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  • Which of these has the least carbohydrates?


  • This roll of bread?


  • This bowl of rice?


  • Or this can of soda?


  • It's a trick question.


  • Although they may differ in fats, vitamins, and other nutritional content, when it comes to carbs, they're pretty much the same.


  • So what exactly does that mean for your diet?


  • First of all, carbohydrate is the nutritional category for sugars and molecules that your body breaks down to make sugars.


  • Carbohydrates can be simple or complex depending on their structure.


  • This is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide.


  • Glucose, fructose, and galactose are all simple sugars.


  • Link two of them together, and you've got a disaccharide, lactose, maltose, or sucrose.

    兩個單糖連結在一起就形成了雙糖、乳糖、麥芽糖或蔗糖 。

  • Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, have three or more simple sugars strung together.


  • Complex carbohydrates with three to ten linked sugars are oligosaccharides.

    如果有三到十個複合碳水化合物鍵結在一起,則被稱作寡糖 。

  • Those with more than ten are polysaccharides.


  • During digestion, your body breaks down those complex carbohydrates into their monosaccharide building blocks, which your cells can use for energy.

    在消化過程中,我們的身體會把這些複合碳水化合物分解成單糖體 ,作為細胞的能量來源 。

  • So when you eat any carbohydrate-rich food, the sugar level in your blood, normally about a teaspoon, goes up.


  • But your digestive tract doesn't respond to all carbohydrates the same.


  • Consider starch and fiber, both polysaccharides, both derived from plants, both composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides joined together,


  • but they're joined together differently, and that changes the effect they have on your body.


  • In starches, which plants mostly store for energy in roots and seeds, glucose molecules are joined together by alpha linkages, most of which can be easily cleaved by enzymes in your digestive tract.


  • But in fiber, the bonds between monosaccharide molecules are beta bonds, which your body can't break down.


  • Fiber can also trap some starches, preventing them from being cleaved, resulting in something called resistant starch.

    同時纖維也會阻攔一些澱粉,防止它被分解。這就被稱為抗性澱粉 。

  • So foods high in starch, like crackers and white bread, are digested easily, quickly releasing a whole bunch of glucose into your blood, exactly what would happen if you drank something high in glucose, like soda.


  • These foods have a high glycemic index, the amount that a particular food raises the sugar level in your blood.


  • Soda and white bread have a similar glycemic index because they have a similar effect on your blood sugar.


  • But when you eat foods high in fiber, like vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, those indigestible beta bonds slow the release of glucose into the blood.


  • Those foods have a lower glycemic index, and foods like eggs, cheese, and meats have the lowest glycemic index.


  • When sugar moves from the digestive tract to the bloodstream, your body kicks into action to transfer it into your tissues where it can be processed and used for energy.

    當糖從消化器系統擴散到血液中時,身體會開始將糖輸送至組織中,並轉換成能量來源 。

  • Insulin, a hormone synthesized in the pancreas, is one of the body's main tools for sugar management.


  • When you eat and your blood sugar rises, insulin is secreted into the blood.

    當我們吃完東西後血糖上升時,身體會分泌胰島素到血液中 。

  • It prompts your muscle and fat cells to let glucose in, and jump-starts the conversion of sugar to energy.

    它會促進葡萄糖進入肌肉和脂肪細胞中,並將糖分開始轉換成能量 。

  • The degree to which a unit of insulin lowers the blood sugar helps us understand something called insulin sensitivity.


  • The more a given unit of insulin lowers blood sugar, the more sensitive you are to insulin.


  • If insulin sensitivity goes down, that's known as insulin resistance.


  • The pancreas still sends out insulin, but cells, especially muscle cells, are less and less responsive to it, so blood sugar fails to decrease, and blood insulin continues to rise.


  • Chronically consuming a lot of carbohydrates may lead to insulin resistance, and many scientists believe that insulin resistance leads to a serious condition called metabolic syndrome.

    長期攝取過多的碳水化合物可能導致胰島素抗性,而許多科學家認為胰島素抗性會導致一種稱為代謝症候群的嚴重狀況 。

  • That involves a constellation of symptoms, including high blood sugar, increased waist circumference, and high blood pressure.

    該症候群包括了一系列的症狀,包含了高血糖、腰圍增加和高血壓 。

  • It increases the risk of developing conditions, like cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes.


  • And its prevalence is rapidly increasing all over the world.


  • As much as 32% of the population in the US has metabolic syndrome.

    在美國 32% 的人有代謝症候群。

  • So let's get back to your diet.


  • Whether your food tastes sweet or not, sugar is sugar, and too many carbs can be a problem.


  • So maybe you'll want to take a pass on that pasta sushi roll pita burrito donut burger sandwich.


Which of these has the least carbohydrates?


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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 胰島素 碳水化合物 血糖 鍵結 細胞

【TED-Ed】碳水化合物如何影響你的健康? (How do carbohydrates impact your health? - Richard J. Wood)

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    Casper Hsu 發佈於 2021 年 08 月 05 日