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  • As someone who has spent his entire career trying to be invisible,

    一個窮盡一生都盼望隱形於世的人

  • standing in front of an audience is a cross between

    站到了觀眾面前,心情就好像靈魂出竅

  • an out-of-body experience and a deer caught in the headlights,

    的時候恰好又見鬼。

  • so please forgive me for violating one of the TED commandments

    所以請原諒我違反TED其中一條規定,

  • by relying on words on paper,

    就是需要照著講稿演講,

  • and I only hope I'm not struck by lightning bolts before I'm done.

    我只希望在我演講完成前不會被雷劈到。

  • I'd like to begin by talking about some of the ideas that motivated me

    我想從那些能刺激到我想成為一名

  • to become a documentary photographer.

    新聞攝影師的原因講起。

  • I was a student in the '60s, a time of social upheaval and questioning,

    60年代的時候,我是一名學生。那是一個社會劇變和受到責疑的時代,

  • and on a personal level, an awakening sense of idealism.

    而對於個人來說,這正是理想主義萌芽的時候。

  • The war in Vietnam was raging;

    越南戰爭正激烈地進行著,

  • the Civil Rights Movement was under way;

    人權運動正蓄勢待發,

  • and pictures had a powerful influence on me.

    所以照片對我有著很大的影響。

  • Our political and military leaders were telling us one thing,

    我們的政治和軍事的首領告訴我們的是一回事,

  • and photographers were telling us another.

    和照片告訴我們的又是另一回事。

  • I believed the photographers, and so did millions of other Americans.

    我選擇相信照片,千千萬萬的美國人也是如此。

  • Their images fueled resistance to the war and to racism.

    他們的照片刺激了人們反對戰爭和種族主義。

  • They not only recorded history; they helped change the course of history.

    他們不僅紀錄歷史,他們也改變歷史。

  • Their pictures became part of our collective consciousness

    他們的照片是我們對集體意識的部份感知,

  • and, as consciousness evolved into a shared sense of conscience,

    同時,因為集體意識會影響人們的良知,

  • change became not only possible, but inevitable.

    改變不僅是可能的,更是不可避免的。

  • I saw that the free flow of information represented by journalism,

    我看到由媒體報導的消息,

  • specifically visual journalism, can bring into focus

    特別是可視媒體,不管是政府政策的優點,還是不足,

  • both the benefits and the cost of political policies.

    都能夠引起公眾的注意。

  • It can give credit to sound decision-making, adding momentum to success.

    這可以給政府機會去宣傳他們做出的決定,增加成功的可能性。

  • In the face of poor political judgment or political inaction,

    而面對不好的政治性的裁定或者政府行動的遲緩,

  • it becomes a kind of intervention, assessing the damage

    這變成了一種調停的工具,評估損失,

  • and asking us to reassess our behavior.

    並要求我們重新評估我們的行為。

  • It puts a human face on issues

    這讓人們的面孔能出現在

  • which from afar can appear abstract

    向來對廣大公眾的影響十分抽象,虛無,

  • or ideological or monumental in their global impact.

    沒甚麼意義的的事情上。

  • What happens at ground level, far from the halls of power,

    那些本來只有底層人民才發出的,遠離權力中心相距的吶喊,

  • happens to ordinary citizens one by one.

    現在普通的市民也一個接一個地發出這些吶喊。

  • And I understood that documentary photography

    於是我意識到新聞攝影

  • has the ability to interpret events from their point of view.

    有從市民的角度說明事情的能力。

  • It gives a voice to those who otherwise would not have a voice.

    這讓那些從來沒有發言權的人有機會說出自己心聲。

  • And as a reaction, it stimulates public opinion

    它的反應包括,鼓勵公眾表達自己的意見,

  • and gives impetus to public debate,

    並給公眾討論以動力,

  • thereby preventing the interested parties

    這樣,可以防止當事人隨心所欲地

  • from totally controlling the agenda, much as they would like to.

    完全控制社會輿論。

  • Coming of age in those days made real

    隨著時間推移,人們意識到信息傳播的

  • the concept that the free flow of information is absolutely vital

    自由性對一个自由、有活力的社會

  • for a free and dynamic society to function properly.

    的正常發展絕對是十分重要的。

  • The press is certainly a business, and in order to survive

    出版社的確是一門生意,而且為了生存,

  • it must be a successful business,

    它一定要是一門成功的生意,

  • but the right balance must be found

    但一定要在市場利益和新聞責任之間

  • between marketing considerations and journalistic responsibility.

    找到正確的平衡。

  • Society's problems can't be solved until they're identified.

    除非社會問題的存在性得到承認,否則無法解決。

  • On a higher plane, the press is a service industry,

    從一個更高的層次說,出版社是一個服務行業,

  • and the service it provides is awareness.

    它提供對事件的全面認知。

  • Every story does not have to sell something.

    不一定每個故事都有賣點。

  • There's also a time to give.

    但時間是一定要的。

  • That was a tradition I wanted to follow.

    那是我想要追隨的傳統。

  • Seeing the war created such incredibly high stakes for everyone involved

    看到戰爭讓每個人都承受難以想像的高風險,

  • and that visual journalism could actually become a factor in conflict resolution --

    而新聞媒體又成為衝突解決中的一部分,

  • I wanted to be a photographer in order to be a war photographer.

    我想要成為一名攝影師,而且是一名戰地攝影師。

  • But I was driven by an inherent sense

    但是,我被大眾的觀點所影響,

  • that a picture that revealed the true face of war

    就是揭示戰爭真面目的照片

  • would almost by definition be an anti-war photograph.

    幾乎都會被定義為反戰的照片。

  • I'd like to take you on a visual journey through some of the events

    我想讓你們看一個圖片故事,講的是

  • and issues I've been involved in over the past 25 years.

    這25年來我經歷、遇到過的事件和問題。

  • In 1981, I went to Northern Ireland.

    1981年,我去了北愛爾蘭。

  • 10 IRA prisoners were in the process of starving themselves to death

    10個愛爾蘭囚犯絕食以表達

  • in protest against conditions in jail.

    對監獄裡面的生活條件的不滿。

  • The reaction on the streets was violent confrontation.

    這事件到了社會上,使公眾在街上發生暴力衝突。

  • I saw that the front lines of contemporary wars

    我看到當時戰爭的前線不是在

  • are not on isolated battlefields, but right where people live.

    開闊、荒蕪的戰場,而是正正在居民區中間。

  • During the early '80s, I spent a lot of time in Central America,

    在80年代早期,很多時候我都在中美洲。

  • which was engulfed by civil wars

    那裡曾被內戰吞噬,

  • that straddled the ideological divide of the Cold War.

    又因為冷戰時代那意識形態問題而分裂。

  • In Guatemala, the central government --

    在危地馬拉,受歐洲政治巨頭控制的

  • controlled by a oligarchy of European decent --

    中央政府正發動一場焦土運動

  • was waging a scorched Earth campaign against an indigenous rebellion,

    來對抗當地的叛軍,

  • and I saw an image that reflected the history of Latin America:

    而我看到一個可以反應拉丁美洲這歷史的圖像:

  • conquest through a combination of the Bible and the sword.

    一場通過聖經和武器取得的勝利。

  • An anti-Sandinista guerrilla was mortally wounded

    一支反桑地諾的游擊隊受到沈重的打擊。

  • as Commander Zero attacked a town in Southern Nicaragua.

    因為Zero指揮官在南尼加拉瓜的一個小鎮被襲擊。

  • A destroyed tank belonging to Somoza's national guard

    一輛屬於薩莫查的國際護衛隊的被摧毀的坦克

  • was left as a monument in a park in Managua,

    被作為一個紀念碑放在馬拉瓜的一個公園里,

  • and was transformed by the energy and spirit of a child.

    並因為一個小孩的天真和好奇而變成了他的玩伴。

  • At the same time, a civil war was taking place in El Salvador,

    與此同時,薩爾瓦多發生了內戰,

  • and again, the civilian population was caught up in the conflict.

    並再一次,越來越多的城市居民捲入衝突中。

  • I've been covering the Palestinian-Israeli conflict since 1981.

    我從1981年開始就負責拍攝巴以衝突。

  • This is a moment from the beginning of the second intifada, in 2000,

    這是2000年,第二次騷亂的開始的一瞬間。

  • when it was still stones and Molotovs against an army.

    那時候它仍然是用石頭和Molotovs來攻擊軍隊。

  • In 2001, the uprising escalated into an armed conflict,

    到了2001年,騷亂逐漸升級為武裝衝突,

  • and one of the major incidents was

    而其中一個很重要的事件是

  • the destruction of the Palestinian refugee camp

    巴勒斯坦在約旦河西岸的傑寧小鎮上的

  • in the West Bank town of Jenin.

    貧民區營地被毀。

  • Without the political will to find common ground,

    由於沒有政治力量尋找雙方共同的立場,

  • the continual friction of tactic and counter-tactic

    外加持續不斷的在政策上的摩擦和敵對的策略

  • only creates suspicion and hatred and vengeance,

    只能產生猜疑、憎恨和復仇,

  • and perpetuates the cycle of violence.

    並維持了這個暴力的循環。

  • In the '90s, after the breakup of the Soviet Union,

    在90年代,蘇聯解體之後,

  • Yugoslavia fractured along ethnic fault lines, and civil war broke out

    南斯拉夫因為種族問題分裂,同時在波斯尼亞、

  • between Bosnia, Croatia and Serbia.

    克羅地亞和塞爾維亞之間爆發內戰。

  • This is a scene of house-to-house fighting in Mostar,

    這是在莫斯塔鄰里之間反目成仇,

  • neighbor against neighbor.

    人們互相打鬥的場面。

  • A bedroom, the place where people share intimacy,

    睡房,一個人們分享私密的地方,

  • where life itself is conceived, became a battlefield.

    一個生命醞釀、沈思的地方,成為了一個戰場。

  • A mosque in northern Bosnia was destroyed by Serbian artillery

    在北波斯尼亞的一座清真寺北塞爾維亞的炮火摧毀,

  • and was used as a makeshift morgue.

    並被用作臨時的停屍房。

  • Dead Serbian soldiers were collected after a battle

    死亡的塞爾維亞士兵在一場戰役完後被收集起來,

  • and used as barter for the return of prisoners

    用作波斯尼亞囚犯或者行動中

  • or Bosnian soldiers killed in action.

    被殺的士兵的交換籌碼。

  • This was once a park.

    這曾經是一個公園。

  • The Bosnian soldier who guided me

    一個作為我導遊的波斯尼亞士兵

  • told me that all of his friends were there now.

    告訴我現在他的所有朋友都被埋在那裡了。

  • At the same time in South Africa,

    與此同時在南非,

  • after Nelson Mandela had been released from prison,

    尼爾遜 曼德拉從監獄被釋放之後,

  • the black population commenced the final phase

    黑人開始了從種族歧視中

  • of liberation from apartheid.

    爭取自由的最後一步。

  • One of the things I had to learn as a journalist

    其中一樣作為記者我必須要學習的

  • was what to do with my anger.

    就是怎樣控制我的憤怒。

  • I had to use it, channel its energy, turn it into something

    我必須運用它,用它的能量,將它轉化成一些能

  • that would clarify my vision, instead of clouding it.

    清晰我的視線,而不是模糊它的東西

  • In Transkei, I witnessed a rite of passage into manhood, of the Xhosa tribe.

    在特蘭斯凱,我目睹了科薩人成人禮的儀式。

  • Teenage boys lived in isolation, their bodies covered with white clay.

    未成年男孩們被隔離,身上塗滿白黏土。

  • After several weeks, they washed off the white

    幾個星期之後,他們把白黏土洗掉

  • and took on the full responsibilities of men.

    並肩負起男人的全部責任。

  • It was a very old ritual that seemed symbolic

    這是一個很古老的儀式,這儀式像是象徵著

  • of the political struggle that was changing the face of South Africa.

    正在改變南非面貌的政治鬥爭。

  • Children in Soweto playing on a trampoline.

    在索韋托的孩子在玩蹦床。

  • Elsewhere in Africa there was famine.

    而在非洲的其它地方正鬧飢荒。

  • In Somalia, the central government collapsed and clan warfare broke out.

    在索馬里,中央政府瓦解,部落之間的衝突爆發。

  • Farmers were driven off their land,

    農民從自己的土地上被趕了出去,

  • and crops and livestock were destroyed or stolen.

    穀物和牲畜被破壞或者偷走。

  • Starvation was being used as a weapon of mass destruction --

    飢餓被用作大規模破壞的武器,

  • primitive but extremely effective.

    原始但十分有效。

  • Hundreds of thousands of people were exterminated,

    成千上萬的人痛苦地、

  • slowly and painfully.

    慢慢逐漸被屠殺掉。

  • The international community responded with massive humanitarian relief,

    國際團體憑藉著強大的人道主義信念作出行動,

  • and hundreds of thousands of more lives were saved.

    拯救了千千萬萬條生命。

  • American troops were sent to protect the relief shipments,

    美國軍隊被派去保護送出的物資,

  • but they were eventually drawn into the conflict,

    但是他們最終也陷進衝突之中,

  • and after the tragic battle in Mogadishu, they were withdrawn.

    在摩加迪沙那慘烈的戰役後,他們被調回美國。

  • In southern Sudan, another civil war saw similar use of starvation

    在蘇丹南部,另一場內戰也運用飢餓作為

  • as a means of genocide.

    種族大屠殺的一種策略。

  • Again, international NGOs, united under the umbrella of the U.N.,

    國際民間團體在聯合國的保護之下再一次

  • staged a massive relief operation and thousands of lives were saved.

    發放了數量巨大的物資,並拯救了成千條生命。

  • I'm a witness, and I want my testimony to be honest and uncensored.

    我是一個目擊者,我希望我的陳述是真實和無約束的。

  • I also want it to be powerful and eloquent,

    我也希望它是有力的和觸動心弦的,

  • and to do as much justice as possible

    能夠發揮它最大的作用,為我正在拍攝的

  • to the experience of the people I'm photographing.

    這些人所經歷的事情討回一個公道。

  • This man was in an NGO feeding center,

    這人正在一個民間組織的庇護中心裡面,

  • being helped as much as he could be helped.

    他會得到他能得到的最大幫助。

  • He literally had nothing. He was a virtual skeleton,

    他準確地說甚麼都不是。他只是一架骨頭,

  • yet he could still summon the courage and the will to move.

    但是他仍然擁有勇氣和意願去前進。

  • He had not given up, and if he didn't give up,

    他沒有放棄,如果他沒有放棄,

  • how could anyone in the outside world ever dream of losing hope?

    那麼任何在外面世界生活的人又怎麼可以想著失去希望?

  • In 1994, after three months of covering the South African election,

    1994年南非選舉的3個月後,

  • I saw the inauguration of Nelson Mandela,

    我看到尼爾遜 曼德拉的就職典禮,

  • and it was the most uplifting thing I've ever seen.

    這是我見過的最振奮人心的事情。

  • It exemplified the best that humanity has to offer.

    這證明了人道主義會帶來的最好的勝利。

  • The next day I left for Rwanda,

    第二天,我離開前往盧旺達,

  • and it was like taking the express elevator to hell.

    而這就像是搭上了去地獄的特快電梯。

  • This man had just been liberated from a Hutu death camp.

    這人剛剛從胡圖人死亡營裡面被放出來。

  • He allowed me to photograph him for quite a long time,

    他讓我拍他拍了很長時間,

  • and he even turned his face toward the light,

    最後他甚至把他的臉轉向鏡頭,

  • as if he wanted me to see him better.

    就好像他想我看他看的更清楚。

  • I think he knew what the scars on his face would say to the rest of the world.

    我想他明白他臉上的傷疤會告訴世界上其他人甚麼。

  • This time, maybe confused or discouraged

    那時候,也許是被索馬里的戰爭災難

  • by the military disaster in Somalia,

    弄混亂了或者感到氣餒了,

  • the international community remained silent,

    國際組織不見蹤影,

  • and somewhere around 800,000 people were slaughtered

    與此同時的某個地方,800,000人

  • by their own countrymen -- sometimes their own neighbors --

    被他們自己社區里的人,

  • using farm implements as weapons.

    有時甚至是他們的鄰居,用農耕工具屠殺掉了。

  • Perhaps because a lesson had been learned

    也許是因為他們從波斯尼亞戰爭的

  • by the weak response to the war in Bosnia

    弱小的反應和盧旺達的失敗

  • and the failure in Rwanda,

    的中吸取了教訓,

  • when Serbia attacked Kosovo,

    當塞爾維亞襲擊科索沃的時候

  • international action was taken much more decisively.

    國際力量更果斷地參與到其中。

  • NATO forces went in, and the Serbian army withdrew.

    北大西洋公約組織參加戰鬥,不久,塞爾維亞軍隊撤退。

  • Ethnic Albanians had been murdered,

    阿爾巴尼亞人被屠殺,

  • their farms destroyed and a huge number of people forcibly deported.

    他們的農田被毀,大量的人被迫離開他們的家園。

  • They were received in refugee camps

    他們被阿爾巴尼亞和馬其頓的

  • set up by NGOs in Albania and Macedonia.

    民間組織設立的難民營接收。

  • The imprint of a man who had been burned inside his own home.

    這紀錄了一個男人在他自己的家裡面被燒死的場景。

  • The image reminded me of a cave painting,

    這圖片讓我記起洞穴上的壁畫,

  • and echoed how primitive we still are in so many ways.

    並不停地提醒我們在很多方面仍是多麼的原始落後。

  • Between 1995 and '96, I covered the first two wars

    95和96年間,我在格羅茲尼裡面跟蹤拍攝了

  • in Chechnya from inside Grozny.

    車臣共和國最開始的兩場戰爭。

  • This is a Chechen rebel on the front line against the Russian army.

    這是車臣叛軍在前線與俄羅斯軍隊對峙。

  • The Russians bombarded Grozny constantly for weeks,

    俄羅斯連續轟炸了格羅茲尼幾個星期,

  • killing mainly the civilians who were still trapped inside.

    炸死的主要是被困在裡面的居民。

  • I found a boy from the local orphanage

    我發現一個來自當地孤兒院的男孩

  • wandering around the front line.

    在前線附近徘徊。

  • My work has evolved from being concerned mainly with war

    我的工作主要輿戰爭有關,

  • to a focus on critical social issues as well.

    但也會關注受爭議的社會事件。

  • After the fall of Ceausescu, I went to Romania

    齊奧塞斯庫政權下台之後,我去了羅馬尼亞

  • and discovered a kind of gulag of children,

    並發現了一類兒童的勞改營。

  • where thousands of orphans were being kept in medieval conditions.

    在那裡,上千的孤兒猶如生活在中世紀。

  • Ceausescu had imposed a quota

    齊奧塞斯庫強制要求每個家庭

  • on the number of children to be produced by each family,

    出生的小孩數目都要達到配額。

  • thereby making women's bodies an instrument of state economic policy.

    這樣使得女人們的身體成為國家經濟政策的一個工具。

  • Children who couldn't be supported by their families

    小孩不由他們的家庭撫養,

  • were raised in government orphanages.

    而是交由政府孤兒院。

  • Children with birth defects were labeled incurables,

    有天生缺陷的小孩被標上廢物的標簽,

  • and confined for life to inhuman conditions.

    這保證了他們一輩子都能得到非人的待遇。

  • As reports began to surface, again international aid went in.

    由於這些情況被公諸於世,國際援助也出手幫忙了。

  • Going deeper into the legacy of the Eastern European regimes,

    為了更深入地了解東歐遺留下來的政權,

  • I worked for several months on a story about the effects of industrial pollution,

    我用了幾個月的時間跟蹤一個和工業污染的影響有關的故事。

  • where there had been no regard for the environment

    那裡一點都不重視環境

  • or the health of either workers or the general population.

    或者工人、大眾的健康。

  • An aluminum factory in Czechoslovakia

    捷克的一間制鋁工廠

  • was filled with carcinogenic smoke and dust,

    裡面滿是致癌的煙塵,

  • and four out of five workers came down with cancer.

    5個工人裡面有4個都會得癌症。

  • After the fall of Suharto in Indonesia,

    蘇哈托政權在印尼下台後,

  • I began to explore conditions of poverty

    我開始去了解一個正走向現代化的

  • in a country that was on its way towards modernization.

    國家的貧窮的狀況。

  • I spent a good deal of time with a man

    我和一個男人聊了很久,

  • who lived with his family on a railway embankment

    他在火車事故中失去了一個胳膊和一條腿,

  • and had lost an arm and a leg in a train accident.

    現在和他的家人在鐵路旁居住。

  • When the story was published, unsolicited donations poured in.

    當這個故事被報導之後,自願的捐贈源源不斷地送來。

  • A trust fund was established,

    並建立了一個信用基金,

  • and the family now lives in a house in the countryside

    現在這個家庭住在鄉村的一所房子里,

  • and all their basic necessities are taken care of.

    他們的基本需要都得到保證。

  • It was a story that wasn't trying to sell anything.

    說這個故事並不是要說明甚麼。

  • Journalism had provided a channel

    新聞本來就要提供一個讓人們展現他們的

  • for people's natural sense of generosity, and the readers responded.

    慷慨大方並促使讀者有所反應的渠道,

  • I met a band of homeless children who'd come to Jakarta from the countryside,

    我曾遇到過一批無家可歸的小孩,他們來自雅加達的郊外,

  • and ended up living in a train station.

    最後他們只能住在火車站。

  • By the age of 12 or 14, they'd become beggars and drug addicts.

    他們只是12到14歲,最終都變成乞丐和吸毒者。

  • The rural poor had become the urban poor,

    鄉下的窮人變成了城市里的窮人,

  • and in the process, they'd become invisible.

    在這變化過程中,他們變得透明、不起眼。

  • These heroin addicts in detox in Pakistan

    這些在巴基斯坦的戒毒所

  • reminded me of figures in a play by Beckett:

    讓我想起貝克特的一部話劇裡面的角色:

  • isolated, waiting in the dark, but drawn to the light.

    孤獨,在黑暗中等待,但是畫出來的都是光明。

  • Agent Orange was a defoliant used during the Vietnam War

    橙劑是越南戰爭中使用的一種落葉劑。

  • to deny cover to the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army.

    為的是去除越共和北越軍隊的掩護。

  • The active ingredient was dioxin, an extremely toxic chemical

    橙劑的有效成份是二噁英,一種毒性十分大的化學物質。

  • that was sprayed in vast quantities,

    橙劑在當時被大量噴射,

  • and whose effects passed through the genes to the next generation.

    而且二噁英的毒性通過遺傳影響到了下一代。

  • In 2000, I began documenting global health issues,

    在2000,我開始了解全球衛生健康事業,

  • concentrating first on AIDS in Africa.

    首先關注的是非洲的愛滋病。

  • I tried to tell the story through the work of caregivers.

    我嘗試通過護理者的工作講故事。

  • I thought it was important to emphasize that people were being helped,

    我想無論是國際人道組織還是當地人自發的組織,

  • whether by international NGOs or by local grassroots organizations.

    強調人們正受到幫助是很重要的。

  • So many children have been orphaned by the epidemic

    很多小孩因為雙親感染傳染病,變成孤兒,

  • that grandmothers have taken the place of parents,

    不得不由他們的祖父母代為照養。

  • and a lot of children had been born with HIV.

    很多小孩一出生就帶有HIV病毒。