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  • Traditional prescriptions for growth in Africa are not working very well.


  • After one trillion dollars in African development-related aid in the last 60 years,

    儘管在過去的 60 年裏,非洲獲得了過萬億美元的經濟援助,

  • real per capita income today is lower than it was in the 1970s.

    如今實際的人均收入比上世紀 70 年代還要低。

  • Aid is not doing too well.


  • In response, the Bretton Woods institutions -- the IMF and the World Bank pushed for free trade not aid,

    對此,布雷頓森林體系- 國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行 推崇自由貿易,而不是經濟援助,

  • yet the historical record shows little empirical evidence that free trade leads to economic growth.


  • The newly prescribed silver bullet is microcredit.


  • We seem to be fixated on this romanticized idea that every poor peasant in Africa is an entrepreneur.


  • (Laughter)


  • Yet my work and travel in 40-plus countries across Africa have taught me that most people want jobs instead.

    然而,在非洲 40多個國家的 工作和旅途的經驗告訴我,大多數人民想要的只是就業。

  • My solution: Forget micro-entrepreneurs.

    我對促進經濟增長的方案是: 且將小額貸款放一邊。

  • Let's invest in building pan-African titans like Sudanese businessman Mo Ibrahim.

    讓我們投資構建泛非洲的「巨無霸」 (大型企業)如蘇丹的企業家 — 易卜拉欣(Mo Ibrahim)

  • Mo took a contrarian bet on Africa when he founded Celtel International in '98 and built it into a mobile cellular provider with 24 million subscribers across 14 African countries by 2004.

    1998年,易卜拉欣在非洲逆勢而爲, 成立了Celtel 國際公司,並將其打造成移動運營商。 2004年,Celtel 已有2400萬用戶, 服務覆蓋非洲14個國家。

  • The Mo model might be better than the everyman entrepreneur model, which prevents an effective means of diffusion and knowledge-sharing.

    相比於「人人都是創業家」的模式, 易卜拉欣的創業模式也許較優,因爲大衆創業模式阻礙了有效的融合手段和知識共享。

  • Perhaps we are not at a stage in Africa where many actors and small enterprises leads to growth through competition.


  • Consider these two alternative scenarios.


  • One: You loan 200 dollars to each of 500 banana farmers, allowing them to dry their surplus bananas and fetch 15 percent more revenue at the local market.

    情景一:你給種植香蕉的500個農民每人貸200美元,讓他們可以乾燥處理剩餘的香蕉, 在當地市場獲得15%的收入增長。

  • Or two: You give 100,000 dollars to one savvy entrepreneur and help her set up a factory that yields 40 percent additional income to all 500 banana farmers and creates 50 additional jobs.

    情景二:你把10萬美元給一個精明的企業家幫助她建造一個工廠, 足以給那500個種植香蕉的農民帶來額外40%的收入, 同時又創造了50個就業崗位。

  • We invested in the second scenario, and backed 26-year-old Kenyan entrepreneur Eric Muthomi to set up an agro-processing factory called Stawi to produce gluten-free banana-based flour and baby food.

    我們選擇了後者,投資一位26歲的肯尼亞企業家 Eric Muthomi 幫助他設立 Stawi 農産品加工廠,專門生産無麩質的以香蕉爲主的麵粉和嬰兒食品。

  • Stawi is leveraging economies of scale and using modern manufacturing processes to create value for not only its owners but its workers, who have an ownership in the business.

    Stawi 借助規模經濟效應採用現代加工生産模式,不僅爲工廠老闆創造了價值, 還爲持有股份的員工創造了價值。

  • Our dream is to take an Eric Muthomi and try to help him become a Mo Ibrahim,

    我們的夢想是幫助 Eric Muthomi, 讓他成爲下一位 「易卜拉欣 」。

  • which requires skill, financing, local and global partnerships, and extraordinary perseverance.

    這一夢想的實現,需要技術、 資金、地區與全球範圍的合作、以及非凡的毅力。

  • But why pan-African?


  • The scramble for Africa during the Berlin Conference of 1884 --


  • where, quite frankly, we Africans were not exactly consulted,


  • (Laughter) (Applause)


  • resulted in massive fragmentation and many sovereign states with small populations:


  • Liberia, four million; Cape Verde, 500,000.

    賴比瑞亞,400萬人口; 維德角,50萬人口。

  • Pan-Africa gives you one billion people, granted across 55 countries with trade barriers and other impediments, but our ancestors traded across the continent before Europeans drew lines around us.

    泛非洲有10億人口,橫跨了55個國家, 還有各種貿易壁壘和其它障礙。 不過,在歐洲列强爭奪非洲、劃下國界前,我們的祖先就在非洲大陸到處進行貿易。

  • The pan-African opportunities outweigh the challenges, and that's why we're expanding Stawi's markets from just Kenya to Algeria, Nigeria, Ghana, and anywhere else that will buy our food.

    泛非洲的機遇大於挑戰,因此,我們從肯亞開始將 Stawi 的市場擴張到阿爾及利亞、 奈及利亞、迦納,還有 所有會購買我們的食物的地方。

  • We hope to help solve food security, empower farmers, create jobs, develop the local economy, and we hope to become rich in the process.


  • While it's not the sexiest approach, and maybe it doesn't achieve the same feel-good as giving a woman 100 dollars to buy a goat on,

    這或許不是最鮮嫩欲滴的手段,跟在 上借出100美元給別人買山羊相比, 這可能不會給你同樣的感覺,z

  • perhaps supporting fewer, higher-impact entrepreneurs to build massive businesses that scale pan-Africa can help change this.


  • The political freedom for which our forebears fought is meaningless without economic freedom.


  • We hope to aid this fight for economic freedom by building world-class businesses, creating indigenous wealth, providing jobs that we so desperately need, and hopefully helping achieve this.

    我們希望爲爭取經濟自由出力,致力於打造世界級的企業, 創造本土財富, 創造我們迫切需要的就業崗位,與此同時也希望能實現這些目標。

  • Africa shall rise.


  • Thank you.


  • (Applause)


  • Tom Rielly: So Sangu, of course, this is strong rhetoric.


  • You're making 100 percent contrast between microcredit and regular investment and growing regular investment.


  • Do you think there is a role for microcredit at all?


  • Sangu Delle: I think there is a role.


  • Microcredit has been a great, innovative way to expand financial access to the bottom of the pyramid.


  • But for the problems we face in Africa, when we are looking at the Marshall Plan to revitalize war-torn Europe, it was not full of donations of sheep.

    然而,非洲目前所面臨的問題,比如說,爲振興飽受戰爭蹂躪的歐洲而制定的歐洲復興計劃, 比如說,爲振興飽受戰爭蹂躪的歐洲 而制定的歐洲復興計劃, 不只是單純的捐贈羊群。

  • We need more than just microcredit.


  • We need more than just give 200 dollars.


  • We need to build big businesses, and we need jobs.

    我們需要構建大規模的企業, 需要更多的就業崗位。

  • Tom Rielly: Very good. Thank you so much.


  • (Applause)


Traditional prescriptions for growth in Africa are not working very well.



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