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  • This might seem hard to believe, but right now, 300 million women across the planet are experiencing the same thing: a period.

    這或許能難令人置信,但是現在全球 3 億女性正在經歷同樣的事情——月經。

  • The monthly menstrual cycle that leads to the period is a reality most women on Earth will go through in their lives.

    這個每月一次的循環就是所謂的月經,是地球上所有女性一生中都必須經歷的。

  • But why is this cycle so universal? And what makes it a cycle in the first place?

    但是為什麼這個循環是如此的普遍呢?最初這個循環又是哪來的呢?

  • Periods last anywhere between two and seven days, arising once within in a 28-day rotation.

    月經都會持續 2 至 7 天,每 28 天出現一個循環。

  • That whole system occurs on repeat, happening approximately 450 times during a woman's life.

    整個系統不停地重複發生,一個女人生命中大概都要經歷 450 次。

  • Behind the scenes are a series of hormonal controls that fine-tune the body's internal workings to make menstruation start or stop during those 28 days.

    在其之後是一連串的激素控制,其在細微地調整身體的內部運作,並使月經在 28 天內開始或暫停。

  • This inner machinery includes two ovaries stocked with thousands of tiny sacks called follicles that each contain one oocyte, an unfertilized egg cell.

    這內部結構包含了兩個卵巢內積有數以千萬計的小囊,叫做卵巢濾泡,每一個裡面都含有一個卵母細胞,一個未受精的卵細胞。

  • At puberty, ovaries hold over 400 thousand egg cells but release only one each month, which results in pregnancy or a period.

    在青春期的時候,卵巢內有超過 40 萬的卵細胞,但是每個月只排出一個, 此致懷孕或月經。

  • Here's how this cycle unfolds.

    以下是這個循環的樣子。

  • Each month beginning around puberty, the hormone-producing pituitary gland in the brain starts releasing two substances into the blood: follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

    在青春期左右的時候開始這每月的循環,在大腦中產生賀爾蒙的腦下垂體開始在血液中排出兩種物質: 卵巢濾泡刺激賀爾蒙和黃體激素。

  • When they reach the ovaries, they encourage the internal egg cells to grow and mature.

    當它們到達卵巢的時候,它們刺激內部卵細胞成長和熟成。

  • The follicles respond by pumping out estrogen.

    卵巢藉由排出雌激素來反應。

  • The egg cells grow and estrogen levels peak, inhibiting the production of FSH, and telling the pituitary to pump out more LH.

    卵細胞成長,且雌激素濃度提高,阻礙促濾泡成熟激素的生成,並且通知腦垂體要釋放更多黃體激素。

  • That causes only the most mature egg cell from one of the ovaries to burst out of the follicle and through the ovary wall.

    這導致了只有其中一個卵巢中最成熟的卵細胞噴出濾泡,並經過卵巢壁。

  • This is called ovulation, and it usually happens ten to sixteen days before the start of a period.

    這就稱為排卵,這通常在月經開始前 10 到 15 天會發生。

  • The tiny oocyte moves along the fallopian tube.

    小小的卵細胞隨著輸卵管移動。

  • A pregnancy can only occur if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell within the next 24 hours; otherwise, the egg's escapade ends, and the window for pregnancy closes for that month.

    在接下來的 24 小時內,卵子與精子受精的時候就會懷孕,否則,意味著卵子使命的終結, 本月懷孕的時機就結束了。

  • Meanwhile, the now empty follicle begins to release progesterone, another hormone that tells the womb's lining to plump up with blood and nutrients in preparation for a fertilized egg that may embed there and grow.

    同時,現在空的濾泡開始排放黃體酮,這是另一種賀爾蒙,來通知子宮內壁要填滿血液和營養素,為受精卵可在那著床和成長做準備。

  • If it doesn't embed, a few days later, the body's progesterone and estrogen levels plummet, meaning the womb stops padding out and starts to degenerate, eventually falling away.

    如果沒有著床,幾天以後,身體的黃體酮和雌激素濃度急速下降,意味著子宮停止增厚並開始退化, 最終脫落。

  • Blood and tissue leave the body, forming the period.

    血液和子宮內膜脫離身體,形成月經。

  • The womb can take up to a week to clear out its unused contents, after which, the cycle begins anew.

    子宮會需要一周時間來清理沒用到的內膜,然後,循環又重新開始。

  • Soon afterwards, the ovaries begin to secrete estrogen again, and the womb lining thickens, getting ready to accommodate a fertilized egg or be shed.

    很快之後,卵巢又開始分泌雌激素,然後子宮內膜就增厚,準備好讓受精卵著床或是流出。

  • Hormones continually control these activities by circulating in ideal amounts delivered at just the right time.

    賀爾蒙透過在適當的時間以理想的量循環,來持續控制這些活動。

  • The cycle keeps on turning, transforming each day and each week into a milestone along its course towards pregnancy or a period.

    循環又繼續進行下去,將每一天、每一周變成懷孕或月經期間的一個里程碑。

  • Although this cycle appears to move by clockwork, there's room for variation; women and their bodies are unique, after all.

    雖然這個循環就像時鐘一樣的進行,還是有變化的可能性,畢竟,女性和她們的身體都是獨一無二的。

  • Menstrual cycles occur at different times in the month, ovulation comes at various points in the cycle, and some periods last longer than others.

    月經循環在每個月的不同時間發生,在循環中任何時刻都有可能會排卵, 而且有些月經持續的時間比其他的還要長。

  • Menstruation even begins and ends at different times in life for different women, too; in other words, variations between periods are normal.

    一生中,不同女性的月經在開始和結束的時間都不同,換句話說,每個月經的變異性是很正常的。

  • Appreciating these differences and learning about this monthly process can empower women, giving them the tools to understand and take charge of their own bodies.

    欣賞這個異同,和學習這每月的過程可以賦予女性權力,賦予她們能夠了解自己身體和主宰自己身體的工具。

  • That way, they're able to factor this small cycle into a much larger cycle of life.

    如此一來,她們就能夠將這個小周期化為一個更大的生命週期。

This might seem hard to believe, but right now, 300 million women across the planet are experiencing the same thing: a period.

這或許能難令人置信,但是現在全球 3 億女性正在經歷同樣的事情——月經。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 月經 循環 細胞 子宮 賀爾蒙

【Ted-Ed】女性生理期是如何運作的呢? (How menstruation works - Emma Bryce)

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    SylviaQQ 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 26 日
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