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  • In 490 BC a Greek messenger named Pheidippides ran from the Greek town of Marathon to the

    公元前490年,一位名叫菲迪皮德斯的希臘信使從希臘的馬拉松鎮跑到。

  • capital Athens to deliver a message that the Greek army had

    在首都雅典傳遞消息說,希臘軍隊已經... ...

  • just beaten back the Persians, and the distance between those two towns is 26.2 miles, and

    剛打退了波斯人,而這兩個城鎮之間的距離是26.

  • that’s the origin of the modern sporting event that we call the marathon. You might

    這就是現代體育賽事的起源,我們稱之為馬拉松。你可能

  • know that story, but what they don’t always tell you is that when he got to Athens after

    但他們不一定會告訴你的是,當他到了雅典之後...

  • those 26.2 miles, Pheidippides died.

    那26.2英里,菲迪皮德斯死了。

  • So why on Earth would anyone want to run one of those for fun? How are our bodies even

    那麼,到底為什麼會有人想跑一個這樣的遊戲呢?我們的身體怎麼會

  • able to? I decided to find out, so I ran one. In the process, I

    能嗎?我決定一探究竟,於是我跑了一趟。在這個過程中,我

  • discovered a lot about what I’m made of, in more ways than one. You guys ready to run

    發現了很多關於我的東西, 在多個方面比一個。你們準備好跑了嗎?

  • the marathon? My training started millions of years before I ever got to the starting

    馬拉松?我的訓練在我到達起跑線之前的幾百萬年就開始了

  • line.

    行。

  • The first step to becoming a runner is, well, standing up, and bipedalism is only seen in

    成為跑者的第一步是,嗯,站起來,雙足主義只見於。

  • a handful of animals, except for a few species of birds walking on two legs is only uses

    少數動物,除了少數種類的鳥類用兩條腿走路外,其他的動物都只用兩條腿。

  • a temporary form of transportation. Our ancestors first stood up over three million years ago,

    一種臨時的交通工具。我們的祖先在三百多萬年前第一次站起來。

  • and well we were running probably not long after that, were made for

    我們大概在那之後不久就開始運行了,是為...

  • it. You could say that humans are built for long distance running but the truth is, long

    它。你可以說,人類是為長跑而生的,但事實上,長

  • distance running build us the most four on the floor quadrupeds could easily beat me

    奔跑的距離建立我們最四上的地板上的四足動物可以輕鬆地擊敗我

  • in a sprint, but humans are medal contenders in nature’s distance running events. Even

    在短跑中,但在自然界的長跑項目中,人類是獎牌的競爭者。甚至

  • the cheetah, the most perfectly crafted running machine on Earth could only run for maybe

    獵豹,地球上最完美的奔跑機器 也許只能跑上一段時間

  • a mile and a half before it overheats. Today’s fastest Olympic marathoners, they would only

    一英里半才過熱。今天最快的奧運馬拉松選手,他們只會... ...

  • be beaten by a handful of Earth’s animals in that long

    屢敗屢戰

  • distance. One theory of human evolution says that our adaptations for distance running

    的距離。一種人類進化理論認為,我們對長跑的適應性

  • work feast or hunting success like we talked about in my episodeWhy Do We Cook?”,

    工作盛宴或狩獵成功,就像我們在我的 "我們為什麼要做飯?"一集中談到的。

  • bigger, richer meals mean that we could evolve, well, bigger, richer brains. There’s a whole

    更大、更豐富的食物意味著我們可以進化出更大、更豐富的大腦。有一個整體

  • list of ways that we are made to run. In large tubes in our skulls help us balance while

    我們奔跑的方式列表。在我們頭骨的大管子裡,幫助我們保持平衡,同時。

  • were running, reflexes in our eyes keep our heads steady as we move up and down. It’s

    我們在奔跑時,眼睛的反射作用使我們的頭在上下移動時保持穩定。這就是

  • short arms and thin ankles that take us less effort to swing. Wide shoulders, a thin waist,

    短臂和細踝,讓我們揮杆時不那麼費力。寬肩,細腰。

  • and a pretty narrow pelvis help us counter the rotation of our moving legs. We have sweat

    和一個相當狹窄的骨盆幫助我們對抗我們移動的腿的旋轉。我們有汗水

  • glands, and less body hair, and tall thin bodies that let us disperse more heat. Better

    腺,而少了體毛,高瘦的身體,讓我們散發出更多的熱量。更好的

  • blood flow away from the brain to keep it cool, your big gluteus maximus muscles to

    血液流向大腦保持涼爽,你的臀大肌,以保持涼爽

  • stabilize our upper body, high surface area knee, ankle, and hip joints for shock absorption,

    穩定我們的上半身,高表面積的膝關節、踝關節和髖關節的減震。

  • and most importantly, our lower legs are built like rubber bands.

    最重要的是,我們的小腿就像橡皮筋一樣。

  • This is by far our coolest running adaptation. Every time my body hits the ground, it delivers

    這是迄今為止我們最酷的跑步適應。每次我的身體落地時,它都會提供出

  • up to 8 times the force of my body weight. That’s over 1400 pounds! In order to keep

    高達我體重的8倍的力量。那就是1400多磅!為了保持

  • that up for 26.2 miles, my foot expands and spreads like a shock absorber. This is the

    在26. 2英里的路程中,我的腳像減震器一樣膨脹和擴散。這就是

  • most important part of a running human: the Achilles tendon. Though my foot hits the ground,

    跑步的人類最重要的部位:跟腱。雖然我的腳踩在地上。

  • my calf muscles flexed, but even then the muscles and tendons are still a little bit

    我的小腿肌肉彎曲,但即使如此,肌肉和肌腱仍然是一個小

  • elastic, and then my ankle joint acts as a lever, which transfers as much as 50 percent

    彈性,然後我的腳踝關節作為一個槓桿, 它轉移多達50%的,

  • of that energy into the next step. By using stored kinetic energy, instead of chemical

    的能量進入下一步。通過使用儲存的動能,而不是化學的

  • energy, were able to go farther with less work.

    能量,我們能夠用更少的工作走得更遠。

  • You can’t run a marathon with just rubber bands though. You need power that humans are

    但你不能只用橡皮筋跑馬拉松。你需要的是人類的力量

  • run on gasoline your car ATP. This is an image of a striated muscle, the same type we have

    在汽油上運行 你的車ATP。這是一個條紋肌的影像, 我們有相同的類型。

  • in our arms, in our legs, and basically everywhere that we move. Each row of stripes contains

    在我們的手臂上,在我們的腿上,以及基本上我們移動的每一個地方。每一行的條紋都包含

  • a string of proteins called actin, next to another string of proteins called myosin.

    一串叫做肌動蛋白的蛋白質,旁邊還有一串叫做肌球蛋白的蛋白質。

  • And the head of that myosin protein, well, it acts like a ratchet, pulling along the

    肌球蛋白的頭部,就像一個棘輪一樣,拉住了

  • string of actin, shortening our contracting the muscle. That myosin machine is powered

    肌動蛋白的字符串,縮短我們收縮肌肉。那臺肌球蛋白機器是由

  • by ATP. The thing is, our bodies only have a couple seconds worth of ATP stored up at

    由ATP。問題是,我們的身體僅有幾秒鐘的ATP儲存在

  • any moment, so instead, were constantly replenishing it, thanks to our mitochondria

    所以,我們反而在不斷地補充它,這要感謝我們的線粒體。

  • and their little ATP factories. Just picture me as a giant ship with trillions of mitochondria

    和他們的ATP小工廠。把我想象成一艘擁有數萬億線粒體的巨輪。

  • at the oars. My body cycled through something like 75 kilograms of ATP during the marathon.

    在船槳上。我的身體在馬拉松過程中循環消耗了大約75公斤的ATP。

  • That’s almost my entire body weight! It just shows you how good our bodies are at

    這幾乎是我整個身體的重量!這只是告訴你我們的身體有多好。

  • recycling energy. Now that’s 75 kilograms of ATP broken down release the same amount

    回收能量。現在是75公斤ATP分解後釋放出同樣的能量

  • of free energy as a kilogram of TNT. My body gets ATP in a couple of different ways. If

    一公斤TNT的自由能量。我的身體通過幾種不同的方式獲得ATP。如果

  • I was running full speed the entire time, my cells would be forced to use an inefficient

    我一直在全速運轉,我的細胞就會被迫使用低效的電池。

  • process called glycolysis, but by running slightly slower for the whole race, I let

    稱為糖酵解的過程,但通過在整個比賽中跑得稍微慢一點,我讓我的運動量增加了。

  • my mitochondria use a much more efficient method called the Krebs cycle and the electron

    我的線粒體使用了一種更有效的方法,叫做克雷布斯循環和電子。

  • transport chain. I can burn lots of fuel and make that ATP, like fat or protein, but my

    運輸鏈。我可以燃燒大量的燃料,並使ATP,如脂肪或蛋白質,但我的。

  • muscles prefer glucose, which is stored in long chains like glycogen for quick access,

    肌肉更喜歡葡萄糖,它像糖原一樣儲存在長鏈中,以便快速獲取。

  • but even they don’t keep that much just lying around. So instead, I topped off my

    但即使是他們也不會把這麼多東西放在身邊。所以,我把我的

  • glycogen tank before the race by doing something called carb loading.

    糖原罐在比賽前通過做一些所謂的碳水化合物加載。

  • Look at all these waffles I have to eat. But even eating all that before the race, my body

    看看這些華夫餅我都得吃。但即使在比賽前吃了那麼多,我的身體... ...

  • can’t hold all the glycogen it needs to get through a marathon, so I had to eat and

    不能保持所有的糖原它需要通過一個馬拉松, 所以我不得不吃和

  • drink more during the race, or else I would hit the dreaded wall.

    在比賽中多喝水,否則我就會撞上可怕的牆。

  • Hitting the wall is just a big scary name for fatigue. And there’s lots of reasons

    撞牆只是一個大的嚇人的名字,疲勞。而且有很多原因

  • why it can happen. If you run out of glycogen, then your muscles can run out of ATP, and

    為什麼會發生這種情況。如果你用完了糖原,那麼你的肌肉就會用完ATP,而。

  • that protein ratchet will get stuck in the lock position. It’s actually why something,

    那個蛋白棘輪會卡在鎖定位置。其實這也是為什麼一些。

  • well, gets kinda stiff when it dies. If your cells don’t have enough salt, then your

    好吧,當它死了,變得有點僵硬。如果你的細胞沒有足夠的鹽分,那麼你的細胞

  • nerves and muscles won’t have the sodium, potassium, and calcium that they need to pass

    神經和肌肉不會有鈉、鉀和鈣,他們需要通過的

  • electrical signals. The main reason that people hit the wall is because of this. See, your

    電信號。人們撞牆的主要原因就是因為這個。你看,你的

  • brain is competing with your muscles for blood sugar, and if those levels dip too low, well,

    大腦正在與你的肌肉競爭血糖, 如果這些水準下降太低,好。

  • youll feel dizzy and loopy.

    你會感覺到頭暈目眩,昏昏欲睡。

  • “I think I’m gonna die. I’m gonna die. ”

    "我想我快死了。我要死了”

  • Youll be okay.”

    "你會沒事的。"

  • Your brain is actually preventing your muscles from firing goad for some emergency power

    你的大腦其實是在阻止你的肌肉發力,以獲得一些應急的動力。

  • save mode. I’ve never run a marathon before and I discovered it’s not like any other

    保存模式。我以前從來沒有跑過馬拉松,我發現它和其他的馬拉松不一樣

  • sporting event I’ve ever taken part in. Youre not battling an opponent; youre

    我參加過的體育賽事。你不是在和對手較量,你是在...

  • only battling yourself. All those feelings of joy, and fatigue, and pain, they only exist

    只不過是在和自己較勁。那些快樂、疲憊、痛苦的感覺,它們只存在於...

  • in your mind. That mind is connected to the physical muscles and chemical power plants

    在你的頭腦中。這個頭腦是連接到身體的肌肉和化學發電廠的

  • and proteins doing work. I’ve never understood more about my body, or my biology, and when

    和蛋白質的工作。我從來沒有了解過更多關於我的身體, 或者我的生物學,而當... ...

  • I push them to the limit, and in the process, I discovered that it wasn’t a limit after

    我把他們逼到了極限,在這個過程中,我發現,這不是極限後的極限

  • all. That was the most fun I’d never want to have again. Like halfway through, it was

    所有。那是我再也不想有的樂趣。就像半途而廢,它是

  • like the hardest thing I’ve ever done, and the entire second half

    就像我做過的最難的事情,而整個後半段

  • was just pure willpower, like a competition against yourself, and I-I won. I beat- I beat

    只是純粹的意志力, 就像與自己的競爭,我,我贏了。我贏了,我贏了

  • my own mind. That was awesome. Thank you, everybody.

    我自己的想法。這是真棒。謝謝大家

  • Were not the only social animals that sit down to eat together, but we are the only

    我們不是唯一坐下來一起吃飯的社會性動物 但我們是唯一的

  • ones who cook. Cultural anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss is above all cooking establishes

    烹飪的人。文化人類學家克勞德-列維-斯特勞斯是最重要的烹飪建立了

  • the difference between animals and people, although I’d think he’d agree that pants

    動物和人的區別,雖然我想他會同意,褲子

  • make a big difference, too.

    也有很大的不同。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 馬拉松 肌肉 身體 能量 蛋白質 動物

馬拉松科學 (Science of Marathon Running)

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    羅時軒 發佈於 2015 年 11 月 05 日
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