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  • I'm here today to show my photographs of the Lakota.

    今天,我向大家呈現我拍攝的拉科塔人照片。

  • Many of you may have heard of the Lakota,

    拉科塔人對於在座的許多人應該不陌生了,

  • or at least the larger group of tribes

    至少也聽說過他們所屬的部落

  • called the Sioux.

    蘇族。

  • The Lakota are one of many tribes that were moved off their land

    拉科塔人是眾多被迫離開家園的印第安人。

  • to prisoner of war camps

    他們淪為戰俘,被驅趕到集中營裡,

  • now called reservations.

    也就是所謂的保留地。

  • The Pine Ridge Reservation,

    松嶺印地安人保留地,

  • the subject of today's slide show,

    就是今天攝影集的主題,

  • is located about 75 miles southeast

    它位於南達科他州黑崗

  • of the Black Hills in South Dakota.

    東南方向75英里處。

  • It is sometimes referred to

    它的別名是

  • as Prisoner of War Camp Number 334,

    334 號戰俘集中營。

  • and it is where the Lakota now live.

    這裡就是現在拉科塔人的居住地。

  • Now, if any of you have ever heard of AIM,

    如果你們有人聽說過 AIM,

  • the American Indian Movement,

    也就是美國印第安人運動,

  • or of Russell Means,

    還是你們有聽過 羅素·敏斯

  • or Leonard Peltier,

    或是里奧納多‧波地爾

  • or of the stand-off at Oglala,

    或是奧加拉拉對峙事件,

  • then you know that Pine Ridge is ground zero

    那麼你肯定知道,在美國,松嶺保留地

  • for Native issues in the U.S.

    就是印第安人問題的發生地。

  • So I've been asked to talk a little bit today

    今天,我被邀來這裡簡單介紹

  • about my relationship with the Lakota,

    我和拉科塔人之間的關係,

  • and that's a very difficult one for me.

    這我來說難能可貴。

  • Because, if you haven't noticed from my skin color,

    因為,你們如果注意到我的膚色,

  • I'm white,

    就知道我是白人,

  • and that is a huge barrier on a Native reservation.

    這在印第安人保留地是一大禁忌。

  • You'll see a lot of people in my photographs today,

    今天展示的照片中有形形色色的人,

  • and I've become very close with them, and they've welcomed me like family.

    我有幸成為他們的朋友,他們待我如親人一般。

  • They've called me "brother" and "uncle"

    他們待我如兄長,

  • and invited me again and again over five years.

    在過去的五年裡一次又一次邀我,

  • But on Pine Ridge,

    儘管如此,在松嶺,

  • I will always be what is called "wasichu,"

    我永遠被視為wasichu,

  • and "wasichu" is a Lakota word

    wasichu是拉科塔語,

  • that means "non-Indian,"

    意思是非印第安人,

  • but another version of this word

    而這個詞還有另一個含義,

  • means "the one who takes the best meat for himself."

    意思是搶走上等好肉的人。

  • And that's what I want to focus on --

    這就是我今天的主題 --

  • the one who takes the best part of the meat.

    搶走上等好肉的人。

  • It means greedy.

    這意味著貪婪。

  • So take a look around this auditorium today.

    大家四下看看。

  • We are at a private school in the American West,

    我們身處美國西部一所私立學校裡,

  • sitting in red velvet chairs

    坐在紅色絲絨的椅子上,

  • with money in our pockets.

    荷包鼓鼓。

  • And if we look at our lives,

    如果我們稍稍自省,

  • we have indeed taken

    就不難發現,

  • the best part of the meat.

    我們的確搶走了上等好肉。

  • So let's look today at a set of photographs

    我們來好好看看這些圖片,

  • of a people who lost

    看看我們如何奪走了

  • so that we could gain,

    本屬於另外一群人的生活。

  • and know that when you see these people's faces

    不僅如此,當看到這些人的臉時,

  • that these are not just images of the Lakota;

    你知道他們不僅代表了拉科塔人,

  • they stand for all indigenous people.

    還代表了所有印第安土著。

  • On this piece of paper

    這張紙上,

  • is the history the way I learned it

    記錄著我從拉科塔朋友和家人那裡

  • from my Lakota friends and family.

    學到的歷史。

  • The following is a time-line

    下面是一組大事年表,

  • of treaties made, treaties broken

    記錄了那些被撕毀了的協約

  • and massacres disguised as battles.

    和一些看似戰鬥實為屠殺的事件。

  • I'll begin in 1824.

    我從1824年講起。

  • What is known as the Bureau of Indian Affairs

    印第安事務管理局

  • was created within the War Department,

    實為美國陸軍部下屬部門

  • setting an early tone of aggression

    一開始就在對待美國原住民事務上

  • in our dealings with the Native Americans.

    充滿敵意。

  • 1851:

    1851年:

  • The first treaty of Fort Laramie was made,

    第一次《拉勒米堡條約》,

  • clearly marking the boundaries of the Lakota Nation.

    明確劃定了拉科塔人的領土分界線。

  • According to the treaty,

    根據條約,

  • those lands are a sovereign nation.

    分界線以內的土地構成一個主權國家。

  • If the boundaries of this treaty had held --

    如果條約劃定的界限還在,

  • and there is a legal basis that they should --

    同時還有法源依據

  • then this is what the U.S. would look like today.

    那麼這才是美國今天的模樣。

  • 10 years later,

    十年以後,

  • the Homestead Act, signed by President Lincoln,

    由林肯總統親自簽署的《公地放領法》

  • unleashed a flood of white settlers into Native lands.

    放任白人殖民者蜂擁闖入原駐民領地。

  • 1863:

    1863年:

  • An uprising of Santee Sioux in Minnesota

    明尼蘇達州發生蘇族的支部桑蒂人起義,

  • ends with the hanging of 38 Sioux men,

    結果38名蘇人被絞死,

  • the largest mass execution in U.S. history.

    這成為美國歷史上最大規模的絞刑。

  • The execution was ordered by President Lincoln

    下令行刑的正是林肯總統,

  • only two days after

    而就在兩天前,

  • he signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

    他剛剛簽署了《解放奴隸宣言》。

  • 1866: the beginning of the transcontinental railroad --

    1866年,跨大陸鐵路開始動工 --

  • a new era.

    新時代開始了。

  • We appropriated land for trails and trains

    為了優化鐵路路線,

  • to shortcut through the heart of the Lakota Nation.

    我們抄捷徑直穿拉科塔腹地。

  • The treaties were out the window.

    所有條約都被束之高閣。

  • In response, three tribes led by the Lakota chief Red Cloud

    拉科達酋長紅雲率領的三個部落進行反擊,

  • attacked and defeated the U.S. army many times over.

    他們攻打並屢次戰勝了美國軍隊。

  • I want to repeat that part.

    我想再強調一遍。

  • The Lakota defeat the U.S. army.

    拉科塔人戰勝了美國軍隊。

  • 1868: The second Fort Laramie Treaty

    1868年: 第二次《拉勒米堡條約》

  • clearly guarantees the sovereignty of the Great Sioux Nation

    清清楚楚地承諾保證蘇族的主權地位

  • and the Lakotas' ownership of the sacred Black Hills.

    並承認神聖的黑崗為拉科塔所有。

  • The government also promises land and hunting rights

    政府另外還承諾他們在其領地周圍各州

  • in the surrounding states.

    享有土地和狩獵權。

  • We promise that the Powder River country

    我們承諾白人一律不許踏入

  • will henceforth be closed to all whites.

    屬於印第安人的粉河地帶。

  • The treaty seemed to be a complete victory

    這個條約表面上是紅雲酋長

  • for Red Cloud and the Sioux.

    以及蘇人的完美勝利勝。

  • In fact, this is the only war in American history

    而實質上,這是美國歷史上

  • in which the government negotiated a peace

    政府唯一一次為了停戰

  • by conceding everything demanded by the enemy.

    而完全屈從於敵人的要求。

  • 1869:

    1869年:

  • The transcontinental railroad was completed.

    跨大陸鐵路竣工。

  • It began carrying, among other things, a large number of hunters

    成千上萬的獵戶搭著火車來到蘇人的領地,

  • who began the wholesale killing of buffalo,

    他們開始成批地捕殺野牛,

  • eliminating a source of food and clothing and shelter for the Sioux.

    使得蘇人賴以生存的生活資料來源瀕臨滅絕。

  • 1871:

    1871年:

  • The Indian Appropriation Act

    印第安人撥款法案

  • makes all Indians wards of the federal government.

    讓所有印第安人都受到聯邦政府的管轄。

  • In addition, the military issued orders

    不僅如此,美國軍隊下令

  • forbidding western Indians from leaving reservations.

    禁止西部的印第安人離開保留地。

  • All western Indians at that point in time

    從此以後,所有西部印第安人

  • were now prisoners of war.

    都成為了戰後囚徒。

  • Also in 1871,

    另外,1871年,

  • we ended the time of treaty-making.

    我們停止制定條約。

  • The problem with treaties is they allow tribes to exist as sovereign nations,

    條約只會允許印第安部落享有主權,

  • and we can't have that.

    但我們不能接受。

  • We had plans.

    我們自有對策。

  • 1874:

    1874年:

  • General George Custer announced the discovery of gold in Lakota territory,

    喬治‧卡斯特 將軍宣佈在拉科塔地區發現了金礦,

  • specifically the Black Hills.

    位置就在黑崗。

  • The news of gold creates a massive influx of white settlers

    這一消息引得白人移民者蜂擁

  • into Lakota Nation.

    闖入拉科塔領地。

  • Custer recommends that Congress find a way

    卡斯特向國會提議

  • to end the treaties with the Lakota

    儘快解除

  • as soon as possible.

    與拉科塔人定下的條約。

  • 1875: The Lakota war begins

    1875年: 美國撕毀《拉勒米堡條約》,

  • over the violation of the Fort Laramie Treaty.

    拉科達戰爭爆發。

  • 1876:

    1876年:

  • On July 26th

    7月26日

  • on its way to attack a Lakota village,

    卡斯特將軍率領的第七騎兵

  • Custer's 7th Cavalry was crushed

    在攻打一個拉科塔村莊時全軍覆沒,

  • at the battle of Little Big Horn.

    這就是著名的小盤羊戰役。

  • 1877:

    1877年:

  • The great Lakota warrior and chief named Crazy Horse

    偉大的拉科塔勇士瘋馬酋長

  • surrendered at Fort Robinson.

    於羅賓遜堡投降。

  • He was later killed while in custody.

    他之後在關押期間被殺害。

  • 1877 is also the year we found a way

    1877年,我們成功地

  • to get around the Fort Laramie Treaties.

    解除了所有《拉勒米堡條約》。

  • A new agreement was presented to Sioux chiefs and their leading men

    一項新協議擺在了蘇人各部酋長以及他們副手的面前,

  • under a campaign known as "sell or starve:"

    這次運動被稱為“不賣地就餓死”

  • Sign the paper, or no food for your tribe.

    要麼在協議上簽字,要麼你的部落就等著挨餓。

  • Only 10 percent of the adult male population signed.

    只有百分之十的成年男子簽了字。

  • The Fort Laramie Treaty

    《拉勒米堡條約》

  • called for at least three-quarters of the tribe

    要求一個部落中至少四分之三的人簽字同意

  • to sign away land.

    才能出讓土地。

  • That clause was obviously ignored.

    這一條款很顯然已經被忽略不計了。

  • 1887: The Dawes Act.

    1887:《道斯法案》。

  • Communal ownership of reservation lands ends.

    保留地公有的時代就此終結。

  • Reservations are cut up into 160-acre sections

    保留地被分割成塊,每塊地為160英畝,

  • and distributed to individual Indians

    分配給每個印第安人

  • with the surplus disposed of.

    剩餘的部分則被割走。

  • Tribes lost millions of acres.

    印第安部落損失了上百萬英畝土地。

  • The American dream of individual land ownership

    美國人為了實現

  • turned out to be a very clever way

    就不擇手段

  • to divide the reservation until nothing was left.

    將保留地瓜分待盡。

  • The move destroyed the reservations,

    保留地遭到毀滅性打擊,

  • making it easier to further subdivide and to sell

    變得更容易讓下一代人

  • with every passing generation.

    進一步瓜分。

  • Most of the surplus land

    那些瓜分剩下的土地

  • and many of the plots within reservation boundaries

    以及許多保留地內的地塊

  • are now in the hands of white ranchers.

    現在都成了白人農場主的囊中之物。

  • Once again, the fat of the land goes to wasichu.

    最肥沃的土地再次落入wasichu手裡

  • 1890, a date I believe to be

    1890年,我認為是幻燈片上

  • the most important in this slide show.

    最重要的一個日期。

  • This is the year of the Wounded Knee Massacre.

    就在這一年,“傷膝河慘案”發生了。

  • On December 29th,

    12月29日,

  • U.S. troops surrounded a Sioux encampment at Wounded Knee Creek

    美國軍隊包圍了蘇人駐紮在傷膝河的營地,

  • and massacred Chief Big Foot

    並在那裡屠殺了“大腳”酋長

  • and 300 prisoners of war,

    以及其他300多名戰俘,

  • using a new rapid-fire weapon

    他們使用的是一種能夠進行掃射的

  • that fired exploding shells

    新式武器 -

  • called a Hotchkiss gun.

    機關槍。

  • For this so-called "battle,"

    為了這場所謂的戰役,

  • 20 Congressional Medals of Honor for Valor

    國會將 20 枚榮譽勳章

  • were given to the 7th Cavalry.

    授予了第七騎兵團以表彰他們的驍勇善戰。

  • To this day,

    直到今天,

  • this is the most Medals of Honor

    這是歷史上國會授予最多榮譽勳章的

  • ever awarded for a single battle.

    單次戰役。

  • More Medals of Honor were given

    這一次對無辜婦女兒童的殘酷屠殺

  • for the indiscriminate slaughter of women and children

    所獲得的榮譽勳章

  • than for any battle in World War One,

    多於第一次世界大戰,

  • World War Two,

    第二次世界大戰,

  • Korea, Vietnam,

    朝鮮戰爭、越南戰爭、

  • Iraq or Afghanistan.

    伊拉克戰爭或阿富汗戰爭中的任何一次戰役。

  • The Wounded Knee massacre

    “傷膝河慘案”

  • is considered the end of the Indian wars.

    被認為是印第安戰爭的結束

  • Whenever I visit the site

    每一次

  • of the mass grave at Wounded Knee,

    去傷膝河公墓,

  • I see it not just as a grave

    我看到的

  • for the Lakota or for the Sioux,

    不僅僅是拉科塔人或蘇人的墳墓,

  • but as a grave for all indigenous peoples.

    而是所有原住民的墳墓。

  • The holy man, Black Elk, said,

    印第安聖人黑麋鹿曾說:

  • "I did not know then

    「我不知道當時

  • how much was ended.

    死了多少人。

  • When I look back now

    每當回首

  • from this high hill of my old age,

    那座飽經滄桑的高山,

  • I can still see the butchered women and children

    沿著那條蜿蜒的小河

  • lying heaped and scattered

    我依然能看見那些婦女兒童,

  • all along the crooked gulch

    屍橫遍地,

  • as plain as when I saw them

    這和我年輕時親見的場景

  • with eyes still young.

    一般清晰。

  • And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud

    我能看到在那鮮血染紅的泥土中還有另一樣東西也被扼殺了,

  • and was buried in the blizzard:

    最後被暴風雪所埋葬。

  • A people's dream died there,

    一個民族的夢想在那裡湮滅

  • and it was a beautiful dream."

    那曾是個多麼美好的夢想。”

  • With this event,

    事件發生以後,

  • a new era in Native American history began.

    美國原住民的歷史進入新的篇章。

  • Everything can be measured

    “傷膝河慘案” 發生之前,

  • before Wounded Knee and after.

    一切都是可以衡量的。

  • Because it was in this moment

    因為現在美國政府

  • with the fingers on the triggers of the Hotchkiss guns

    一邊做出扣動扳機的姿態,

  • that the U.S. government openly declared its position on Native rights.

    美國政府公開宣佈對原住民權力的立場

  • They were tired of treaties.

    他們厭倦了條約。

  • They were tired of sacred hills.

    厭倦了聖山。

  • They were tired of ghost dances.

    厭倦了鬼舞。

  • And they were tired of all the inconveniences of the Sioux.

    他們厭倦了蘇人給他們帶來的種種不便。

  • So they brought out their cannons.

    於是他們搬出了大炮。

  • "You want to be an Indian now?" they said,

    要脅: 「你們還做印第安人是嗎?」

  • finger on the trigger.

    同時作勢開槍。

  • 1900:

    1900年:

  • the U.S. Indian population reached its low point --

    美國原駐民人口跌至歷史最低點:

  • less than 250,000,

    不足二十五萬人,

  • compared to an estimated eight million

    遠遠少於 1492 年的

  • in 1492.

    八百萬人。

  • Fast-forward.

    再將時間拉近一點。

  • 1980:

    1980年:

  • The longest running court case in U.S. history,

    美國歷史上耗時最長的官司

  • the Sioux Nation v. the United States,

    在蘇族和美國政府之間展開,

  • was ruled upon by the U.S. Supreme Court.

    審理的是美國最高法庭。

  • The court determined that, when the Sioux were resettled onto reservations

    法院裁決,蘇人重歸保留地時,

  • and seven million acres of their land

    同時將七百萬英畝土地

  • were opened up to prospectors and homesteaders,

    開放給探礦者和自耕農,

  • the terms of the second Fort Laramie Treaty

    違反了第二次《拉勒米堡條約》

  • had been violated.

    的條款。

  • The court stated

    法院陳述說

  • that the Black Hills were illegally taken

    黑崗是被非法佔有的,

  • and that the initial offering price plus interest

    政府應當連本帶息

  • should be paid to the Sioux Nation.

    向蘇族買下黑崗。

  • As payment for the Black Hills,

    為買下黑崗,

  • the court awarded only 106 million dollars

    法院只承諾給蘇族

  • to the Sioux Nation.

    區區一億零六百萬美元。

  • The Sioux refused the money with the rallying cry,

    蘇人集體抗議,拒絕收錢,

  • "The Black Hills are not for sale."

    他們呐喊,“決不賣黑崗”。

  • 2010:

    2010年:

  • Statistics about Native population today,

    今天關於原住民的資料顯示,

  • more than a century after the massacre at Wounded Knee,

    傷膝河大屠殺過了一個多世紀之後,

  • reveal the legacy of colonization,

    殖民地化,強制搬遷,

  • forced migration

    違反條約等活動所產生的後遺症

  • and treaty violations.

    逐漸暴露。

  • Unemployment on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation

    松嶺印第安人保留地的失業率

  • fluctuates between 85 and 90 percent.

    一直高達百分之八十五甚至百分之九十。