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  • OK. We've heard a lot of people

    好的。嗯,我們都聽了很多人

  • speak at this conference

    在這次的會議中說了

  • about the power of the human mind.

    很多關於人們意志力的力量

  • And what I'd like to do today

    而我今天想做的

  • is give you a vivid example

    是給你們一個活生生的例子

  • of how that power can be unleashed

    關於這些力量如何被釋放出來的

  • when someone is in a survival situation,

    當一個人在一個生死攸關的情況下

  • how the will to survive can bring that out in people.

    那生存的意志力是如何從人們激發出來

  • This is an incident which occurred on Mount Everest;

    這是一次發生在聖母峰上的事件

  • it was the worst disaster in the history of Everest.

    這是一個聖母峰史上最嚴重的山難

  • And when it occurred, I was the only doctor on the mountain.

    而且當時我是山上唯一的一個醫生

  • So I'll take you through that

    所以呢我會帶你們一起去體會

  • and we'll see what it's like

    然後我們會看到這就像

  • when someone really

    當一個人確實

  • summons the will to survive.

    召喚出意志力以求生存是甚麼樣子。

  • OK, this is Mount Everest.

    ok 這就是聖母峰。

  • It's 29,035 feet high.

    她高 29,035 英尺。

  • I've been there six times: Four times I did work with National Geographic,

    我曾經去過那裡六次,其中四次是和國家地理頻道一起,

  • making tectonic plate measurements;

    做關於板塊的測量。

  • twice, I went with NASA

    另外兩次我是跟NASA一起去的

  • doing remote sensing devices.

    做關於遙測系統的測試。

  • It was on my fourth trip to Everest

    這是我的第四次聖母峰之旅

  • that a comet passed over the mountain. Hyakutake.

    這個是百武彗星,剛好畫過山際

  • And the Sherpas told us then

    然後這些夏爾巴人(當地住民)告訴我們

  • that was a very bad omen,

    那個彗星是一個不好的預兆

  • and we should have listened to them.

    而我們真的應該要聽他們的

  • Everest is an extreme environment.

    聖母峰上面真的是一個很艱困的環境

  • There's only one-third as much oxygen at the summit as there is at sea level.

    在頂峰的地方氧氣含量大約只有平地的三分之一

  • Near the summit, temperatures

    頂峰的氣溫呢

  • can be 40 degrees below zero.

    大約是華氏40度到零度

  • You can have winds 20 to 40 miles an hour.

    風速大概是每小時20到40英里

  • It's actually a wind-chill factor

    她的風寒指標呢

  • which is lower than a summer day on Mars.

    大概比火星的夏天還要低

  • I remember one time being up near the summit,

    我記得有一次在頂峰的附近

  • I reached into my down jacket

    我伸手進我的羽毛外套

  • for a drink from my water bottle,

    想要從我的水壺喝口水

  • inside my down jacket,

    在我的羽毛外套裡面

  • only to discover that the water was already frozen solid.

    卻發現裡面的水居然已經結冰凝固了!

  • That gives you an idea of just how severe

    這樣讓你有一些概念關於

  • things are near the summit.

    頂峰附近的情況有多麼惡劣

  • OK, this is the route up Everest.

    好的,這是上聖母峰的路徑

  • It starts at base camp, at 17,500 feet.

    它從位於一萬七千五百英尺的基地營開始

  • Camp One, 2,000 feet higher.

    再往上兩千英尺是一號營

  • Camp Two, another 2,000 feet higher up,

    一號營再往上兩千英尺是二號營

  • what's called the Western Cwm.

    也稱為 Western Cwn (西谷)

  • CampThree is at the base of Lhotse,

    三號營位於洛子峰的底部

  • which is the fourth highest mountain in the world, but it's dwarfed by Everest.

    他是世界上的第四高峰,但是在聖母峰前面也變得矮小

  • And then Camp Four is the highest camp;

    接著四號營是最高的營地

  • that's 3,000 feet short of the summit.

    它距離峰頂不到三千英尺

  • This is a view of base camp.

    這是我們基地營的一張照片

  • This is pitched on a glacier at 17,500 feet.

    它紮營在一萬七千五百英尺的冰河上

  • It's the highest point you can bring your yaks

    這是你能帶你的氂牛到的最高位置

  • before you have to unload.

    在你必須要卸下裝備之前

  • And this is what they unloaded for me:

    然後這是他們幫我卸貨的東西.

  • I had four yak loads of medical supplies,

    我帶了四隻載滿醫療補給品的氂牛

  • which are dumped in a tent,

    然後東西全部都倒在帳篷裡

  • and here I am trying to arrange things.

    喔這個是我試著想要整理這些東西

  • This was our expedition.

    這是我們的探勘團隊

  • It was a National Geographic expedition,

    這是國家地理的探勘隊伍

  • but it was organized by The Explorers Club.

    但是他是由The Explorers Club.所組成的

  • There were three other expeditions on the mountain,

    另外還有三支探勘隊伍同時在山上

  • an American team, a New Zealand team

    一個美國的隊伍,一個紐西蘭團隊,

  • and an IMAX team.

    還有一個IMAX的隊伍。

  • And, after actually two months of preparation,

    接著,在整整兩個月的準備之後,

  • we built our camps all the way up the mountain.

    我們把我們的營地蓋在山上最高的地方。

  • This is a view looking up the icefall,

    這是一張仰望冰瀑的景象。

  • the first 2,000 feet of the climb

    爬了前兩千英尺之後遇到

  • up from base camp.

    從基地營開始。

  • And here's a picture in the icefall;

    這個是一張冰瀑的照片。

  • it's a waterfall, but it's frozen, but it moves very slowly,

    他其實是一個瀑布,但是它結冰了,但它仍非常緩慢的移動,

  • and it actually changes every day.

    所以它每天都還是會改變。

  • When you're in it, you're like a rat in a maze;

    當你身在其中的時候,你就像一隻在迷宮裡頭的老鼠:

  • you can't even see over the top.

    你甚至無法從上面看到全貌。

  • This is near the top of the icefall.

    這是靠近冰瀑的頂端。

  • You want to climb through at night when the ice is frozen.

    你會想要在晚上完全結冰了才爬上去。

  • That way, it's less likely to tumble down on you.

    這樣它才比較不會垮在你身上。

  • These are some climbers reaching the top of the icefall just at sun-up.

    這是一群登山客在太陽剛剛升起的時候爬到冰瀑頂端。

  • This is me crossing a crevasse.

    這是我,正要越過一個冰隙。

  • We cross on aluminum ladders with safety ropes attached.

    我們利用綁上安全繩的鋁梯來通過。

  • That's another crevasse.

    這是另外一個冰隙。

  • Some of these things are 10 stories deep or more,

    這些冰隙有些深達十層樓或者更高,

  • and one of my climbing friends says that

    一個山友告訴我說

  • the reason we actually climb at night

    我們之所以要在晚上爬過去的原因

  • is because if we ever saw the bottom

    是因為如果我們一旦看到了冰隙的底部

  • of what we're climbing over,

    是我們正要爬過去的,

  • we would never do it.

    那我們永遠也不會這麼做。

  • Okay. This is Camp One.

    好的,這是一號營。

  • It's the first flat spot you can reach

    這是第一個你能夠到達的平坦處

  • after you get up to the top of the icefall.

    在你爬到冰瀑的上方之後

  • And from there we climb up to Camp Two,

    我們從這裡爬上第二營地

  • which is sort of the foreground.

    有點像是前哨站

  • These are climbers moving up the Lhotse face,

    這裡是登山客開始往洛子峰面攀爬的情況

  • that mountain toward Camp Three.

    這座山也是第三營地的地方

  • They're on fixed ropes here.

    他們都固定在繩索上攀爬

  • A fall here, if you weren't roped in,

    如果你沒綁上繩索,就會在這跌下

  • would be 5,000 feet down.

    差不多是五千英尺深

  • This is a view taken from camp three.

    這是從第三營地拍的景觀

  • You can see the Lhotse face is in profile,

    你可以看到洛子峰表面的輪廓

  • it's about a 45 degree angle. It takes two days to climb it,

    大概呈現45度角,要花個兩天才能爬上去

  • so you put the camp halfway through.

    所以你會紮營在半途中

  • If you notice, the summit of Everest is black.

    如果你有注意到,聖母峰峰頂呈現黑色

  • There's no ice over it.

    並沒有冰雪覆蓋在上面

  • And that's because Everest is so high,

    那是因為呢,聖母峰太高

  • it's in the jet stream,

    她在所謂的高速氣流當中

  • and winds are constantly scouring the face,

    強風不斷的沖刷她的表面

  • so no snow gets to accumulate.

    造成冰雪沒有辦法在上面堆積

  • What looks like a cloud behind the summit ridge

    在頂峰邊緣看起來像是雲的東西

  • is actually snow being blown off the summit.

    其實就是被風吹起來的冰雪

  • This is on the way up from Camp Three to Camp Four,

    這是從三號營地攀爬到四號營地的途中

  • moving in, up through the clouds.

    會走進並且穿越雲層

  • And this is at Camp Four.

    然後這是在四號營地

  • Once you get to Camp Four, you have maybe 24 hours

    一旦你到達了四號營地,你大概有二十四小時

  • to decide if you're going to go for the summit or not.

    來決定你到底要不要攻頂

  • Everybody's on oxygen, your supplies are limited,

    每一個人都帶著氧氣面罩。你的氧氣補給非常有限

  • and you either have to go up or go down,

    所以你要攻頂還是下山

  • make that decision very quickly.

    你要很快的做決定

  • This is a picture of Rob Hall.

    這是一張Rob Hall的照片

  • He was the leader of the New Zealand team.

    他是紐西蘭隊伍的領隊。

  • This is a radio he used later to call his wife

    這是他晚點用來與他老婆聯繫的無線電

  • that I'll tell you about.

    我等一下就會告訴你。

  • These are some climbers waiting to go to the summit.

    這是一些等著攻頂的登山客。

  • They're up at Camp Four, and you can see that there's wind blowing off the summit.

    他們正在四號營地,然後你可以看到後面頂峰上面強風不斷的吹著。

  • This is not good weather to climb in,

    這不是一個適合攀爬的天氣,

  • so the climbers are just waiting, hoping that the wind's going to die down.

    所以登山客們只能等著,希望強風能夠停下來。

  • And, in fact, the wind does die down at night.

    然後,事實上風在晚上的確是停了下來。

  • It becomes very calm, there's no wind at all.

    變得非常平靜,而且幾乎沒有風。

  • This looks like a good chance to go for the summit.

    這看起來是個非常適合攻頂的好機會。

  • So here are some climbers starting out for the summit

    所以有些登山客開始準備攻頂

  • on what's called the Triangular Face.

    在所謂的三角點上。

  • It's the first part of climb.

    這是攀登的第一個部份。

  • It's done in the dark, because it's actually less steep than what comes next,

    這通常會在黑夜中完成,因為跟接下來比這算是比較不那麼陡峭的,

  • and you can gain daylight hours if you do this in the dark.

    而且讓你可以賺到一點白天的時間,如果你是在黑夜中完成的。

  • So that's what happened.

    然後這就是接下來發生的。

  • The climbers got on the southeast ridge.

    這些登山客到了東南邊的山脊。

  • This is the view looking at the southeast ridge.

    這是從東南脊觀看它的樣子。

  • The summit would be in the foreground.

    這個山頂是個前台。

  • From here, it's about 1,500 feet

    從這裡開始,它大約有一千五百英尺

  • up at a 30-degree angle to the summit.

    以一個30度的傾角到達頂峰。

  • But what happened that year was

    但是那年發生的事情是

  • the wind suddenly and unexpectedly picked up.

    風突然不預期的又刮大了起來。

  • A storm blew in that no one was anticipating.

    一個所有人預料之外的暴風。

  • You can see here some ferocious winds

    你可以看到這裡一些非常強勁的風勢

  • blowing snow way high off the summit.

    把雪吹得遠高過山頂。

  • And there were climbers on that summit ridge.

    而且還有登山客還在山頂的山脊上。

  • This is a picture of me in that area

    這張照片是我在同樣的地方

  • taken a year before,

    在一年以前拍的,

  • and you can see I've got an oxygen mask on

    你可以看到我戴著氧氣面罩

  • with a rebreather.

    還有循環的呼吸器

  • I have an oxygen hose connected here.

    我這還有個氧氣管連接在上面

  • You can see on this climber, we have two oxygen tanks in the backpack --

    你可以看到在這位登山者身上,我們的背包都有兩罐氧氣筒

  • little titanium tanks, very lightweight --

    小型的鈦合金筒,重量非常輕

  • and we're not carrying much else.

    然後,我們並沒有多帶什麼

  • This is all you've got. You're very exposed on the summit ridge.

    這是你全部所有的。你在山頂脊上是非常裸露沒有遮蔽的。

  • OK, this is a view taken on the summit ridge itself.

    好,這是一張照片從山頂脊上拍下來的

  • This is on the way toward the summit,

    這是在攻頂的半途中,

  • on that 1,500-foot bridge.

    在那一千五百英尺的山脊。

  • All the climbers here are climbing unroped,

    所有的登山人員都是沒有綁上繩子的

  • and the reason is because

    那是由於

  • the drop off is so sheer on either side

    兩邊下坡都是非常陡峭的,

  • that if you were roped to somebody,

    如果你還和其他人綁著,

  • you'd wind up just pulling them off with you.

    你最後會拉著他們跟著你掉下去。

  • So each person climbs individually.

    所以每個人都只能靠自己獨立的爬。

  • And it's not a straight path at all,

    而且這根本就不是什麼好走的路。

  • it's very difficult climbing,

    它可是非常難爬的,

  • and there's always the risk

    都必須要冒著可能會

  • of falling on either side.

    掉下任何一邊的危險

  • If you fall to your left, you're going to fall

    如果你從左邊掉下去,你將會墜落

  • 8,000 feet into Nepal;

    八千英尺到尼泊爾。

  • if you fall to your right,

    如果你從右邊掉下去

  • you're going to fall 12,000 feet into Tibet.

    你會墜落一萬兩千英尺深到西藏