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  • When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old,

    我7歲及我妹妹5歲時

  • we were playing on top of a bunk bed.

    我們在上下舖玩

  • I was two years older than my sister at the time -

    我那時比她大兩歲

  • I mean, I'm two years older than her now -

    現在當然還是比她大兩歲

  • but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do,

    小時候我不管做甚麼 她總會跟著做

  • and I wanted to play war.

    我那時想玩戰爭遊戲

  • So we were up on top of our bunk beds.

    我們在上下舖床上

  • And on one side of the bunk bed,

    在床的一側

  • I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry.

    我拿出所有《大英雄》的士兵和武器

  • And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies

    另一側,我妹擺滿了她的彩虹小馬

  • ready for a cavalry charge.

    準備發動攻擊

  • There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon,

    那天發生的事,我們說法不一

  • but since my sister is not here with us today,

    既然我妹今天沒有來

  • let me tell you the true story -

    就讓我來說說到底發生了什麼事

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • which is my sister's a little on the clumsy side.

    我妹實在有點笨拙

  • Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all,

    我這個哥哥也沒做什麼

  • Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed

    艾米不知怎麼地就不見了

  • and landed with this crash on the floor.

    重重摔落到地板上

  • I nervously peered over the side of the bed

    我小心翼翼地望向她那

  • to see what had befallen my fallen sister

    看看她有沒有怎麼樣

  • and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees

    她摔到了手和膝蓋

  • on all fours on the ground.

    痛苦地趴在地上

  • I was nervous because my parents had charged me

    我很緊張,因為爸媽還叮嚀過我

  • with making sure that my sister and I

    要確保跟妹妹玩的時候

  • played as safely and as quietly as possible.

    不要太吵,也不要受傷

  • And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm

    而且我在一個禮拜前...

  • just one week before...

    才害愛咪的手臂受傷

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter ends)

    我自以為很帥地把她移開

  • ...heroically pushing her out of the way of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet,

    想像會有狙擊手的子彈飛過來

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • for which I have yet to be thanked, I was trying as hard as I could -

    她到現在都還沒謝謝我

  • she didn't even see it coming -

    我超努力要保護她的

  • I was trying hard to be on my best behavior.

    她甚至不知道會有子彈

  • And I saw my sister's face,

    我很努力做好我該做的

  • this wail of pain and suffering and surprise

    然後我看著我妹的臉

  • threatening to erupt from her mouth and wake my parents

    帶著痛苦和驚訝的哀號

  • from the long winter's nap for which they had settled.

    威脅著要嚎啕大哭 叫醒熟睡的爸媽

  • So I did the only thing

    所以我只做了一件事

  • my frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy.

    慌張的7歲腦袋為了要挽救悲劇

  • And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times.

    如果你有小孩,應該看過很多次了

  • I said, "Amy, wait. Don't cry. Did you see how you landed?

    我說:「艾米,別哭,妳是怎麼摔的?」

  • No human lands on all fours like that.

    「沒有人會臉朝下跌倒的」

  • Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn."

    「我想,那代表妳是獨角獸」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now, that was cheating,

    其實我根本是作弊

  • because there was nothing she would want more

    因為那時她最想要的

  • than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister,

    不是當個受傷的五歲妹妹艾米

  • but Amy the special unicorn.

    而就是特別的獨角獸艾米

  • Of course, this option was open to her brain

    當然,她從未這樣想過

  • at no point in the past.

    我可憐的妹妹陷入自我衝突

  • And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict,

    小小的腦袋試圖運作起來

  • as her little brain attempted to devote resources

    一面感覺剛剛的痛苦和驚訝

  • to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced,

    一面思考一個全新的她-獨角獸

  • or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn.

    後者贏了

  • And the latter won.

    她不哭了,我們的遊戲也繼續

  • Instead of crying or ceasing our play,

    爸媽也沒被吵醒

  • instead of waking my parents,

    我不用承受任何後果

  • with all the negative consequences for me,

    艾米笑了

  • a smile spread across her face

    她帶著獨角獸寶寶的驕傲...

  • and she scrambled back up onto the bunk bed

    重新爬上床

  • with all the grace of a baby unicorn...

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    當然,還有一隻跛了的腳

  • ...with one broken leg.

    我們偶然發現一件事

  • What we stumbled across

    在這懵懂的年紀,5歲和7歲

  • at this tender age of just five and seven -

    我們從沒有想過

  • we had no idea at the time -

    這能夠推動科學革命

  • was was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution

    也就是在二十年後 影響研究人腦的方式

  • occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain.

    這就叫做正向心理學

  • We had stumbled across something called positive psychology,

    這也是為什麼我今天會在這

  • which is the reason I'm here today

    也是我每天早上起床的原因

  • and the reason that I wake up every morning.

    我開始談論這個研究時

  • When I started talking about this research

    公司和學校都說

  • outside of academia, with companies and schools,

    不要從圖表開始講

  • the first thing they said to never do is to start with a graph.

    但我就是想從圖表開始講

  • The first thing I want to do is start with a graph.

    它看起來很無趣

  • This graph looks boring,

    但卻讓我興奮及早起

  • but it is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning.

    它甚至不代表什麼,資料是假的

  • And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data.

    我們看到的是...

  • What we found is -

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    如果拿這份資料研究你們

  • If I got this data studying you, I would be thrilled,

    我會很激動

  • because there's a trend there,

    因為有一個很明顯的趨勢

  • and that means that I can get published,

    且這表示我可以發表這個結果

  • which is all that really matters.

    那真的滿重要的

  • There is one weird red dot above the curve,

    有奇怪的紅點在曲線的上方

  • there's one weirdo in the room -

    就像有個怪人在這個房間

  • I know who you are, I saw you earlier -

    我知道你是誰,也看過你

  • that's no problem.

    那不是問題

  • That's no problem, as most of you know, because I can just delete that dot.

    我大可直接刪掉那個點

  • I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error.

    因為很明顯是測量錯誤

  • And we know that's a measurement error because it's messing up my data.

    那的確是

  • (Laughter)

    因為它弄亂了我的資料

  • So one of the first things we teach people

    (笑聲)

  • in economics, statistics, business and psychology courses

    所以第一件我們教大家的事

  • is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos.

    不管是在經濟,統計,商業和心理學

  • How do we eliminate the outliers so we can find the line of best fit?

    就是我們怎麼有效排除怪人

  • Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out

    要怎麼刪去異常值

  • how many Advil the average person should be taking - two.

    才能得到最好的實驗結果

  • But if I'm interested in your potential,

    我試著要找出

  • or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity,

    每個人應該吃多少顆安舒疼

  • we're creating the cult of the average with science.

    2顆

  • If I asked a question like,

    但我對大家的潛力很有興趣

  • "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?"

    以及幸福,生產力,能量,創意

  • scientists change the answer to

    我們用科學創造對均值的狂熱

  • "How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?"

    我問你一個問題

  • and we tailor the class towards the average.

    「小孩在班上的閱讀速度多快?」

  • If you fall below the average,

    科學家就會改問

  • then psychologists get thrilled,

    「一般的小孩在班上閱讀速度多快?」

  • because that means you're depressed or have a disorder,

    我們讓數據傾向平均值

  • or hopefully both.

    如果你低於平均值

  • We're hoping for both because our business model is,

    心理學家就會很興奮

  • if you come into a therapy session with one problem,

    那表示你很沮喪,或心理失調

  • we want to make sure you leave knowing you have ten,

    或是像我們所希望的,兩者都有

  • so you keep coming back.

    因為那是商業運作的方式

  • We'll go back into your childhood if necessary,

    你帶著一個困擾來諮詢

  • but eventually we want to make you normal again.

    我們會讓你帶回去十個

  • But normal is merely average.

    所以你才會繼續來

  • And positive psychology posits that if we study what is merely average,

    需要的話,會探索你的童年

  • we will remain merely average.

    最後我們想讓你變回正常

  • Then instead of deleting those positive outliers,

    但是,正常也僅僅是平均值而已

  • what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one

    正向心理學斷定

  • and say, why?

    如果我們研究"僅僅是平均值"

  • Why are some of you high above the curve

    那還是只會得到"僅僅是平均值"

  • in terms of intellectual, athletic, musical ability,

    我不想刪掉那些正面的異常值

  • creativity, energy levels,

    所以我來到一群人面前,就像今天

  • resiliency in the face of challenge, sense of humor?

    提出我的疑問

  • Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you.

    為什麼有些人可以高於曲線

  • Because maybe we can glean information,

    不論是智慧,運動及音樂能力

  • not just how to move people up to the average,

    創意,活力

  • but move the entire average up in our companies and schools worldwide.

    面對挑戰的彈性,還有幽默感?

  • The reason this graph is important to me

    不管是什麼

  • is, on the news, the majority of the information is not positive.

    我不排除你,反而要研究你

  • in fact it's negative.

    因為我們可能可以蒐集資訊

  • Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters.

    不只是讓你高於平均

  • And very quickly, my brain starts to think

    也拉高全世界公司和學校的平均

  • that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world.

    這張圖表對我很重要

  • This creates "the medical school syndrome."

    新聞上,大多數資訊都不是正面的

  • During the first year of medical training,

    事實上,都很負面

  • as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases,

    大多是關於 謀殺,貪汙,疾病,自然災害

  • suddenly you realize you have all of them.

    我當下很快地就認為

  • (Laughter)

    那就是世界上精確的負正面比例

  • I have a brother in-law named Bobo, which is a whole other story.

    而這也創造了「醫學院的症狀」

  • Bobo married Amy the unicorn.

    在醫學院的第一年

  • Bobo called me on the phone -

    你讀過一系列症狀和疾病

  • (Laughter)

    突然你發現你全部都中標

  • from Yale Medical School,

    (笑聲)

  • and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy."

    我妹夫,波波,其實又有另一個故事

  • (Laughter)

    他跟獨角獸艾米結婚

  • Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare.

    有一天他打給我

  • But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo

    (笑聲)

  • because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.

    他在耶魯醫學院

  • (Laughter)

    波波說:「尚恩,我有痲瘋病」

  • We're finding it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us,

    (笑聲)

  • but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality.

    即使是在耶魯,這還是很少見

  • And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness,

    我完全不知道要怎麼安慰波波

  • we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.

    他才剛熬過一整個禮拜的更年期

  • I applied to Harvard on a dare.

    (笑聲)

  • I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college.

    所以不一定是現實塑造了我們

  • When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they let me go.

    而是頭腦感觀的世界塑造了你

  • Something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality.

    如果可以改變觀點,不只能變快樂

  • I assumed everyone there would see it as a privilege as well,

    也能使教育和商業變得不一樣

  • that they'd be excited to be there.

    我當時不知好歹去申請哈佛

  • Even in a classroom full of people smarter than you,

    從沒想過我會進去,家裡也沒錢

  • I felt you'd be happy just to be in that classroom.

    兩周後我拿到軍用獎學金 他們就讓我去念

  • But what I found is, while some people experience that,

    原本根本不可能的事竟然成真了

  • when I graduated after my four years

    我以為那裡的人覺得有殊榮

  • and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students -

    也很興奮可以念哈佛

  • Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy.

    教室裡的所有人都比你聰明

  • (Laughter)

    光是處在那間教室就覺得開心

  • I was an officer to counsel students through the difficult four years.

    有些人可能是有這樣的經歷

  • And in my research and my teaching,

    但我大學四年畢業後

  • I found that these students, no matter how happy they were

    又花了八年,跟學生住在宿舍

  • with their original success of getting into the school,

    那是哈佛要求的,不是我想要的

  • two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there,

    (笑聲)

  • nor on their philosophy or physics,

    我提供大學生諮詢

  • but on the competition, the workload,

    在我的研究和教學中

  • the hassles, stresses, complaints.

    我發現,不管這些學生開不開心

  • When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall,

    即使他們成功來到哈佛

  • which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up -

    兩周後,他們不再感到錄取的殊榮

  • I know some of you know this.

    也不鑽研哲學或物理

  • When they'd visit, they'd look around,

    反而是專注在競賽,負荷量

  • and say, "This dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart's."

    困難,壓力及抱怨

  • It does, because that was Hogwart's and that's Harvard.

    我第一次走進新生的餐廳時

  • And when they see this,

    我朋友,跟我一樣來自德州

  • they say, "Why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard?

    我知道有些人已經知道

  • What does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?"

    朋友來找我,看看四周

  • Embedded within that question

    他們說:「這餐廳很像電影哈利波特的 霍格華茲出來的」

  • is the key to understanding the science of happiness.

    的確是, 這是霍格華茲

  • Because what that question assumes

    這是哈佛

  • is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels,

    看到這景象

  • when in reality, if I know everything about your external world,

    他們說: 「你幹嘛浪費時間在哈佛研究幸福?」

  • I can only predict 10% of your long-term happiness.

    「哈佛學生在不開心什麼?」

  • 90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world,

    這個問題

  • but by the way your brain processes the world.

    正是了解幸福科學的關鍵

  • And if we change it,

    這個問題假設

  • if we change our formula for happiness and success,

    外在世界可以預測人的幸福程度

  • we can change the way that we can then affect reality.

    但在現實中

  • What we found is that only 25% of job successes are predicted by I.Q.,

    如果你的外在世界我都瞭若指掌

  • 75 percent of job successes

    我只能預測你10%的長期幸福

  • are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support

    90%的長期幸福 不是從外在世界預測

  • and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.

    是看你的大腦怎麼處理這個世界

  • I talked to a New England boarding school, probably the most prestigious one,

    如果我們去改變

  • and they said, "We already know that.

    改變快樂和成功的公式

  • So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we have a wellness week.

    就能改變現實

  • And we're so excited. Monday night we have the world's leading expert

    智商只預測25%的成功事業

  • will speak about adolescent depression.

    剩下的75%

  • Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying.

    全看你的樂觀程度,社會的支持

  • Wednesday night is eating disorders.

    還有視壓力為挑戰非威脅的能力

  • Thursday night is illicit drug use.

    我跟新英格蘭的寄宿學校這麼說

  • And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness."

    可能是名聲最響亮的寄宿學校

  • (Laughter)

    他們說:「我們早就知道了」

  • I said, "That's most people's Friday nights."

    「每年除了正規課,我們還有健康週」

  • (Laughter)

    「我們很興奮」

  • (Applause)

    「週一晚上有專家講青少年憂鬱症」

  • Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all.

    「週二晚上主題是學校暴力和霸凌」

  • Silence on the phone.

    「週三晚上是飲食失衡」

  • And into the silence, I said, "I'd be happy to speak at your school,

    「週四晚上是非法使用毒品」

  • but that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week.

    「週五晚上看是要講 危險性關係還是幸福」

  • You've outlined all the negative things that can happen,

    (笑聲)

  • but not talked about the positive."

    我說,那就是大多數人的週五晚上

  • The absence of disease is not health.

    (笑聲)

  • Here's how we get to health:

    (掌聲)

  • We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success.

    很高興你們喜歡

  • In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 countries,

    他們可一點也不喜歡

  • working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn.

    電話那頭一陣沉默

  • And I found that most companies and schools

    我說,很開心跟你們談話

  • follow a formula for success, which is this:

    但那不是健康週,是病態週

  • If I work harder, I'll be more successful.

    你先預想了各種負面的事情

  • And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier.

    但不去談正面的事

  • That undergirds most of our parenting and managing styles,

    沒有病不代表健康

  • the way that we motivate our behavior.

    這裡是我們得到健康的方式

  • And the problem is it's scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons.

    我們要顛倒幸福和成功的公式

  • Every time your brain has a success,

    過去三年,我到過45個國家

  • you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like.

    在經濟衰退下,跟公司和學校合作

  • You got good grades, now you have to get better grades,

    大部分都遵循成功的公式

  • you got into a good school and after you get into a better one,

    也就是, 努力就會成功

  • you got a good job, now you have to get a better job,

    越成功,我就越開心

  • you hit your sales target, we're going to change it.

    這個想法影響了家教、管理風格

  • And if happiness is on the opposite side of success, your brain never gets there.

    以及我們激勵自己的方式

  • We've pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon, as a society.

    但在科學上,它是破碎、退化的

  • And that's because we think we