字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 In November 2015, a Turkish Air Force jet shot down a Russian military plane after alleging that it had violated Turkish airspace. This international incident has led to an intense standoff between Russia and Turkey, with neither side willing to acknowledge any blame. Although the two decided against going to war, Russia has since ordered economic sanctions against Turkey, and will likely cancel a multibillion dollar gas pipeline. Aggression between these countries is not new, as the two have been engaged in conflict since at least the 16th century. So, why do Russia and Turkey hate each other? Well, their negative relations date back to when Russia was still ruled by czars, and Turkey was still the massive Ottoman Empire. The two Eastern empires were split geographically by the Black Sea and ideologically by cultural identity. Russia had been Christianized since the beginning of the millennium, while the Ottoman Empire was predominantly Islamic. From 1568 until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the two fought as many as a dozen wars, considered one of the longest series of conflicts in European history. Russia emerged victorious in almost all of them. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire reduced it to a smaller Turkish Republic while Russia underwent it’s own revolution. This led the two countries towards friendly relations with the 1921 Treaty of Moscow, and a 1925 nonaggression pact. But the peace was short lived. By 1936, Turkey controlled important territory connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and refused to give the Soviet Union free access to the region. This was further complicated by World War Two, when Turkey was neutral but friendly with Nazi Germany. Around the end of the war, the Soviet Union withdrew from their non aggression pact, pushing Turkey to join NATO by 1952. The two were completely and directly opposed up until the end of the 20th century. But despite a long history of mostly negative relations, the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 prompted a renewal of cooperation. A treaty the following year began a rebuilding process, culminating in close economic ties by 2009. Huge investments on both sides, and numerous energy deals have led to billions of dollars flowing between the two countries. A planned gas pipeline, as well as a Russian nuclear power plant in Turkey had many hopeful that economic cooperation could help mend their historical animosity. But the November 2015 airplane shoot-down has completely halted friendly relations. Russia has ended communication with Turkey’s military, stopped charter flights into the country, and referred to Turkey as a supporter of terrorism. Russia also bombed rebels in Syria, intentionally close to the Turkish border. Turkey’s President, in turn, has maintained that they were within their rights to protect their territory. Nonetheless, he expressed regret over the shooting. As this tense situation progresses, it threatens to reignite the historical, neighborly rivalry between Russia and Turkey. Now you know about the tensions between Russia and Turkey, but do you know how powerful they each are individually? Watch the video at the top to learn more about Russia. If you want to learn more about Turkey’s national power, watch the video at the bottom. Thanks for watching TestTube News! Be sure to subscribe so you can keep up with more of our videos.