B1 中級 美國腔 19934 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
If you ask people whether they think stealing is wrong,
most of them would answer, "Yes."
And yet, in 2013, organizations all over the world
lost an estimated total of 3.7 trillion dollars to fraud,
which includes crimes like embezzlement, pyramid scheme, and false insurance claims.
This wasn't just the work of a few bad apples.
The truth is that many people are susceptible
not only to the temptation to commit fraud
but to convincing themselves that they've done nothing wrong.
So why does fraud happen?
While individual motivations may differ from case to case,
the fraud triangle,
a model developed by criminologist Donald Cressey,
shows three conditions that make fraud likely:
pressure, opportunity, and rationalization.
Pressure is often what motivates someone to engage in fraud to begin with.
It could be a personal debt,
an addiction,
an earnings quota,
a sudden job loss,
or an illness in the family.
As for opportunity, many people in both public and private sectors
have access to tools that enable them to commit and conceal fraud:
corporate credit cards,
internal company data,
or control over the budget.
The combination of pressure
and being exposed to such opportunities on a daily basis
can create a strong temptation.
But even with these two elements,
most fraud still requires rationalization.
Many fraudsters are first time offenders,
so in order to commit an act most would regard as wrong,
they need to justify it to themselves.
Some feel entitled to the money because they are underpaid and overworked
and others believe their fraud is victimless,
perhaps even planning to return the money once their crisis is resolved.
Some of the most common types of fraud
don't even register as such to the perpetrator.
Examples include employees fudging time sheets or expense reports,
taxpayers failing to report cash earnings,
or service providers overbilling insurance companies.
Though these may seem small,
and can sometimes only involve hundreds of dollars,
they all contribute to the big picture.
And then there's fraud on a massive scale.
In 2003, Italian dairy food giant Parmalat went bankrupt
after it was found to have fabricated a 4 billion dollar bank account
and falsified financial statements to hide the fact that its subsidiaries had been losing money.
Because it was family controlled,
corporate governance and regulator supervision were difficult,
and the company likely hoped that the losses could be recouped
before anyone found out.
And it's not just corporate greed.
Governments and non-profits are also susceptible to fraud.
During her time as City Comptroller for Dixon, Illinois,
Rita Crundwell embezzled over 53 million dollars.
Rita was one of the country's leading quarter horse breeders
and winner of 52 world championships.
But the cost of maintaining the herd ran to 200,000 dollars per month.
Because her position gave her complete control over city finances,
she was easily able to divert money
to an account she used for private expenses,
and the scheme went unnoticed for 20 years.
It is believed that Crundwell felt entitled to a lavish lifestyle
based on her position,
and the notoriety her winnings brought to the city.
It's tempting to think of fraud as a victimless crime
because corporations and civic institutions aren't people.
But fraud harms real people in virtually every case:
the employees of Parmalat who lost their jobs,
the citizens of Dixon whose taxes subsidized horse breeding,
the customers of companies which raise their prices to offset losses.
Sometimes the effects are obvious and devestating,
like when Bernie Madoff caused thousands of people to lose their life savings.
But often they're subtle and not easy to untangle.
Yet someone, somewhere is left holding the bill.
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

載入中…

【TED-Ed】人們如何合理化舞弊? (How people rationalize fraud - Kelly Richmond Pope)

19934 分類 收藏
Ann 發佈於 2016 年 1 月 6 日
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔