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  • The Migrant Crisis has resulted in millions of Middle Eastern and North African refugees

    歐洲難民潮導致數百萬來自中東及北非的難民

  • seeking asylum in Europe. Refugees have faced hostility from nationalist groups, despite

    湧入歐洲尋求庇護。儘管難民受到許多國際法保護,他們

  • having a number of international protections. So what rights do refugees have?

    仍面臨國家主義族群的敵對。那麼,難民有哪些權利呢?

  • First, it’s important to clarify who falls into this category. Refugees and asylum seekers,

    首先,我們必須先弄清楚其中的概念。難民及尋求庇護者

  • are those who have been displaced from their home countries due to unforeseeable circumstances

    指的是那些因不可預料的情況而被迫離開母國的人

  • like war or cultural persecution. The term refugee is simply another name for asylum

    像是戰爭或文化迫害。難民這個詞簡單來說就是

  • seekers whose asylum application has been approved. Additionally, the termmigrant

    庇護申請已通過之尋求庇護者的別稱。此外,「移民」這個詞

  • applies to all those travelling between countries, including economic refugees.

    指的是那些在國家間往返的人,包含經濟難民。

  • Fortunately for refugees, the United Nations defines a number of rights to protect and

    難民的福音來了,聯合國列出許多照護難民

  • care for vulnerable migrants. Those rights were outlined in the UN’s 1951 refugee convention,

    的權利。這些權利明列於1951年的聯合國《難民地位公約》中

  • which was originally created to help Europe cope with millions of stateless people following

    該公約原旨於幫助第二次世界大戰後歐洲地區

  • World War 2.

    的難民

  • According to the convention, if a displaced person faces persecution on the basis of their

    根據此公約,因信仰或國族身分受到迫害的移民

  • beliefs or identity, they are legally allowed to enter a foreign country to ask for asylum.

    有權向其他國家尋求庇護

  • Additionally, this host country is not allowed to send them back to their home state if their

    此外,如果這些難民的「生命或自由將受到威脅」,受理庇護的國家

  • life or freedom would be threatened.” These situations are often the result of war

    不得將他們遣送回國。這些通常發生於戰爭

  • or genocide, which displace large numbers of people; however, unrelated events like

    或是種族屠殺這類會產生大批難民的情況下;然而,其他像是

  • natural disasters or generalized violence do not usually qualify victims for refugee status.

    自然災害或是一般暴力情況則通常不符合此項難民資格

  • But the law doesn’t stop at protecting a refugee’s life; the United Nations also

    而該公約不僅保護難民的生命;聯合國同時

  • mandates that countries must respect a refugee’s well-being.

    規定締約國必須尊重難民的人身安全

  • Refugees have the right to access the courts, to primary education, to work, and to obtain

    難民有權使用法律體系、受基礎教育、工作以及持有

  • identity cards. Countries are also encouraged to provide refugees with other welfare services,

    身分證。聯合國也鼓勵締約國提供難民其他福利服務

  • and to ensure the unity of a refugee’s family. Nearly all services available to legal immigrants

    以及協助難民家庭團圓。幾乎所有合法移民擁有的權利

  • are also available to refugees. In the US, they are eligible for Social Security,

    都適用於難民身上。在美國,難民有權受到保護

  • Food Stamps, Medicare, Section 8 public housing, and many more aid programs. Across Europe,

    領取食物券、使用醫療資源、居住公營住宅以及參與許多其他援助計畫。而隔海的歐洲

  • the extent of refugee aid varies widely, but many have automatic access to financial aid

    難民援助政策在各國有很大的不同,但許多國家明文規定自動提供難民經濟

  • and shelter. In the UK, if you are recognized as a refugee, you will be entitled to the

    與庇護援助。在英國,如果你是難民,你享有的社會與經濟權利

  • same social and economic rights as UK citizens’.

    與英國公民一樣

  • However, refugees arriving in Europe are constricted by the Dublin Regulation, which states that

    然而,抵達歐洲的難民受《都柏林公約》限制,該公約規定

  • asylum seekers must apply for asylum in the first country of arrival. This is generally

    難民從哪個國家進入歐洲,就必須在該國提出庇護申請。這項規定旨在

  • to prevent them from sending out multiple applications, and to ensure their claim is

    避免難民提出多次申請,並且確保他們的申請

  • dealt with quickly in one country at a time. However, in August 2015, Germany lifted this

    能由單一國家快速受理。不過,2015年八月德國解除

  • restriction on their end, allowing in any Syrian refugees.

    這項限制,允許敘利亞難民進入德國境內

  • While refugees may be temporarily stateless and helpless, the international community

    難民也許暫時居無定所而求助無門,國際社會

  • has made it clear that they must be given legitimate opportunities to survive in the

    致力於確保他們在受壓迫的情況下

  • face of persecution. Although critics have voiced concerns that the incoming wave of

    仍享有合法機會。雖然有人對此提出質疑,認為湧入的大批

  • migrants threatens their country or way of life, there are few arguments to be made against

    難民可能威脅他們的國家或是生活方式,然而在「援助身處危險的難民」這項議題上

  • assisting those who are actively in danger. In fact, some sources say that incoming refugees

    仍存在一些爭議。事實上,有資料顯示難民的遷入

  • can have major, long-term benefits in innovation and business for host countries. While there

    可能對接受國的社會革新或是商業經濟有不可小覷且長遠的好處。雖然目前仍有

  • are some questions as to how European countries will deal with the flood of asylum seekers,

    一些質疑的聲浪,例如歐洲國家如何處理大批難民等等

  • there is no question as to the validity of their rights.

    難民無庸置疑地擁有某些權利

  • Weve talked about the rights of refugees, but what about the right to asylum? How does

    我們談了難民的權利,那麼尋求庇護的權利呢?如何

  • that work? Get the tidbits by watching this video.

    尋求庇護?這部影片中有詳盡的解釋

  • Thanks for watching TestTube News! Remember to like and subscribe so you don't miss any one of them.

    感謝您收看TestTube News!記得按讚並訂閱我們頻道,才不會錯過我們的影片喔

The Migrant Crisis has resulted in millions of Middle Eastern and North African refugees

歐洲難民潮導致數百萬來自中東及北非的難民

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 難民 權利 尋求 歐洲 國家 援助

難民有什麼權利? (What Rights Do Refugees Have?)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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