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  • We are going to be talking persuasion in this chapter and, for this lecture, I am going

    在這個章節我們要討論的是說服,在這一次的課程中我將

  • to be using all examples of advertising. I am doing this for two reasons. One is because

    全程使用廣告作為例子,我這麼做的原因有兩個,一是因為

  • they're good illustrations of the content. But two, again, I want to continue with the message

    廣告能夠很好的將其所要表達的內容圖像化,再者,我想要利用這個訊息再次說明

  • that social psychology is everywhere and it is certainly present in advertising that always

    社會心理學是無所不在的,而且其在廣告的呈現上更是必須的

  • need and we absolutely see advertising all the time in our life. So now, whenever you

    要件,並且,在生活中我們隨時隨地都可以看見廣告。所以,每當你

  • are seeing advertising, I also want you to think about social psychology and how you

    看著廣告的時候,我希望你能夠同時思考社會心理學相關理論,以及如何

  • can use social psychology to understand your daily lives.

    能夠將社會心理學運用在你的日常生活中。

  • This is the elaboration likelihood model. The elaboration likelihood model says that

    這裡談到的是推敲可能模式,在推敲可能性模式中提到

  • persuasion occurs through one of two routes, the central route or the peripheral route.

    說服的發生是經由兩種途徑之一,分別是中央途徑或邊緣途徑

  • The central route uses facts to persuade people and the peripheral route uses feelings. So,

    所謂的中央途徑是利用事實來說服人們,而邊緣途徑則是利用人們的感覺。現在,

  • here is an example of the central route and the peripheral route in an ad. I will give

    這裡是廣告中分別運用了中央途徑以及邊緣途徑的例子,讓我們花

  • a moment to look at these and we will talk about them. So you can see the central route

    一點時間來看一下然後討論。好的,你們看到了使用中央途徑的廣告中

  • ad is giving a lot of facts about this Mercedes- Benz and it’s giving you things, you know,

    列舉了許多跟賓士車相關的事實,一些東西,你知道

  • concrete things, to think about why you might want to purchase a Mercedes-Benz. If you contrast

    一些非常有力的東西,這讓你開始思考為什麼你也許想要買一輛賓士車。如果你對照比較

  • it with the peripheral route ad, it’s just a cool-looking ad and it makes you think like

    一下另一個利用邊緣途徑的廣告,你只看到了一輛酷炫的車子,而這讓你想到

  • Woo, the Mercedes-Benz is kind of cool.” There is no facts you are learning about the

    「哇哦!賓士車似乎滿酷的。」在這個廣告中並沒有任何進一步的事實

  • Mercedes-Benz but you are having positive feelings towards this Mercedes-Benz. So, these

    與賓士車相關,但是你對賓士車卻有了正面的好感。這些是

  • ads are examples of a central route ad and a peripheral route ad.

    廣告中分別使用了中央途徑與邊緣途徑的例子

  • Both elements into an ad that’s best and pause the video, and look at this. When you

    在一個廣告中同時運用兩種元素是最好的,現在請暫停影片,然後看看這個畫面,當你

  • are ready, un-pause it and we will talk about it. So, in this ad, you have a peripheral

    準備好了,取消暫停然後我們再進行討論。好的,在這個廣告中,你看到一個邊緣途徑

  • going to have positive feelings towards that baby. It also has central route because there

    讓你對這個寶寶產生正面的感覺,在這裡面也包含了中央途徑,因為這上面

  • are facts and the facts are talking about protecting her from these childhood diseases

    列出了一些事實,這些事實是關於保護這個寶寶遠離各種的兒童疾病

  • by giving her a vaccine. In this ad, it’s using both peripheral route and central route to give a message.

    的方法是為她注射疫苗。在這個廣告中,同時使用了邊緣途徑與中央途徑來傳達訊息

  • About promotion versus prevention focus. A

    這個方式也就是經由預防定向理論來進行宣傳。當一個

  • promotion focus ad or a persuasive argument is going to sayHey! If you do this, then

    廣告為促進定向或是說服論點時,其訊息為「嗨!如果你這麼做,那麼

  • good things will happen.” A prevent focus will sayHey! If you do this, bad things

    將會有好事發生。」而預防定向則是說:「嘿!如果你這麼做,不好的事情

  • will happen.” A promotion focus ad is going to be about all the positive things and a

    將會發生。」一個促進定向的廣告傳達的是事物的正面意義,而一個

  • prevention focus ad will talk about the negative things. So what I am going to do is I'm

    預防定向的廣告則將傳達事物的負面意義。所以接下來我要做的事情是我要

  • going to have you click this link below and watch this Subway food ad. After you watch

    請你們點擊下方這個連結並且看看這個潛艇堡的廣告,等你看過之後

  • it, come back to the lecture and, while you are watching it, think about which part of

    再回到課程中,另外,當你在看的同時,想一想哪個部分

  • the ad is promotion focus and which part of the ad is prevention focus. So, go ahead and

    在這個廣告中是促進定向,而哪個部分是屬於預防定向,現在,請進行

  • click the link. When you are done, come to this lecture.

    點擊連結做的動作,當你看完後,再回到課程來,

  • So, that ad always makes me laugh. The first part of the ad is the prevention focus part

    好的,這個廣告總是讓我發笑,在廣告的第1部分是預防定向的部分

  • of the ad talking about how you don’t want these things, you don’t want double

    這裡面的內容是告訴你,你並不想要這些東西,你不想要雙層

  • blubber or thunder thighs. The promotion part of the ad is the part of the ad that talks

    肥厚的脂肪或是多汁的大腿肉。廣告中促進定向的部分則是談論到

  • about these are the things that fit into healthy heart diets and you do want to have a healthy

    有關於合適的飲食以及對心臟健康有益處的食物,而且你真正想要的正是擁有一個健康的

  • heart. This ad does a great job of illustrating both prevention focus and promotion focus.

    心臟,在這個廣告中很好的同時運用了預防定向與促進定向

  • That’s why I always use it but I want to take a little bit more time to talk about

    這是為什麼我經常利用這個廣告作為例子,現在,我想多利用一點時間討論

  • the distinction between prevention focus and promotion focus. Prevention focus ads tend

    預防定向與促進定向之間的差別,預防定向廣告

  • to be far more effective than promotion focus ads because prevention focus is on the basis

    比起促進定向廣告更有效的多,因為預防定向是立基於

  • of fear. Fear is a very basic emotion. And if you can get somebody by their fear, it’s

    恐懼,恐懼是非常基本的情緒,而如果你可以讓某些人因為恐懼而注意你的訊息

  • really hard to overcome this. I am going to give an example of a persuasive message that

    將會令人非常難以忘記,我接下來要舉的是一個說服性的訊息

  • has prevention focus and how, despite the fact that this message is really not correct,

    其中包含了預防定向以及預防定向如何造成影響。雖然事實上,這個訊息並不十分正確

  • people continue to believe it because it’s framed prevention focus and it makes it hard

    但是人們始終相信它,這是因為這項訊息是由預防定向所構成的,這使得人們難以

  • for them to evaluate this message. So what we are going to talk about is the

    忘記這個訊息,我們將要進行的討論是

  • MMR vaccine and autism hoax. Some of you may always know about this. In 1998, Andrew Wakefield

    麻疹、風疹、腮腺炎混合疫苗與自閉症。你們有些人可能聽說過,在1998年,安德魯 偉克菲德爾

  • published a paper linking MMR vaccine to autism. First, I should say that there are many many

    發表了一個研究報告提出接種麻疹、風疹、腮腺炎混合疫苗可能會引發自閉症。首先,我要說明,除了混合疫苗外

  • more vaccines of MMR vaccines. One of the problems is that people are taking this paper

    還有許多許多許多其他疫苗,這裡面的問題是人們接受了這個研究報告的論點

  • and they are applying it from just MMR vaccines to all vaccines. But we are going to explain

    並且將其施加在所有的疫苗上,但是我們即將說明

  • how this paper itself isn’t worth anything. There are serious and major violations in

    何以這份報告是毫無價值的。在此一事件中有幾個嚴重並且主要的違失問題

  • this studyappalling kinds of violation. So first, the researcher was paid to find

    在這份研究報告中...有著令人震驚的違規行為。第一個,這位研究人員是受雇來找出

  • evidence that this vaccine causes autism and had applied patents for an alternative vaccine

    此一疫苗導致自閉症的證據,另外,他當時正為了另一種替代疫苗申請專利權中

  • so he was paid for and he also had even more financial interest because he wanted to prove

    所以他是受雇的並且他還有另一項金錢上的考慮因素,因為他想要證明

  • that the vaccine that was being used wasn’t worthwhile so his vaccine would be selected.

    使用中的混合疫苗是沒有價值的,如此一來,他自己研發的疫苗才能夠取而代之。

  • So he had a huge financial incentive to find that there was a link between this particular

    因此他有極大的金錢上的誘因來找出這個特定的疫苗以及

  • vaccine and autism. Next, it only had a sample size of 12 people and several of the participants

    自閉症之間的關聯性。其次,該試驗所使用的測試樣本的大小只有12個人以及幾位參與者的

  • parents had financial incentive to report that the vaccine causes autism. So it was

    父母親,他們也一樣因為金錢的誘因,而提出了混合疫苗導致自閉症的報告,因此這是

  • a very small sample size and, even with a small sample size, it’s hard to believe

    一個極小的樣本範圍,而且即使是這麼小的樣本範圍,卻讓人難以相信

  • that a lot of those parents were correctly reporting what was going on because they had

    是否大多數父母都有正確的報告了研究的進程,因為他們有著

  • a financial reason to say that there was the link. So, this paper in 2010 was fully retracted

    金錢上的理由去提出兩者之間有關聯的說法。所以,這份報告在2010年被駁回並撤銷。

  • and Wakefield was thrown out of the medical profession. There are some people who said

    並且將偉克菲爾德逐出了醫藥界。有些人認為

  • that this is the most dangerous medical hoax within the last hundred years. The rise of

    這是在近幾百年中最嚴重的醫藥詐欺,因此而增加的

  • measles, mumps, and rubella is a serious thing and there are a lot of doctors who are very

    麻疹、腮腺炎以及風疹病例造成嚴重的問題,並且有許多的醫生對此表達了極度的

  • concerned about it. None of that would have happened if this guy hadn’t been trying

    關切。這些事情本來應該是不會發生的,如果這位仁兄不曾試圖

  • to make money. That is sort of the information why the study is totally false. Further, signs

    從中牟利的話。以上就是關於這項研究是不正確的相關資訊。再更進一步的說,自閉症的

  • of autism tend to manifest around the age as when children are receiving vaccines. Now,

    徵狀開始出現的時間通常正好是在孩童們接種疫苗的年紀。現在,

  • we are all very good critical thinkers and we are all psychologists here and we know

    我們都是很好的批判思想家,並且在這裡的都是心理學家,而我們知道

  • that correlation does not equal to causation. So even if your child receives a vaccine and

    關聯性不等於就有因果關係,因此即使你的孩子接種疫苗並且

  • later on develops signs of autism, that doesn’t mean the vaccine caused autism because age

    在那之後出現了自閉症的徵候,並不表示就是疫苗導致了自閉症,因為年齡

  • is a confound. Age is happening both to determine when your child should be getting vaccines

    是一個混和因素。年齡用來斷定你的小孩何時應該接種疫苗,同時

  • and when signs of autism might manifest. As psychologists and people who understand research,

    也用來判斷自閉症可能發生的時間。身為心理學家以及對於研究有所了解的人,

  • you understand that you cannot make a causal claim with just correlational data. Lastly,

    你懂得你不能只憑著關聯性的資料就宣稱是因為A而導致B,最後,

  • there is overwhelming evidence that vaccines don’t cause autism. There was a meta-analysis

    有一個壓倒性的證據證明疫苗並不會導致自閉症的發生。有一個由1千2百萬個兒童

  • of 1.2 million children, which is pretty much too big to even wrap your head around, by

    參與的後設分析,這個資料量的範圍大到將你的頭整個包起來還多很多,這是由

  • Taylor, Swerdferger, and Eslick (2014). They found that vaccines don’t cause autism and,

    泰勒,斯威佛格和艾斯里克(2014)所主持的。他們發現疫苗不會導致自閉症並且,

  • in fact, children who did not have the vaccine were 16% more likely to have autism than children

    事實上,沒有接種疫苗的孩童有多出16%的機率出現自閉症的機率相較於有接種疫苗

  • who did. So, not only do vaccines not cause autism, but the children who didn’t have

    的孩童。所以,不只是疫苗不會導致自閉症,而且那些沒有接種疫苗的

  • the vaccine were even more likely to have autism. So, why do I present all this information?

    小孩甚至有比較多的可能會得到自閉症。所以,為什麼我要提出這一切的資訊呢?

  • Because the point is that, if you tell a parent, this vaccine might cause autism. That is a

    因為重點是,如果你告訴一位父母親,這個疫苗會導致自閉症,這是一種

  • prevention focus message sayingDon’t get this vaccine because, if you do, this

    預防定向的訊息,它傳達了:「不要接種這個疫苗因為,如果你這麼做,這個

  • bad thing is going to happen, your child might have autism.” Despite all of this evidence

    壞的結果就會發生,你的小孩可能會得到自閉症。」儘管所有的證據

  • that you can see right now on your screen that there is no reason to believe that this

    正出現在你的螢幕中讓你親眼看著它,你沒有理由相信這個所謂

  • vaccine causes autism, many parent cannot overcome that prevention focus message and

    疫苗會導致自閉症的說法,許多家長們仍然無法戰勝這個訊息並且去接收

  • take this information into consideration and realize that vaccines actually should be given

    這個資訊來考慮並了解到事實上應該要讓小孩子

  • to their children. Because prevention focus message is so incredibly strong and people

    接種疫苗。這是因為預防定向訊息有著不可思議的強大力量而且人們

  • find it very difficult to overcome them, they are very very effective. In this case, it’s

    發現很難去壓制它們,它們是非常、非常、非常的有效力。在這種情況下,會

  • actually causing a huge problem, a lot of children are getting sick and there is a lot

    帶來極大的問題,許多的小孩因此而生病,而且也使許多

  • of doctors who are very concerned. This prevention focus message is having sort of a disastrous

    的醫生非常的關心這個現象,這個預防定向訊息有著類似災難性的

  • effect. Even with all of this evidence that you can give to parents, they cannot overcome

    效力。即使你能提供給家長們所有的證據,他們還是無法遺忘

  • this prevention focus message. So, this is meant to explain to you how strong prevention

    這項預防定向訊息。所以,這正說明了預防定向的訊息可以有

  • focus messages can be.

    多麼強大的威力。

We are going to be talking persuasion in this chapter and, for this lecture, I am going

在這個章節我們要討論的是說服,在這一次的課程中我將

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說服力1:資訊部分 (Persuasion 1: message component)

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    Yogi 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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