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  • Hello. My name is Emma, and in today's lesson, I'm going to teach you the four futures. Okay?

    嗨,我是Emma。今天要教大家的是表示未來文法的四種型態

  • A lot of you know two futures, I think. A lot of you probably know "will" and "going to".

    相信你們都耳熟能詳兩種最常見的未來式型態,「will」和「going to」

  • I'm going to teach you two more futures today, and teach you how they're different

    今天要教大家另外兩種表示未來句型的文法,並且告訴你這些句型的

  • from one another. Okay?

    使用方法和差異

  • So let's get started with the present continuous future. So the present continuous is when

    我們先從現在進行式代表未來開始討論,現在進行式的句型呈現

  • you have "be" verb, so "I am", "you are", "he is", "she is", "they are", I don't know

    我們會使用「be動詞」(是),像是「我是」、「你是」「他是」、「她是」、「他們是」

  • if I said "we are", "we are" plus the verb and "ing". Okay? So we have "am", the v。erb,

    應該沒有漏掉「我們是」。在「我們是」後面加上「ing」。所以你會看到這句的「am」,這個be動詞

  • "ing". This is known as the present continuous. It's usually one of the first things you will

    後面的動詞有ing形式。這就是現在進行式,也是一開始接觸文法

  • learn when you're learning English. So a lot of you know the present continuous, and you

    你會遇到的句型。所以,相信你們都已經知道現在進行式的組成架構,但你可能會想

  • think: "Oh, present continuous, it's taking place now." You're right, but we can also

    「喔!我知道現在進行式就是現在正在發生的。」沒錯,但是我們也可以將它

  • use it to talk about the future. We use the present continuous to talk about future that

    用在未來式的句型。我們會用現在進行式來講述關於

  • is going to happen very, very soon.

    未來即將發生,而且很快就會發生的事件

  • So, for example, if you ask me: "Emma, what are you doing this weekend?" Well:

    例如,你問我說:「Emma,你這周末有什麼計畫?」

  • "I'm hanging out with my friend, Josh, this weekend." Okay?

    「我這周末要跟我朋友Josh出去。」

  • Or I might say: "I'm shopping this weekend.",

    或者是:「這周末我要去逛街採買。」

  • "I'm studying this weekend." If you ask me: "What are you doing tonight?" Well, you know,

    或是:「我這周末要用功念書。」若你問我說:「今晚你有什麼計畫?」

  • I want to be a good student, so: -"I'm studying tonight. I'm studying tonight."

    你知道的,我想要當個好學生。我可能會回答:「我今晚要好好認真念書。」

  • -"What are you doing next week?" -"Well, next week...

    「你下禮拜有什麼計畫?」,是還沒來臨的那個禮拜

  • I'm working next week." Okay? So present continuous

    「我下禮拜得工作。」這樣了解了嗎?現在進行式的呈現

  • is very, very common for when we're talking about the future that's going to happen soon.

    在文法中常用來表達很近、即將到來的未來時間,並且很快就會發生

  • Not future that's going to happen 2,000 years from now or 50 years from now - no, no, that's

    現在進行式不會用在代表未來2000年以後甚至是未來50年以後。不,不

  • far future. We're talking about the future that's going to happen in the next couple

    這些未來時間都太遙遠。我們使用現在進行式,是接下來的未來幾天就會發生

  • of days. Okay? So very, very soon future.

    所以是非常,非常接近的現在的未來時間

  • We can also use the simple present to talk about the future. So, the simple present is

    我們也可以用現在簡單式來表示未來。所以,現在簡單式

  • when you take a verb and, you know, it's in the basic form, usually you add an "s". If

    當一個動詞,也就是原形動詞。遇到第三人稱單數時

  • it's third-person singular, for example: "I leave", "you leave", "he leaves", "she leaves",

    動詞會做改變並在後面加上「s」。例如:「我離開」、「你/你們離開」、「他離開」、「她離開」

  • "they leave", "we leave". So this is all simple present. In your classes, you probably learned

    「他們離開」、「我們離開」。以上是關於現在簡單式,也是你一開始就會接觸到的文法句型

  • we use the simple present when we talk about routine. We can also use the simple present

    當談論到反覆施行的慣例時,我們會用現在簡單式來表達。另外

  • when we're talking about routines in the future. Okay? So, for example... And by this I mean

    也可以表達在未來的日常慣例。這樣了解嗎?例如說

  • timetables. We use this when we're talking about a schedule event; something that is

    像是時刻表,我們會用現在簡單式表達行事曆上已排定的的未來計畫

  • scheduled to happen in the future. So, this usually has to do with when we're talking

    預計在未來會發生。所以,在我們提到關於

  • about transportation; trains, airplanes, we can use this tense. We can use it when we're

    交通工具如火車、飛機的班機或行駛時間,都是用現在簡單式表達。或是

  • talking about TV shows. We can use it when we're talking about restaurants opening and

    電視節目表,或是講到餐廳的營業時間

  • closing, or stores, when they open and close. So we use this when we're thinking about a

    或是商店的營業時間。因此,現在簡單式的呈現會發生在

  • schedule or a timetable.

    時刻表或是既定排程的未來事件

  • So here are some examples: "The last train leaves at 6pm today."

    這邊有幾個例子我們一起來看:「今天最後一班火車是下午6點開。」

  • So 6pm hasn't happened yet. It's in the future,

    下午6點還沒到,在當下的對話是未來的時間

  • but because this is a schedule event, it's a timetable event,

    但是又因為火車時刻表是一個既定的時間排程

  • it's a schedule, we can use the simple present. Here's another example:

    因為是時刻表,我們可以使用現在簡單式表達。來看看其他例子

  • "The restaurant opens at 5pm today."

    「這間餐廳今天下午5點開始營業。」

  • So this hasn't happened yet. Right now, it is 2pm. This is going to happen

    對話當下是下午2點,也是還沒有到5點,但時間

  • in the future. But still, I use the simple present because this is a schedule. Okay?

    即將到來。一樣地,我們會使用現在簡單式來表達一個排定好的固定行程,可以嗎?

  • Every day the restaurant opens at 5pm.

    也就是,這間餐廳每天下午5點開始營業

  • Here's a third example, I like watching TV, imagine

    來看第三個現在簡單式的例子。我喜歡看電視

  • I like The Big Bang Theory: "My TV show, The Big Bang Theory, starts at 4pm." So again,

    我喜歡看Big Bang Theory這個電視節目,每天下午四點都會準時撥放

  • it's a routine, it's a schedule that takes place in the future, but it's still a schedule

    一樣地,又是一個反覆施行的例程。是一個未來事件,但他是一個計畫表

  • so we can use the simple present here. All right, so these two, even though they're present

    我們就會用現在簡單式來表達。因此,雖然說現在簡單式和現在進行式

  • tenses, they can be used for the future.

    它們本身是現在式型態,但是它們可以使用在表示未來時間的句型上

  • Now let's look at the two verbs we commonly use for the future or we commonly think of

    接下來,這兩個動詞是我們經常在未來式句型當中看到且最常運用的

  • as future verbs. "Be going to" + a verb and "will". So, "be going to" + verb:

    未來式動詞。「be going to」加上動詞原形,和「will」加上動詞原形。「be going to」加上原形動詞的句型

  • "I'm going to study.", "I'm going to sleep.",

    「我正準備回房間念書」、「我正準備就寢」

  • "You are going to watch a video." Okay? These are examples

    「你正要看DVD」可以嗎?這些都是

  • of the "be going to" + verb future.

    「be going to」加上原形動詞的未來式句型

  • So we use this when we're talking about the near future.

    所以,表示快要到達的未來時間,我們會用「be going to」加上原形動詞的句型

  • Similar to this... So it's not a future that's very, very far away; it's soon, but

    意思很接近於現在進行式。所要表達的未來時間很快就會發生

  • it's a future where we think something is going to happen, and we have evidence that

    但是「be going to」加上原形動詞更強調於發生機率的大小,甚至是握有證據

  • something is going to happen.

    相信某事一定會發生

  • So, for example: "I'm going to study English next month in Canada."

    例子像是:「我下個月就要去加拿大學英文了。」

  • This means you probably have your ticket already bought, you're pretty sure about this.

    這表示你可能已經買好機票而且你非常確定會成行

  • There's not a lot of confusion.

    文法所表達的意思十分清楚

  • This is almost going to happen almost certainly. So you're pretty sure about this.

    是已經快要發生且非常確定,所以你可以相信它一定會發生

  • "I'm going to study English next month."

    「我下個月要開始唸英文」

  • Another example, imagine I watch the weather station. Okay?

    另一個例子,想像一下我看了天氣預報

  • And the meteorologist has predicted the weather, but it's a very good prediction because we

    氣象預報員預測了天氣狀況而且預測很準確,因為

  • see these clouds in the sky, there's a lot of evidence it's going to rain. Because there's

    對照我們親眼看見的天氣狀態,似乎會有很大的降雨機率。而因為我們看了天氣預報

  • evidence, we could use this tense and we could say:

    又看到天空灰濛濛,因此我們可以說

  • "It's going to rain all week."

    「未來一個禮拜都會下雨了」

  • So this is based... It's in the near future, but it's based on some sort of evidence. This is likely

    因此,為表達即將到達的未來時間且有十足把握會發生時

  • to happen, and we're pretty sure it's going to happen. We have some evidence that makes

    表示事件發生的機率很高且確定會發生。我們有穩固的證據

  • us think it's going to happen.

    以致於可以確定未來一定會發生

  • So this is a bit different from "will", which is one of the maybe easier futures to think

    而「will」所代表的未來式又太一樣,「will」是最基本容易了解的未來式句型

  • about. We use "will" + a verb.

    句型結構是「will+原形動詞」

  • For example: "I will always love you.",

    例如:「我會一直愛你」

  • "I will study hard.",

    「我會用功念書」

  • "I will do my taxes on time."

    「我會按時繳稅」

  • Okay? So we use "will" + a verb when we're talking, first

    可以嗎?所以我們會用「will+原形動詞」來表達

  • of all, in the far future. So this is all soon. This is very soon; whereas this, is

    像是遙遠的未來時間。這三個都代表很接近的未來時間,這個表示更快到達的未來時間

  • very far. So for example:

    但是,「will+原形動詞」是表達較遠的未來時間

  • "In 50 years, everyone will speak Chinese."

    例如:「50年後,每個人都會說中文」

  • We use this also when we're not so sure about something.

    當我們對未來事件不確定時,也會使用「will+原形動詞」

  • This is my prediction, but I don't have much evidence

    表示猜測,但沒有把握一定會發生

  • of this. I'm not very, very sure, so I will use "will" because I'm not sure; whereas if

    因為非常不確定,所以使用「will+原形動詞」來表示

  • I'm very sure, there's a lot of evidence, I know it's going to happen, I do "be going to".

    但若我十分確定一定會發生,就會使用「be going to+原形動詞」

  • So this one, there's not a lot of evidence, and it's a prediction we don't have evidence for.

    所以「will+原形動詞」表達猜測,且沒有把握未來一定會發生

  • Another example: "Aliens will invade Earth." Okay? In 25 years, aliens are coming,

    另一個例子:「外星人會入侵地球。」可以嗎?在25年後,外星人會來

  • they will invade the Earth. I don't mean to scare you. Luckily, I'm using "will", which

    然後他們會佔領地球。注意我的句型,是使用「will+原形動詞」,所以你不會被嚇到

  • means I'm not really sure. If I said to you: "This week, aliens are invading the Earth",

    因為我也不確定會不會發生。但如果我跟你說:「這禮拜外星人會佔領地球」

  • you'd be very scared. If I said: "Aliens are going to invade the Earth. I know this. I

    你應該就會開始害怕了。如果是:「外星人就要來佔領地球了,我知道一定會

  • have secret government documents." I'd be using this, and you'd be scared, too. But

    因為我握有政府機密文件。」我會用這個句型而且你一定也會很驚慌

  • with "will", it's "will" so you don't have to be scared. It might not happen.

    但是若用「will」表示,你就不用擔心,因為發生的機率很低

  • We also use "will" when we're making promises. Okay? So if somebody ever gets down on their

    另外,當我們想要做出承諾時,也會使用「will」。當有人單膝跪下

  • knee, and says:

    並說:

  • -"Emma, will you marry me?"

    「Emma,妳願意嫁給我嗎?」

  • -"I will marry you."

    「我願意」

  • It means I'm promising to marry you.

    這代表我承諾願意嫁給你

  • Okay? Or maybe I don't really like the person, I might say:

    這樣了解嗎?也可能我並不喜歡這個對象,我會說:

  • "I won't marry you."

    「我不願意」

  • "Won't" is the negative form of "will". So I promise not to marry you.

    「won't」是「will」的否定形式。所以我承諾不會願意嫁給你

  • I don't know in your culture, but in Canadian culture and many Western cultures, for New

    我不太確定其他文化,但在加拿大和大部分的西方文化中

  • Years, we always make these resolutions. We think: "Oh..." When it's New Years, when it's

    常在新的一年訂定新年目標。在新的一年到來時

  • January 1st, we make some sort of promise to our self that we're never going to do something

    在1月1號的時候,我們會對自己許下一些承諾,並期許自己重新出發不再犯同樣錯誤

  • again, or we're going to start doing something. We normally use "will" for these. So, for

    或是,我們會訂立新目標,而「will」通常會在這樣情況下來做使用

  • example, maybe you have had too many beers, and you're thinking:

    例如你過去一年喝太多啤酒,所以你想說:

  • "I don't want to ever drink again",

    「我不要再喝酒了」

  • you might make a promise to yourself:

    你也許想對自己承諾說:

  • "I won't drink again. I will never drink again."

    「我不會再喝酒了,我以後滴酒不沾」

  • Okay? Or maybe you want to stop smoking:

    可以嗎?或是你想要戒菸:

  • "I will never smoke again. I will never do this again."

    「我不會再抽菸了,我再也不會重蹈覆轍」

  • Okay? Maybe your parents are angry at you because, you know, you did

    可以嗎?或是,爸媽很生氣

  • really bad on a test:

    因為你考試考不好:

  • "I promise I will work harder, I will study harder."

    「我發誓我會認真念書,更加倍努力」

  • So these are promises. We use "will" for promise.

    因此,當想做出承諾時,我們會使用「will」

  • Finally, we also use "will" for volunteering. Okay? When we want to volunteer for something,

    此外,自願做某事也可以使用「will」句型。像是我們去當志工

  • we want to offer our help. We want to help someone, we can use "will". So, for example:

    志願去幫忙或協助其他人時,可以使用「will」。例子像是:

  • -"Emma, can you clean the dishes?" -"I'll do it."

    -「Emma,你能幫我洗碗嗎?」 -「好啊」

  • -"Emma, can you vacuum the floor?"

    -「Emma,你能幫我吸地嗎?」

  • -"Sure. I'll vacuum.",

    -「當然,交給我」

  • "I'll get the telephone.",

    「我來幫忙接電話」

  • "I'll help you with your homework.",

    「我來教你做功課」

  • "I'll help you learn English."

    「我來教你學英文」

  • I'm volunteering, and so I use "I will". Okay?

    所以志願型態的表達使用「will」,了解嗎?

  • So just to recap, just to quickly go over everything:

    我們再來重新複習一次

  • there are four futures I'm teaching you today.

    今天學了四種型態表示未來的句型

  • Present continuous can be used as the future if it's very soon.

    現在進行式可以用在表示很快就來臨的未來時間

  • Simple present can be used for the future if it's a routine or schedule,

    現在簡單式表示未來可以用在表達慣例或是行程計畫

  • something that's like... If you

    例如說像是....當你

  • look at a schedule in the future, we can use the simple present.

    談論到關於未來的某個計劃,可以使用現在簡單式

  • We can use "be going to"

    當我們使用「be going to」

  • if we're talking about the near future and some kind of plan that... Or prediction we

    是談論到很接近的未來時間或計畫等等。或是使用在

  • have evidence for. We are pretty certain it's going to happen. And then we can use "will"

    十分有把握的預測,並且很確定一定會發生。而使用「will」加上原形動詞

  • and a verb for the far future for a promise or when we want to volunteer for something.

    表達一個遙遠的未來時間或是做出承諾,或是我們想要志願幫忙某件事

  • Okay?

    這樣了解了嗎?

  • So, there you have it, four futures.

    以上就是今天未來式文法的四種型態

  • I invite you to come visit our website at www.engvid.com.

    邀請你來看看我們的網站www.engvid.com

  • There, you can actually practice these on our quiz.

    那裡有關於今天課程的練習題

  • I hope you will do it soon.

    希望你們會很快去做習題哦

  • I hope, actually... I hope you're doing it today or tomorrow.

    我希望拉,你們可以今天或是明天就趕快去練習

  • Okay? So until next time, take care.

    可以嗎?下次見囉

  • I wish you the best of luck.

    祝福你們一切順利

  • And good day, sir.

    並有美好的一天

Hello. My name is Emma, and in today's lesson, I'm going to teach you the four futures. Okay?

嗨,我是Emma。今天要教大家的是表示未來文法的四種型態

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 句型 動詞 簡單式 進行式 未來式 表達

學習英語時態。4種談論FUTURE的方式 (Learn English Tenses: 4 ways to talk about the FUTURE)

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    Chris 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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