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  • So, my name is Kakani Katija, and I'm a bioengineer. I study marine organisms in their natural environment.

    我叫 Kakani Katija,我是一個生物工程學家。我研究天然環境中的海洋生物。

  • And what I wanna point out, and at least you can see this in this visualization, is that the ocean environment is a dynamic place.


  • What you're seeing are the kinds of currents, as well as the whirls, that are left behind in the ocean because of tides or because of winds.

    你正看到的是各種洋流,以及渦旋, 這些因為潮汐或者風的流動而在海洋中留下痕跡的渦旋。

  • And imagine a marine organism as living in this environment, right, and they're trying to undergo their entire lives while dealing with currents like these.


  • But what I also want to point out is that small organisms also create small fluid motions, as well, and it's these fluid motions that I study.


  • And we can think about them like being footprints.


  • So, this is my dog Kieran, and take a look at her footprints.


  • Footprints provide a lot of information


  • not only do they tell us what kind of organism left them, they might also tell us something about when that organism was there, but also what kind of behavior: were they running or were they walking?

    不只告訴我們是什麼生物留下它們,也可能告訴我們什麼時候那個生物個體曾出現, 還有其行為:是在跑動、還是走路?

  • And so, terrestrial organisms, like my cute dog Kieran, might be leaving footprints behind in dirt or in sand,

    所以陸上生物,就像我的可愛小狗 Kieran,可能在泥土或沙上留下足跡。

  • but marine organisms leave footprints in the form of what we call wake structures, or hydrodynamic signatures, in fluid.


  • Now imagine, it's really hard to see these kinds of structures because fluid is transparent; however, if we add something to the fluid, we get a completely different picture.


  • And you can see that these footprints that marine organisms create are just dynamicthey are constantly changing.


  • And marine organisms also have the ability to sense these signatures.


  • They can also inform decisions, like whether or not they wanna continue following a signature like this to find a mate or to find food, or maybe avoid these signatures, right, to avoid being eaten.


  • So, imagine the ability to be able to not only see or visualize these kinds of signatures but to also measure them.

    所以請想像一種,不但可以看到或具象化這些跡訊, 而且還可以測量它們的能力。

  • This is the engineering side of what I do.


  • And so, what I've done is I actually took a laboratory technique and miniaturized it and basically shrunk it down into the use of underwater housings to make a device that a single scuba diver can use.

    為此,實際上我採用了一種實驗室技術使之微型化,基本上縮小到可以放進水下設備外罩內, 做成一個潛水員可單獨使用的裝置。

  • And so, a single scuba diver can go anywhere from the surface to 40 meters, or 120 feet deep, to measure the hydrodynamic signatures that organisms create.

    這樣一來,潛水員可以在水面到 40 公尺深處到處移動,或是說 120 英尺深, 去測量生物個體產生的水動力跡訊。

  • Before I begin, I kinda wanna to immerse you into what these kinds of measurements require.


  • So, in order to work, we actually dive at night, and this is because we're trying to minimize any interactions between the laser and sunlight,


  • and we're diving in complete darkness because we do not want to scare away the organisms we're trying to study.


  • And then once we find the organisms we're interested in, we turn on a green laser. And this green laser is actually illuminating a sheet of fluid, and in that fluid, it's reflecting off of particles that are found everywhere in the ocean.

    一旦我們發現了目標生物,就開啟綠色雷射光,而這個綠色雷射光會照亮一片海水,而在這片海水中, 它反射了海洋中隨處可見的微粒。

  • And so, as an animal swims through this laser sheet, you can see these particles are moving over time, and so, we actually risk our lives to get this kind of data.


  • What you're gonna see is that on the left, these due particles images that shows the displacement of fluid over time,


  • and using that data, you can actually extract what the velocity of that fluid is, and that's indicated by the vector plots that you see in the middle.


  • And then we can use that data to answer a variety of different questions, not only to understand the rotational sense of that fluid, which you see on the right,

    然後我們可以用這些資料來解答各式各樣的問題,不僅是瞭解流體的循環, 如同你在右邊圖像看到的,

  • but also estimate something about energetics, or the kinds of forces that act on these organisms or on the fluid, and also evaluate swimming and feeding performance.


  • We've used this technique on a variety of different organisms, but remember, there's an issue here: we're only able to study organisms that a scuba diver can reach.


  • And so, before I finish, I kinda wanna tell you what the next frontier is, in terms of these kinds of measurements.


  • And with collaborators at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute,


  • we're developing instrumentation to go on remotely operated vehicles so, we can study organisms anywhere from the surface down to 4000 meters, or two and a half miles.

    我們正在發展遙控儀器,讓我們能研究任何從海水表面到 4000 公尺深的生物, 或是 2.5 英里深。

  • And so, we can answer really interesting questions about this organism, this is a larvacean, that creates a feeding current and forces fluids through their mucus house and extracts nutrients.

    所以我們真的可以解答一些生物上非常有趣的問題:這是一種尾海鞘, 牠會產生掠食激流,迫使液體流向牠們的黏液腔, 然後汲取養分。

  • And then this animal, this is a siphonophore, and they can get to lengths about half the size of a football field, and they're able to swim vertically in the ocean by just creating jet propulsion.


  • And then finally we can answer these questions about how swarming organisms, like krill, are able to affect mixing on larger scales.

    然後最後我們可以解答這些問題:關於蜂擁而居的生物個體,例如磷蝦, 如何在大尺度上影響海水混和。

  • And this is actually one of the most interesting results so far that we've collected are using the scuba diving device in that organisms,


  • especially when they're moving in mass, are able to generate mixing at levels that are equivalent to some other physical processes that are associated with winds and tides.


  • But before I finish, I kinda wanna leave you all with a question because I think it's important to keep in mind that technologies today that we take for granted started somewhere, right: it was inspired from something.

    而在我結束之前,我想留給你們大家一個問題, 我相信這有必要銘記在心,就是現在我們視為理所當然的科技是從某些地方發展而來的——某些事物賦予了人們靈感。

  • So, imagine, right, scientists and engineers were inspired by birds to create airplanes.


  • And something we take for granted, flying from, let's say, San Francisco to New York, is something that was inspired by an organism.

    我們視為理所當然的事情,像是從舊金山飛行到紐約, 這靈感是由一種生物個體所喚起的。

  • And as we're developing these new technologies to understand marine organisms, what we wanna do is answer this question: how will marine organisms inspire us?


  • Will they allow us to develop new underwater technologies, like underwater vehicles that look like a jellyfish?


  • I think it's a really exciting time in ocean exploration because now we have the tools available to answer this kind of question,


  • and with the help of you guys at some point, you can apply these tools to answer this kind of question and also develop technologies of the future.


  • Thank you.


So, my name is Kakani Katija, and I'm a bioengineer. I study marine organisms in their natural environment.

我叫 Kakani Katija,我是一個生物工程學家。我研究天然環境中的海洋生物。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 生物 流體 海洋 個體 海水

【TED-Ed】令人驚豔卻隱形的海洋生物足跡 (The surprising (and invisible) signatures of sea creatures - Kakani Katija)

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    Casper Hsu 發佈於 2021 年 07 月 13 日