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  • Cramming for a test?

    正為了考試死記硬背嗎?

  • Trying to get more done than you have time to do?

    想比平常有時間做這些事時完成更多事嗎?

  • Stress is a feeling we all experience when we are challenged or overwhelmed.

    大家都有身處壓力的經驗,當我們備受挑戰或不堪負荷時就會有這種感覺。

  • But more than just an emotion,

    但壓力不僅是一種情緒。

  • stress is a hardwired physical response that travels throughout your entire body.

    壓力是一種本能的身體反應,遍布你的身體。

  • In the short term, stress can be advantageous,

    簡單來說,壓力可以是有益的。

  • but when activated too often or too long,

    但當壓力過於活耀或長久不散。

  • your primitive fight or flight stress response

    你用來回應壓力的原始戰或逃本能。

  • not only changes your brain

    不僅會改變你的大腦。

  • but also damages many of the other organs and cells throughout your body.

    還會傷害多個身體裡的器官和細胞。

  • Your adrenal gland releases the stress hormones

    你的腎上腺釋放出壓力荷爾蒙。

  • cortisol, epinephrine, also known as adrenaline,

    皮質醇、腎上腺素。

  • and norepinephrine.

    以及去甲腎上腺素。

  • As these hormones travel through your blood stream,

    當這些激素行遍你的血液,

  • they easily reach your blood vessels and heart.

    它們輕而易舉地就到達你的血管和心臟。

  • Adrenaline causes your heart to beat faster

    腎上腺素會讓你的心臟加速。

  • and raises your blood pressure, over time causing hypertension.

    你的血壓因此升高,隨著時間推移引發高血壓。

  • Cortisol can also cause the endothelium, or inner lining of blood vessels,

    皮質醇還會造成內皮細胞或血管內層

  • to not function normally.

    運作失常。

  • Scientists now know that this is an early step

    科學家們現在知道,這是以下過程的早期現象。

  • in triggering the process of atherosclerosis

    也就是說,接下來會觸發動脈粥樣硬化。

  • or cholesterol plaque build up in your arteries.

    或是膽固醇斑塊形成。

  • Together, these changes increase your chances of a heart attack or stroke.

    綜合這些改變,你得心臟病和中風的機會就會增加。

  • When your brain senses stress,

    當你的大腦察覺壓力時。

  • it activates your autonomic nervous system.

    你的自主神經系統會被激發。

  • Through this network of nerve connections,

    透過神經連結網絡。

  • your big brain communicates stress to your enteric,

    你的大腦向腸道傳達壓力。

  • or intestinal nervous system.

    或傳到腸道神經系統。

  • Besides causing butterflies in your stomach,

    除了讓你的胃緊張翻騰。

  • this brain-gut connection can disturb the natural rhythmic contractions

    這種大腦和腸道的連結反應會擾亂自然的節律性收縮,

  • that move food through your gut,

    食物藉由這種收縮動作通過腸道。

  • leading to irritable bowel syndrome,

    導致大腸激躁症。

  • and can increase your gut sensitivity to acid,

    同時腸道對酸會更加敏感。

  • making you more likely to feel heartburn.

    讓你更容易感到胃灼熱。

  • Via the gut's nervous system,

    經由腸道神經系統。

  • stress can also change the composition and function of your gut bacteria,

    壓力也會改變你腸道細菌的組成及功能。

  • which may affect your digestive and overall health.

    進而影響你的消化和整體健康。

  • Speaking of digestion, does chronic stress affect your waistline?

    談到消化,慢性壓力會影響你的腰圍嗎?

  • Well, yes.

    答案是,會的。

  • Cortisol can increase your appetite.

    皮質醇會增進你的食慾。

  • It tells your body to replenish your energy stores

    並告訴你的身體補充能量。

  • with energy dense foods and carbs, causing you to crave comfort foods.

    攝取高能量食物和碳水化合物,導致你渴望吃下療癒性食物

  • High levels of cortisol can also cause you to put on those extra calories

    高濃度皮質醇也會致生額外的卡路里。

  • as visceral or deep belly fat.

    形成內臟或腹部深處的脂肪。

  • This type of fat doesn't just make it harder to button your pants.

    這種類型的脂肪不僅讓你更難扣上褲子。

  • It is an organ that actively releases hormones

    它就像一種積極釋放激素

  • and immune system chemicals called cytokines

    以及免疫系統化學物質的器官,稱為細胞因子。

  • that can increase your risk of developing chronic diseases,

    會增加罹患慢性病的風險。

  • such as heart disease and insulin resistance.

    像是心臟病和胰島素抵抗現象。

  • Meanwhile, stress hormones affect immune cells in a variety of ways.

    同時,壓力荷爾蒙以各式各樣的方式影響免疫細胞。

  • Initially, they help prepare to fight invaders and heal after injury,

    一開始,它們有助於打擊入侵者,並利於受傷後癒合。

  • but chronic stress can dampen function of some immune cells,

    但慢性壓力會抑制某些免疫細胞的功能。

  • make you more susceptible to infections, and slow the rate you heal.

    讓你更容易受到感染,並減緩你的癒合速度。

  • Want to live a long life?

    想要長壽嗎?

  • You may have to curb your chronic stress.

    你也許需遏制慢性壓力生成。

  • That's because it has even been associated with shortened telomeres,

    因為壓力甚至和端粒縮短有關。

  • the shoelace tip ends of chromosomes that measure a cell's age.

    染色體有個像鞋帶尖端的部分,用於測量細胞年齡。

  • Telomeres cap chromosomes

    與端粒構成帽子構造的染色體。

  • to allow DNA to get copied every time a cell divides

    讓DNA在每次細胞分裂時得以複製。

  • without damaging the cell's genetic code,

    而不會損壞細胞的基因編碼。

  • and they shorten with each cell division.

    端粒隨著每次細胞分裂而縮短。

  • When telomeres become too short, a cell can no longer divide and it dies.

    當端粒變得太短,細胞便無法再分裂,進而死去。

  • As if all that weren't enough,

    這樣對他們來說似乎還不夠。

  • chronic stress has even more ways it can sabotage your health,

    慢性壓力有更多破壞健康的方法。

  • including acne,

    像是長痤瘡。

  • hair loss,

    掉髮。

  • sexual dysfunction,

    性功能障礙。

  • headaches,

    頭痛。

  • muscle tension,

    肌肉緊繃。

  • difficulty concentrating,

    難以專注。

  • fatigue,

    疲勞。

  • and irritability.

    還會感到煩躁。

  • So, what does all this mean for you?

    所以,這代表什麼?

  • Your life will always be filled with stressful situations.

    你的生活會處於壓力充斥的狀態下。

  • But what matters to your brain and entire body

    但對你的頭腦和全身最重要的部分是。

  • is how you respond to that stress.

    你處理壓力的方式。

  • If you can view those situations as challenges you can control and master,

    如果你可以將這些情況視為挑戰,認為這一切都在你可控制並掌握的範圍內。

  • rather than as threats that are insurmountable,

    而不是將壓力視為一種難以克服的威脅。

  • you will perform better in the short run and stay healthy in the long run.

    你在短期內會表現得更好,長期來看也能維持健康。

Cramming for a test?

正為了考試死記硬背嗎?

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 壓力 腸道 細胞 端粒 皮質醇

TED-Ed】壓力是如何影響你的身體的--Sharon Horesh Bergquist。 (【TED-Ed】How stress affects your body - Sharon Horesh Bergquist)

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    Tina Wey 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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