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  • In 1965, 17-year-old high school student, Randy Gardner, stayed awake for 264 hoursthat's 11 daysto see how he'd cope without sleep.

    在 1965 年,一位名為 Randy Gardner 的 17 歲高中生持續醒著沒睡長達 264 小時(也就是 11 天),來觀察他如何調適沒有睡眠的生活。

  • On the second day, his eyes stopped focusing.


  • Next, he lost the ability to identify objects by touch.


  • By day 3, Gardner was moody and uncoordinated.

    到了第三天,Gardner 變得暴躁易怒而且肢體不協調。

  • At the end of the experiment, he was struggling to concentrate, had trouble with short-term memory, became paranoid, and started hallucinating.

    在實驗的最後,他難以保持專注、短期記憶失常、變得偏執,而且還出現幻覺 。

  • Although Gardner recovered without long-term psychological or physical damage,

    雖然後來 Gardner 已完全恢復,且無長期心理或生理的後遺症,

  • for others, losing shuteye can result in hormonal imbalance, illness, and, in extreme cases, death.


  • We're only beginning to understand why we sleep to begin with, but we do know it's essential.


  • Adults need 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night and adolescents need about 10.

    一般成人晚上需要 7 到 8 小時的睡眠,青少年則需要約 10 小時。

  • We grow sleepy due to signals from our body telling our brain we are tired, and signals from the environment telling us it's dark outside.

    當我們的身體發出各種訊號告訴大腦我們累了時,睡意便會開始湧現另外,環境發出像是天色暗了的訊號也有影響 。

  • The rise in sleep-inducing chemicals, like adenosine and melatonin, send us into a light doze that grows deeper, making our breathing and heart rate slow down and our muscles relax.


  • This non-REM sleep is when DNA is repaired and our bodies replenish themselves for the day ahead.

    當進入上述非 REM 睡眠周期時,身體會重新恢復活力,DNA 也於此時得到修補,彌補一整天的疲憊。

  • In the United States, it's estimated that 30% of adults and 66% of adolescents are regularly sleep-deprived.

    在美國,據估計有 30% 的成人和 66% 的青少年長期睡眠不足。

  • This isn't just a minor inconveniencestaying awake can cause serious bodily harm.


  • When we lose sleep, learning, memory, mood, and reaction time are affected.


  • Sleeplessness may also cause inflammation, hallucinations, high blood pressure, and it's even been linked to diabetes and obesity.

    缺乏睡眠還會引起發炎、幻覺、高血壓甚至還與糖尿病、肥胖等有關聯 。

  • In 2014, a devoted soccer fan died after staying awake for 48 hours to watch the World Cup.

    在 2014 年,一名瘋狂的足球粉絲因為連續熬夜 48 小時看世界盃而猝死。

  • While his untimely death was due to a stroke, studies show that chronically sleeping fewer than 6 hours a night increases stroke risk by 4 and a half times compared to those getting a consistent 7 to 8 hours of shuteye.

    雖然他過早的死亡是中風導致,但據研究顯示若長期的睡眠少於六小時,中風的風險比睡滿 7 到 8 小時的人多 4.5 倍。

  • For a handful of people on the planet who carry a rare inherited genetic mutation, sleeplessness is a daily reality.


  • This condition, known as Fatal Familial Insomnia, places the body in a night mirror state of wakefulness, forbidding it from entering the sanctuary of sleep.


  • Within months or years, this progressively worsening condition leads to dementia and death.


  • How can sleep deprivation cause such immense suffering?


  • Scientists think the answer lies with the accumulation of waste products in the brain.


  • During our waking hours, our cells are busy using up our day's energy sources, which get broken down into various byproducts, including adenosine.


  • As adenosine builds up, it increases the urge to sleep, also known as sleep pressure.

    當腺苷逐漸累積,人便會感到困倦該作用被稱為「睡眠壓力」 。

  • In fact, caffeine works by blocking adenosine's receptor pathways.


  • Other waste products also build up in the brain, and if they're not cleared away, they collectively overload the brain and are thought to lead to the many negative symptoms of sleep deprivation.


  • So, what's happening in our brain when we sleep to prevent this?


  • Scientists found something called the glymphatic system, a clean-up mechanism that removes this build-up and is much more active when we're asleep.


  • It works by using cerebrospinal fluid to flush away toxic byproducts that accumulate between cells.


  • Lymphatic vessels, which serve as pathways for immune cells, have recently been discovered in the brain, and they may also play a role in clearing out the brain's daily waste products.


  • While scientists continue exploring the restorative mechanisms behind sleep, we can be sure that slipping into slumber is a necessity if we wanna maintain our health and our sanity.


In 1965, 17-year-old high school student, Randy Gardner, stayed awake for 264 hoursthat's 11 daysto see how he'd cope without sleep.

在 1965 年,一位名為 Randy Gardner 的 17 歲高中生持續醒著沒睡長達 264 小時(也就是 11 天),來觀察他如何調適沒有睡眠的生活。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 睡眠 代謝 腺苷 小時 廢物

【TED-Ed】如果不睡覺會發生什麼事? (What would happen if you didn’t sleep? - Claudia Aguirre)

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    echoke 發佈於 2021 年 06 月 01 日