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  • Many believe driving is an activity solely reserved for those who can see.

    很多人認為開車是一項只有看得見的人才能從事的活動。

  • A blind person driving a vehicle safely and independently was thought to be an impossible task, until now.

    直到現在,讓全盲的人安全地獨自開車還是被認為是不可能的任務。

  • Hello, my name is Dennis Hong,

    哈囉,我是丹尼斯.洪(音譯),

  • and we're bringing freedom and independence to the blind by building a vehicle for the visually impaired.

    我們透過為視力受損人士造車帶給他們獨立與自由。

  • So before I talk about this car for the blind, let me briefly tell you about another project that I worked on

    在我開始講為盲人打造的這輛車以前,我想先簡單地分享一下我先前的另一個計畫。

  • called the DARPA Urban Challenge.

    這個計劃叫美國國防先進研究計劃局(DARPA)都市挑戰。

  • Now this was about building a robotic car that can drive itself.

    目標是要造出一輛全機械化可以自動駕駛的汽車。

  • You press start, nobody touches anything, and it can reach its destination fully autonomously.

    按下開始鑑,然後什麼都不碰車子就會自動開往目的地。

  • So in 2007, our team won half a million dollars by placing third place in this competition.

    在2007年,我們團隊因為在這項競賽裡得了第三名而贏得五十萬美元。

  • So about that time, the National Federation of the Blind, or NFB, challenged the research committee about

    那時候全國盲人聯合會(NFB) 對研究委員們提出挑戰,看誰能夠開發出

  • who can develop a car that lets a blind person drive safely and independently.

    能讓盲人安全地獨自駕駛的汽車。

  • We decided to give it a try, because we thought, "Hey, how hard could it be?"

    我們決定試試看,因為我們當時覺得,「嘿,這能有多難?」

  • We have already an autonomous vehicle. We just put a blind person in it and we're done, right?

    既然已經有可以自動駕駛的汽車了,我們只要讓盲人坐進去不就大功告成了嗎?

  • We couldn't have been more wrong.

    結果我們完全搞錯了。

  • What NFB wanted was not a vehicle that can drive a blind person around, but a vehicle where a blind person can make active decisions and drive.

    他們要的不是能帶著盲人四處轉轉的載具,而是能讓盲人即時做出判斷來駕駛的車。

  • So we had to throw everything out the window and start from scratch.

    所以我們得把一切都拋諸腦後重頭開始。

  • So to test this crazy idea, we developed a small dune buggy prototype vehicle to test the feasibility.

    為了測試這個瘋狂的想法,我們做出一輛小型沙灘車的原型來看看計畫是否可行。

  • And in the summer of 2009, we invited dozens of blind youth from all over the country and gave them a chance to take it for a spin.

    在2009年的夏天,我們邀請數十個全國各地的失明青年,並讓他們有機會上車去試試。

  • It was an absolutely amazing experience.

    那經驗真的超棒的。

  • But the problem with this car was it was designed to only be driven in a very controlled environment, in a flat, closed-off parking lot -- even the lanes defined by red traffic cones.

    問題是這車子的設計只能在極度受到控制的環境下駕駛,像是平坦無人的停車場,連車道都是用紅色三角錐圍出來的。

  • So with this success, we decided to take the next big step, to develop a real car that can be driven on real roads.

    這項成功促使我們決定更邁進一步研發出能在真實道路上駕駛的汽車。

  • So how does it work?

    那又是怎麼做到的呢?

  • Well, it's a rather complex system, but let me try to explain it, make it simplified.

    嗯,這系統有點複雜但我會試著用最簡單的話來解釋。

  • So we have three steps.

    一共分成三部份。

  • We have perception, computation and non-visual interfaces.

    也就是知覺、計算和非視覺介面。

  • Now obviously the driver cannot see, so the system needs to perceive the environment and gather information for the driver.

    既然駕駛人看不見,這個系統就要感覺周遭環境的變化,並為駕駛人蒐集資訊。

  • For that, we use an initial measurement unit. So it measures acceleration, angular acceleration -- like a human ear, inner ear.

    因此,我們使用初步測量單元來測量加速度、角加速度,就像人類耳朵和內耳的作用一樣。

  • We fuse that information with a GPS unit to get an estimate of the location of the car.

    我們用這些訊息和GPS單元結合來估計汽車目前位置。

  • We also use two cameras to detect the lanes of the road.

    我們也用了兩架攝影機來偵測道路兩側。

  • And we also use three laser range finders.

    還有三台雷射測距儀。

  • The lasers scan the environment to detect obstacles -- a car approaching from the front, the back and also any obstacles that run into the roads,

    用來掃描周遭環境的障礙物,像是前方和後方來車、任何進入道路的障礙物,

  • any obstacles around the vehicle.

    以及在車子附近的任何障礙物。

  • So all this vast amount of information is then fed into the computer, and the computer can do two things.

    這些資料全部都會傳進電腦裡,然後電腦會做兩件事。

  • One is, first of all, process this information to have an understanding of the environment -- these are the lanes of the road, there's the obstacles -- and convey this information to the driver.

    首先,電腦會處理所有資訊來了解周遭環境 -- 這些是車道,那裡有障礙物 -- 然後傳達給駕駛人。

  • The system is also smart enough to figure out the safest way to operate the car.

    這系統聰明到可以找出最安全的駕駛方式。

  • So we can also generate instructions on how to operate the controls of the vehicle.

    所以我們還能產生指示來引導駕駛人如何控制汽車。

  • But the problem is this: How do we convey this information and instructions to a person who cannot see fast enough and accurate enough so he can drive?

    但問題來了,我們要怎樣快速又準確地將這些資訊和指示傳達給看不見的人們,讓他們可以開車呢?

  • So for this, we developed many different types of non-visual user interface technologies.

    為此,我們發展出許多不同的非視覺使用介面科技。

  • So starting from a three-dimensional ping sound system, a vibrating vest,

    首先是三維聲響系統還有振動背心,

  • a click wheel with voice commands, a leg strip, even a shoe that applies pressure to the foot.

    聲控點擊輪,大腿繫帶甚至是可以在腳掌上施壓的鞋子。

  • But today we're going to talk about three of these non-visual user interfaces.

    但今天我們要講的是以下三種非視覺使用介面。

  • Now the first interface is called a DriveGrip.

    首先是DriveGrip。

  • So these are a pair of gloves, and it has vibrating elements on the knuckle part so you can convey instructions about how to steer, and the direction and the intensity.

    那是一雙在指關節的部份有振動元件的手套,所以你可以傳達如何操作方向盤的指示,例如要往哪個方向轉,轉多少。

  • Another device is called SpeedStrip.

    另外一個裝置是SpeedStrip。

  • So this is a chair -- as a matter of fact, it's actually a massage chair.

    這是一張椅子,事實上是一張按摩椅。

  • We gut it out, and we rearrange these vibrating elements in different patterns, and we actuate them to convey information about the speed, and also instructions how to use the gas and the brake pedal.

    我們把它拆開,再把振動元件排列組合成別的樣式啟動以後,利用它們傳達關於速度的訊息,還有如何使用油門跟煞車踏板的指示。

  • So over here, you can see how the computer understands the environment, and because you cannot see the vibration, we actually put red LED's on the driver so that you can see what's happening.

    在這裡你可以看到電腦是如何了解周遭環境的,而且因為肉眼看不見振動,所以我們在駕駛身上放了紅色的LED燈,讓你可以知道發生什麼事。

  • This is the sensory data, and that data is transferred to the devices through the computer.

    這是感應元件輸出的資料,而這些資料之後會透過電腦傳送到裝置上。

  • So these two devices, DriveGrip and SpeedStrip, are very effective.

    DriveGrip 和 SpeedStrip這兩個裝置的效率都很高。

  • But the problem is these are instructional cue devices.

    但問題是這些都是引導裝置。

  • So this is not really freedom, right?

    所以這並不是真正的自由,對吧?

  • The computer tells you how to drive -- turn left, turn right, speed up, stop.

    電腦告訴你該怎麼開車 -- 左轉、右轉、加速、煞車。

  • We call this the "backseat-driver problem."

    我們稱之為「後座駕駛問題」。

  • So we're moving away from the instructional cue devices, and we're now focusing more on the informational devices.

    所以,我們得把這些引導裝置擺在一邊,然後把精力放在訊息提供裝置上。

  • A good example for this informational non-visual user interface is called AirPix.

    一個非視覺訊息提供使用者介面的例子是AirPix。

  • So think of it as a monitor for the blind.

    這就像是盲人的螢幕。

  • So it's a small tablet, has many holes in it, and compressed air comes out, so it can actually draw images.

    就是一個小面板,上面有很多小洞壓縮空氣會從洞裡噴出來,所以能夠描繪圖像。

  • So even though you are blind, you can put your hand over it, you can see the lanes of the road and obstacles.

    所以即使眼睛看不見,把手放在板子上也可以看到車道和障礙物。

  • Actually, you can also change the frequency of the air coming out and possibly the temperature.

    而且,還可以改變空氣噴出的頻率甚至溫度。

  • So it's actually a multi-dimensional user interface.

    這其實是一個多維度的使用者介面。

  • So here you can see the left camera, the right camera from the vehicle and how the computer interprets that and sends that information to the AirPix.

    在這裡你可以看到汽車的左右攝影機鏡頭,還有電腦如何解讀並傳送訊息到AirPix。

  • For this, we're showing a simulator, a blind person driving using the AirPix.

    為此,我們要展示一個模擬器,讓盲人在駕駛時使用AirPix。

  • This simulator was also very useful for training the blind drivers and also quickly testing different types of ideas for different types of non-visual user interfaces.

    模擬器對訓練盲人駕駛也很有用,還可以快速測試不同類型的非視覺使用者介面。

  • So basically that's how it works.

    這模擬器大概是這樣運作的。

  • So just a month ago, on January 29th,

    大約一個月前,也就是一月二十九號,

  • we unveiled this vehicle for the very first time to the public at the world-famous Daytona International Speedway during the Rolex 24 racing event.

    我們第一次在全球知名的迪通拿國際賽車場上公開展示這輛車,當時正值勞力士迪通拿24小時耐力賽。

  • We also had some surprises. Let's take a look.

    我們也準備了一些驚喜,讓我們一起來看看。

  • (Video) Announcer: This is an historic day in January.

    (影片)司儀:這是歷史性的一天。

  • He's coming up to the grandstand, fellow Federationists.

    他正在接近主看台。

  • (Cheering)

    (歡呼聲)

  • (Honking)

    (喇叭聲)

  • There's the grandstand now.

    他到主看台了。

  • And he's [unclear] following that van that's out in front of him.

    而且正跟著前方那輛廂型車。

  • Well there comes the first box. Now let's see if Mark avoids it.

    然後第一個箱子出現,讓我們看看馬克能不能避開它。

  • He does. He passes it on the right.

    他躲過了,閃到右邊去。

  • Third box is out. The fourth box is out.

    第三和第四個箱子也出現了。

  • And he's perfectly making his way between the two.

    他完美的從中間穿過。

  • He's closing in on the van to make the moving pass.

    他將接近廂型車然後超車。

  • Well this is what it's all about, this kind of dynamic display of audacity and ingenuity.

    就是這麼回事,無畏和創造力的展現。

  • He's approaching the end of the run, makes his way between the barrels that are set up there.

    現在他正接近終點,躲開那些跑道上的桶子。

  • (Honking)

    (喇叭聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Dennis Hong: I'm so happy for you.

    丹尼斯:我好替你高興。

  • Mark's going to give me a ride back to the hotel. -Yes.

    馬克會載我回旅館。 -對。

  • DH: So since we started this project, we've been getting hundreds of letters, emails, phone calls from people from all around the world.

    丹尼斯:自從我們開始這項計畫以來,我們接到來自世界各地數以百計的信件、電子郵件和電話。

  • Letters thanking us, but sometimes you also get funny letters like this one:

    有感謝信,但有時候也會收到一些有趣的信,像是這封:

  • "Now I understand why there is Braille on a drive-up ATM machine."

    「我現在知道為什麼得來速提款機上會有點字了。」

  • But sometimes --

    但有時候 --

  • But sometimes I also do get, you know I wouldn't call it hate mail,

    有時候我也會收到,不能說是黑特信,

  • but letters of really strong concern:

    但卻表示強烈顧慮的信:

  • "Dr. Hong, are you insane, trying to put blind people on the road? You must be out of your mind."

    「洪博士你瘋了嗎,竟然想讓盲人開車上路? 你一定是發瘋了。」

  • But this vehicle is a prototype vehicle, and it's not going to be on the road until it's proven as safe as, or safer than, today's vehicle.

    但這輛車其實只是原型車,而且在被證實它跟現在的車輛一樣安全,甚至更安全以前,它不會上路。

  • And I truly believe that this can happen.

    我真的相信有一天這會成真。

  • But still, will the society, would they accept such a radical idea?

    但是,社會大眾會接受這樣的想法嗎?

  • How are we going to handle insurance? How are we going to issue driver's licenses?

    我們該怎樣處理保險?怎樣發駕照?

  • There's many of these different kinds of hurdles besides technology challenges that we need to address before this becomes a reality.

    除了技術挑戰以外,還有很多困難必須在理想成真以前面對。

  • Of course, the main goal of this project is to develop a car for the blind.

    當然,這計畫的主要目標是發展盲人用汽車。

  • But potentially more important than this is the tremendous value of the spin-off technology that can come from this project.

    但比這個更有潛力的是從這個計畫中衍生出來的相關科技的龐大價值。

  • The sensors that are used can see through the dark, the fog and rain.

    感應器能穿透黑暗、濃霧和雨。

  • And together with this new type of interfaces, we can use these technologies and apply them to safer cars for sighted people.

    而有了新式介面,我們可以將這些科技應用在給看得見的人開的車上,增加安全性。

  • Or for the blind, everyday home appliances -- in the educational setting, in the office setting.

    或者給盲人用在日常生活中、校園中或是辦公室裡。

  • Just imagine, in a classroom a teacher writes on the blackboard and a blind student can see what's written and read using these non-visual interfaces.

    想像一下,老師在教室裡的黑板上寫了東西,然後盲人學生可以透過這些非視覺介面看見它們並閱讀出來。

  • This is priceless.

    這是無價之寶。

  • So today, the things I've showed you today, is just the beginning.

    因此,我今天講的這些,只是一個開端而已。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常感謝大家。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Many believe driving is an activity solely reserved for those who can see.

很多人認為開車是一項只有看得見的人才能從事的活動。

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【TED】為盲人司機造車 | 丹尼斯-洪 【TED】Dennis Hong: Making a car for blind drivers (Dennis Hong: Making a car for blind drivers)

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    Max Lin 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 17 日
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