣高,但是

  • by an audience of friends, teens took significantly more risks while adults were unaffected.

    當有一位朋友陪伴時,青少年明顯願意冒較高的風險,而成人則不受影響

  • What’s the benefit of this behaviour? Peer acceptance.

    這個行為有什麼好處?同儕認同

  • In a study where teens were asked to rank music clips with and without knowing

    一項研究顯示,青少年對於音樂排行榜的排名

  • what their peers picked, their choices changed. Unlike small children and adults,

    會因為知道同儕的看法與否而有所改變。不同於孩童和成人

  • feeling socially isolated as a teen creates feelings of intense unworthiness. This along with our

    青少年更容易對於社交上的孤立而感到自身價值低落。與天性相關

  • biology can contribute to teens prioritizing friends over even family. As social animals,

    青少年傾向看重朋友勝於家庭。身為群居動物

  • stepping outside the safety of our family creates genetically diverse populations,

    踏出家庭的保護層可以增加基因的多樣性

  • diminishing the likliness of inbreeding. In fact, teens have heightened social abilities like processing

    降低近親繁殖的可能性。事實上,青少年有極佳的社交能力

  • and evaluating facial expressions better than other age groups, allowing teens to be extremely

    例如相較於其他年齡層,更能理解和評估臉部表情,使青少年

  • cognisant of friends joy, sadness, or stress.

    對於朋友的喜悅、傷心或壓力更加敏感

  • Speaking of stress, the hormone released in stressful situations to help soothe the

    說到壓力,孩童與成人倍感壓力時,為了舒緩腦細胞所分泌的賀爾蒙

  • brain cells of children and adults has the opposite impact on teens, causing an increase

    作用於青少年身上有相反的效果,反而增加

  • in anxiety. Pair that with a change in circadian rhythms making you to want to wake three to

    焦慮感。與生理時鐘的改變相關,這使你相較於成人想要

  • four hours later than adults, it’s no wonder some people describe teens as emotionally

    多睡3-4小時,難怪有人說青春期總是很

  • moody’.

    「情緒化」

  • On the other hand, teens are very physically healthy. The immune system is highly functioning,

    另外,青少年的生理格外健康。他們的免疫系統非常活躍

  • teens have increased tolerance to temperature changes and a high resistance to cancer.

    對於溫度變化的容忍度和癌症的抗體都提高了

  • But despite physical fitness, records show that death rates increase by 200-300% after childhood

    但是除了生理上的健康外,記錄顯示在幼年時期之後因為車禍、他殺、自殺

  • due to motor vehicle accidents, homicide and suicide.

    死亡率提高了200-300%。

  • Scientists believe that

    科學家認為

  • the many changes in white matter, grey matter, and connections in the brain may be to blame,

    白質、灰質和大腦連結的大幅改變是核心原因

  • with an increased risk of errors during this time.

    讓這段期間的錯誤風險增加

  • But with a greater number of synaptic connections, and increased plasticity, the teenage brain

    但是大量的突觸連結以及可塑性的增加,青少年的大腦

  • is primed to learn quickly and memorize content fast. Unlike an older brain, rooted in what

    更能夠快速學習與記憶。不像較年老的大腦容易沉溺於已知

  • it knows, teens can respond easily to their environment and make incredible strides in

    青少年能夠對環境有即時反映,並且在溝通與社會化

  • communication and socialization. Not to mention being passionate is incredibly valuable and

    有顯著的進展。更別提熱情與風險承擔對於

  • taking risks is often what is needed to make changes in your life and the lives of others

    自己和他人人生改變是十分必要的

  • - being a teen can be tough, but it can also be amazing.

    - 青春期很難熬,卻也非常美妙

  • If you want to know why teens are the biggest super fans and become obsessed with their

    如果你想瞭解為什麼青少年是喜愛的樂團或節目的

  • favourite bands or shows, check out our latest AsapTHOUGHT on the Science of Fandom.

    頭號粉絲,來看看我們AsapTHOUGHT中的最新影片「迷戀的科學」

  • Links in the description! And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

    連結在說明欄中!訂閱頻道的話每個星期都會有新的科學相關影片

Being a teen can be an amazing time of discovery, learning, and friendship, but it’s also

青春期是個可以探索、學習、社交的美好時期,但同時

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B1 中級 美國腔 大腦 青春期 成人 風險 灰質 時期

為什麼青少年總是比較情緒化呢?(Why Are Teens So Moody?)

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    Frank 發佈於 2016 年 09 月 01 日
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