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  • In November 2015, a Turkish Air Force jet shot down a Russian military plane after alleging

  • that it had violated Turkish airspace. This international incident has led to an intense

  • standoff between Russia and Turkey, with neither side willing to acknowledge any blame. Although

  • the two decided against going to war, Russia has since ordered economic sanctions against

  • Turkey, and will likely cancel a multibillion dollar gas pipeline. Aggression between these

  • countries is not new, as the two have been engaged in conflict since at least the 16th

  • century. So, why do Russia and Turkey hate each other?

  • Well, their negative relations date back to when Russia was still ruled by czars, and

  • Turkey was still the massive Ottoman Empire. The two Eastern empires were split geographically

  • by the Black Sea and ideologically by cultural identity. Russia had been Christianized since

  • the beginning of the millennium, while the Ottoman Empire was predominantly Islamic.

  • From 1568 until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, the two fought as many as

  • a dozen wars, considered one of the longest series of conflicts in European history. Russia

  • emerged victorious in almost all of them.

  • The collapse of the Ottoman Empire reduced it to a smaller Turkish Republic while Russia

  • underwent it’s own revolution. This led the two countries towards friendly relations

  • with the 1921 Treaty of Moscow, and a 1925 nonaggression pact. But the peace was short

  • lived. By 1936, Turkey controlled important territory connecting the Black Sea to the

  • Mediterranean, and refused to give the Soviet Union free access to the region. This was

  • further complicated by World War Two, when Turkey was neutral but friendly with Nazi

  • Germany. Around the end of the war, the Soviet Union withdrew from their non aggression pact,

  • pushing Turkey to join NATO by 1952. The two were completely and directly opposed up until

  • the end of the 20th century.

  • But despite a long history of mostly negative relations, the fall of the Soviet Union in

  • 1991 prompted a renewal of cooperation. A treaty the following year began a rebuilding

  • process, culminating in close economic ties by 2009. Huge investments on both sides, and

  • numerous energy deals have led to billions of dollars flowing between the two countries.

  • A planned gas pipeline, as well as a Russian nuclear power plant in Turkey had many hopeful

  • that economic cooperation could help mend their historical animosity.

  • But the November 2015 airplane shoot-down has completely halted friendly relations.

  • Russia has ended communication with Turkey’s military, stopped charter flights into the

  • country, and referred to Turkey as a supporter of terrorism. Russia also bombed rebels in

  • Syria, intentionally close to the Turkish border. Turkey’s President, in turn, has

  • maintained that they were within their rights to protect their territory. Nonetheless, he

  • expressed regret over the shooting. As this tense situation progresses, it threatens to

  • reignite the historical, neighborly rivalry between Russia and Turkey.

  • Now you know about the tensions between Russia and Turkey, but do you know how powerful they

  • each are individually? Watch the video at the top to learn more about Russia. If you

  • want to learn more about Turkey’s national power, watch the video at the bottom. Thanks

  • for watching TestTube News! Be sure to subscribe so you can keep up with more of our videos.

In November 2015, a Turkish Air Force jet shot down a Russian military plane after alleging


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B2 中高級 美國腔

俄羅斯和土耳其為什麼互相仇視? (Why Do Russia And Turkey Hate Each Other?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日