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  • The National Palace Museum is a museum in Shilin, Taipei, Taiwan. It has a permanent

  • collection of more than 696,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks,

  • one of the largest in the world. The collection encompasses over 10,000 years of Chinese history

  • from the Neolithic age to the late Qing Dynasty. Most of the collection are high quality pieces

  • collected by China's ancient emperors. The National Palace Museum and the Palace

  • Museum in the Forbidden City in Beijing, People's Republic of China, share the same roots. They

  • split in two as a result of the Chinese Civil War which divided China into the two countries

  • of the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. In English, the institution

  • in Taipei is distinguished from the one in Beijing by the additional "National" designation.

  • In common usage in Chinese, the institution in Taipei is known as the "Taipei Gugong",

  • while that in Beijing is known as the "Beijing Gugong".

  • History Establishment in Beijing and relocation

  • The National Palace Museum was originally established as the Palace Museum in Beijing's

  • Forbidden City on 10 October 1925, shortly after the expulsion of Puyi, the last emperor

  • of China, from the Forbidden City by warlord Feng Yü-hsiang. The articles in the museum

  • consisted of the valuables of the former Imperial family.

  • In 1931, shortly after the Mukden Incident Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist

  • Government ordered the museum to make preparations to evacuate its most valuable pieces out of

  • the city to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army. As

  • a result, from 6 February to 15 May 1933, the Palace Museum's 13,491 crates and 6,066

  • crates of objects from the Exhibition Office of Ancient Artifacts, the Yiheyuan and the

  • Hanlin Yuan Imperial Academy were moved in five groups to Shanghai. In 1936, the collection

  • was moved to Nanjing after the construction of the storage in the Taoist monastery Chaotian

  • Palace was complete. As the Imperial Japanese Army advanced farther inland during the Second

  • Sino-Japanese War, which merged into the greater conflict of World War II, the collection was

  • moved westward via three routes to several places including Anshun and Leshan until the

  • surrender of Japan in 1945. In 1947, it was shipped back to the Nanjing warehouse.

  • Evacuation to Taiwan The Chinese Civil War resumed following the

  • surrender of the Japanese, ultimately resulting in Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's decision

  • to evacuate the arts to Taiwan. When the fighting worsened in 1948 between the Communist and

  • Nationalist armies, the Palace Museum and other five institutions made the decision

  • to send some of the most prized items to Taiwan. Hang Li-wu, later director of the museum,

  • supervised the transport of some of the collection in three groups from Nanjing to the harbor

  • in Keelung, Taiwan between December 1948 and February 1949. By the time the items arrived

  • in Taiwan, the Communist army had already seized control of the Palace Museum collection

  • so not all of the collection could be sent to Taiwan. A total of 2,972 crates of artifacts

  • from the Forbidden City moved to Taiwan only accounted for 22% of the crates originally

  • transported south, although the pieces represented some of the very best of the collection.

  • The collection from the Palace Museum, the Preparatory Office of the National Central

  • Museum, the National Central Library, and the National Beiping Library was stored in

  • a railway warehouse in Yangmei following transport across the Taiwan Strait and was later moved

  • to the storage in cane sugar mill near Taichung. In 1949, the Executive Yuan created the Joint

  • Managerial Office, for the Palace Museum, the Preparatory Office of the Central Museum

  • and the Central Library to oversee the organization of the collection. For security reasons, the

  • Joint Managerial Office chose the mountain village of Beikou, located in Wufeng, Taichung

  • as the new storage site for the collection in the same year. In the following year, the

  • collection stored in cane sugar mill was transported to the new site in Beikou.

  • With the Central Library's reinstatement in 1955, the collection from the Beiping Library

  • was simultaneously incorporated into the Central Library. The Joint Managerial Office of the

  • National Palace Museum and the Preparatory Office of the National Central Museum stayed

  • in Beikou for another ten years. During the decade, the Office obtained a grant from the

  • Asia Foundation to construct a small-scale exhibition hall in the spring of 1956. The

  • exhibition hall, opened in March 1957, was divided into four galleries in which it was

  • possible to exhibit more than 200 items. In the autumn of 1960, the Office received

  • a grant of NT$32 million from AID. The Republic of China government also contributed more

  • than NT$30 million to establish a special fund for the construction of a museum in the

  • Taipei suburb of Waishuanxi. The construction of the museum in Waishuanxi was completed

  • in August 1965. The new museum site was christened the "Chung-Shan Museum" in honor of the founding

  • father of the ROC, Sun Yat-sen, and first opened to the public on the centenary of Sun

  • Yat-sen's birthday. Since then, the museum in Taipei has managed, conserved and exhibited

  • the collections of the Palace Museum and the Preparatory Office of the National Central

  • Museum.

  • During the 1960s and 1970s, the National Palace Museum was used by the Kuomintang to support

  • its claim that the Republic of China was the sole legitimate government of all China, in

  • that it was the sole preserver of traditional Chinese culture amid social change and the

  • Cultural Revolution in mainland China, and tended to emphasize Chinese nationalism.

  • The People's Republic of China government has long said that the collection was stolen

  • and that it legitimately belongs in China, but Taiwan has defended its collection as

  • a necessary act to protect the pieces from destruction, especially during the Cultural

  • Revolution. However, relations regarding this treasure have warmed in recent years and the

  • Palace Museum in Beijing has agreed to lend relics to the National Palace Museum for exhibitions

  • since 2009. The Palace Museum curator Zheng Xinmiao have said that the artifacts in both

  • mainland and Taiwan museums are "China's cultural heritage jointly owned by people across the

  • Taiwan Strait." A number of Chinese artifacts dating from

  • the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty, some of which had been owned by Emperor Zhenzong,

  • were excavated and then came into the hands of the Kuomintang General Ma Hongkui, who

  • refused to publicize the findings. Among the artifacts were a white marble tablet from

  • the Tang Dynasty, gold nails, and bands made out of metal. It was not until after Ma died

  • that his wife went to Taiwan in 1971 from America to bring the artifacts to Chiang Kai-shek,

  • who turned them over to the National Palace Museum.

  • Museum building

  • The National Palace Museum's main building in Taipei was designed by Huang Baoyu and

  • constructed from March 1964 to August 1965. Due to the insufficient space to put on display

  • over 600,000 artifacts, the museum underwent expansions in 1967, 1970, 1984 and 1996. In

  • 2002, the museum underwent a major $21-million-dollar renovation revamping the museum to make it

  • more spacious and modern. The renovation closed about two-thirds of the museum section and

  • the museum officially reopened in February 2007.

  • Permanent exhibitions of painting and calligraphy are rotated once every three months. Approximately

  • 3,000 pieces of the museum's collection can be viewed at a given time.

  • Collections

  • Statistics Complete inventory inspection has been taken

  • three times in 1951–1954, 1989–1991 and 2008–2012 since the museum started to bring

  • collections to Taiwan in 1948. According to official report, the museum house Chinese

  • calligraphy, porcelain, bronzes, paintings, jades and many other artifacts, with 22% of

  • the boxes originally transported south from the Forbidden City. Other additions include

  • transfers from other institutions, donations, and purchases made by the museum. The museum

  • has accumulated more than 696,000 artifacts of significant historical or artistic values.

  • With a collection of this size, only 1% of the collection is exhibited at a given time.

  • The rest of the collection is stored in temperature controlled vaults.

  • Notable items The museum houses several treasured items

  • that are the pride of their collection and famous worldwide. They include:

  • Antiquities The antiquities in the National Palace Museum

  • span over thousands of years with a variety of genres.

  • Among the collections of bronzes, Zong Zhou Zhong, commissioned by King Li of Zhou, is

  • the most important musical instrument cast under his royal decree. Mao Gong Ding of the

  • late Western Zhou Dynasty carries the longest Chinese bronze inscriptions so far extent.

  • Ru wares, one of the most precious Chinese ceramics, were made exclusively for the court

  • and were ranked among the Ding, Jun, Guan and Ge as the "five classic wares" of the

  • Song Dynasty. The National Palace Museum is a major collection site for the aforementioned

  • kilns. Those from the official kilns of the Ming and Qing dynasties, such as the doucai

  • porcelains of the Chenghua reign in the Ming Dynasty and painted enamel porcelains from

  • the early Qing, are also of excellent quality. One of the most popular pieces of jade carvings

  • in the museum is the "Jadeite Cabbage". It's a piece of jadeite carved into the shape of

  • a cabbage head, and with a large and a small grasshopper camouflaged in the leaves. The

  • ruffled semi-translucent leaves attached is due to the masterful combination of various

  • natural color of the jade to recreate the color variations of a real cabbage. The "Meat-shaped

  • Stone" is often exhibited together with the Jadeite Cabbage. A piece of jasper, a form

  • of agate, the strata of which are cleverly used to create a likeness of a piece of pork

  • cooked in soy sauce. The dyed and textured surface makes the layers of skin, lean meat,

  • and fat materialized incredibly lifelike. Other various carvings of materials such as

  • bamboo, wood, ivory, rhinoceros horn, and fruit pits are exhibited. The "Carved Olive-stone

  • Boat" is a tiny boat carved from an olive stone. The incredibly fully equipped skilled

  • piece is carved with a covered deck and moveable windows. The interior has chairs, dishes on

  • a table and eight figures representing the characters of Su Shih's Latter Ode on the

  • Red Cliff. The bottom is carved in minute character the entire 300+ character text with

  • the date and the artist's name. Painting and calligraphy

  • The paintings in the National Palace Museum date from the Tang Dynasty to the modern era.

  • The collection covers over one thousand years of Chinese painting, and encompasses a wide

  • range of genres, including landscape, flower and bird, figure painting, boundary painting,

  • etc. Among the most famous paintings in the collection is the Qing Palace version of Zhang

  • Zeduan's Along the River During the Qingming Festival. Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains

  • by Huang Gongwang of Yuan Dynasty is one of the most dramatized pieces. The museum has

  • a vast collection of calligraphy works from the hands of major calligraphers, scholars

  • and important courtiers in history. The calligraphy works date from the Jin and Tang dynasties,

  • with a variety of styles. Rare books and documents

  • Rare books in the National Palace Museum range from the Song and Yuan dynasties to the Ming

  • and Qing dynasties, amounting to over 200,000 volumes. Yongle Encyclopedia and Siku Quanshu

  • are among the examples. Historical documents in the museum include

  • Jiu Manzhou Dang, a set of Manchu archives that are the sourcebook of Manwen Laodang

  • and a primary source of early Manchu history. Other official documents such as the court

  • archives are available for research in the history of the Qing Dynasty.

  • Overseas exhibitions Due to fears that the artifacts may be impounded

  • and be claimed by China due to the controversial political status of Taiwan, the museum does

  • not conduct exhibitions in mainland China. Since the museum's 1965 establishment in Taipei,

  • the National Palace Museum has only made four large overseas exhibitions in countries which

  • have passed laws to prevent judicial seizure of the treasures. The past four overseas events

  • were to the United States in 1996, France in 1998, Germany in 2003 and Austria in 2008.

  • The next major overseas exhibition is scheduled to be held in Tokyo National Museum and Kyushu

  • National Museum in 2014 after the completion of the legislative process in Japan.

  • The past overseas exhibitions are as follows: 1935: "London International Exhibition of

  • Chinese Art" at the British Museum London. 1940: "Chinese Art Exhibition" in Moscow,

  • Leningrad. 1961: "Ancient Chinese Art Exhibition" National

  • Gallery of Art in Washington DC, New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, Boston Museum

  • of Fine Arts, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.

  • 1973: "China Exhibition" in Seoul, South Korea. 1991: "On the Occasion of 1492: the art of

  • the Age of Exploration" at the Washington National Gallery of Art.

  • 1996: "Splendors of Imperial China" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Contemporary

  • Art, Chicago, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, Washington, DC National Gallery of Art exhibition.

  • 1998: "Empire of Memory" at the Grand Palais in Paris exhibition.

  • 1999: National Palace Museum exhibition in Central America.

  • 2000: "Taoism and Chinese art," Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago and Asian Art Museum

  • of San Francisco. 2003: "Treasures of the Son of Heaven," the

  • old museum in Berlin, Bonn, Federal Art Gallery touring exhibition.

  • 2005: "Museum of World Culture Expo Korea" in Korea.

  • 2005: "The Mongolian Empire - Genghis Khan and his generation" exhibition at the Museum

  • of Anthropology in Munich, Germany. 2006: "magnificent years of the Qing court"

  • exhibition at the Guimet Museum, France. 2007: "Shanghai - Modern Art" exhibition in

  • Japan. 2008: "Imperial Treasures" in the Kunsthistorisches

  • Museum Vienna exhibition. Other visitor facilities

  • Zhishan Garden Housed within the compound of the National

  • Palace Museum, this classical Chinese Song and Ming style garden covers 1.88 hectares.

  • It incorporates the principles of such diverse fields as feng shui, Chinese architecture,

  • water management, landscape design, and Chinese folklore and metaphor. It contains numerous

  • ponds, waterworks, and wooden Chinese pavilions. It was completed and opened in 1985. There

  • is also another Chinese Style Garden nearby called the Shuangxi Park and Chinese Garden.

  • Chang Dai-chien residence The National Palace Museum also maintains

  • the residence of renowned Chinese painter Chang Dai-chien. The residence, known as the

  • Chang Dai-chien Residence or the Abode of Maya, was constructed in 1976 and completed

  • in 1978. It is a two-story Siheyuan building with Chinese-style gardens occupying approximately

  • 1,911 m². After Chang's death in 1983, the house and gardens were donated to the National

  • Palace Museum and turned into a museum and memorial.

  • Future expansions Southern Branch

  • The National Palace Southern Branch will be located in Taibao, Chiayi County, Taiwan and

  • set on 70 hectares of land. Besides the museum, there will be a lake and Asian style garden.

  • The Southern Branch of the National Palace Museum is an institution conceived for the

  • promotion of Asian arts and culture. The building was to be designed by architect Antoine Predock

  • and began construction in 2005. However due to serious construction delays and disputes

  • between the contractors and the museum, the firm pulled out in 2008. Museum director Chou

  • Kung-shin stated in August 2010 that new architects for the project would commence, with construction

  • expected to be completed in 2015. The project is expected to cost NT$7.9 billion and spread

  • over 70 hectares. It will be designed by the Taiwan-based firm Artech Inc. and will be

  • both earthquake resistant and flood resistant. Grand Palace Museum Project

  • The Grand Palace Museum Project, officially launched in 2011, is a plan to expand the

  • exhibition area in Taipei and improve the environment. The total budget for renovation

  • should be around 10 to 12 billion NT dollars. Gallery

  • See also Forbidden City

  • Chinese art List of museums in Taipei

  • Taipei Republic of China

  • List of museums in Taiwan Footnotes

  • External links

The National Palace Museum is a museum in Shilin, Taipei, Taiwan. It has a permanent

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故宮博物院 (National Palace Museum)

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    Jace Ju 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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