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  • What causes, say, heroin addiction?

    是什麼導致人們對海洛英上癮?

  • This is a really stupid question, right?

    這個問題聽起来很蠢對吧?

  • It's obvious; we all know it;

    很明顯,大家都知道,

  • heroin causes heroin addiction.

    是由海洛英導致海洛英上癮的。

  • Here's how it works:

    就像這樣:

  • if you use heroin for 20 days, by day 21,

    如果你連續二十天注射海洛英,到了第二十一天

  • your body would physically crave the drug ferociously

    你的身體就會强烈的渴望海洛英,

  • because there are chemical hooks in the drug.

    因為海洛英的化學成分導致依賴。

  • That's what addiction means.

    上癮就是這個意思。

  • But there's a catch.

    但有一個問題。

  • Almost everything we think we know about addiction is wrong.

    我們對「癮」的觀念幾乎都是錯誤的。

  • If you, for example, break your hip, you'll be taken to a hospital

    比如說,如果你的髖關節骨折了,你就會被送往醫院,

  • and you'll be given lots of diamorphine for weeks or even months.

    在數週甚至數月的時間都必須注射「二乙酰嗎啡」。

  • Diamorphine is heroin.

    「二乙酰嗎啡」就是海洛英

  • It's, in fact, much stronger heroin than any addict can get on the street

    而且事實上它比黑市裡的海洛英來的更爲強效,

  • because it's not contaminated by all the stuff drug dealers dilute it with.

    因為它并沒有被毒犯們的添加物稀釋過。

  • There are people near you being given

    在你們身邊醫院裡就有很多人

  • loads of deluxe heroin in hospitals right now.

    正在使用大量奢華版海洛英。

  • So at least some of them should become addicts?

    所以,他們之中應該有人會上癮吧?

  • But this has been closely studied; it doesn't happen.

    但有研究顯示,這并不會發生。

  • Your grandmother wasn't turned into a junkie by her hip replacement.

    你奶奶並沒有因為一個人工關節成為癮君子。

  • Why is that?

    為什麼呢?

  • Our current theory of addiction comes in part from a series of experiments

    我們目前對「癮」的瞭解是建基於

  • that were carried out earlier in the 20th century.

    上世紀初的一系列的試驗。

  • The experiment is simple:

    試驗很簡單:

  • you take a rat and put it in a cage with two water bottles.

    把一隻小白鼠關進籠裡。籠裡只有兩支水樽,

  • One is just water, the other is water laced with heroin or cocaine.

    一支只是水,另一支有海洛英或古柯鹼。

  • Almost every time you run this experiment,

    幾乎每次進行這試驗,

  • the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water

    老鼠都會癡迷于下過藥的水,

  • and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself.

    不斷吸食更多,直到毒品將它殺死。

  • But in the 1970s, Bruce Alexander, a professor of psychology,

    不過,七十年代的時候,心理學家布魯斯·亞歷山大

  • noticed something odd about this experiment:

    發現了這試驗有點奇怪:

  • the rat is put in the cage all alone.

    老鼠被單獨關進籠子,

  • It has nothing to do but take the drugs.

    他除了吸食毒品外,便沒有其他的事可以做了。

  • What would happen, he wondered, if we tried this differently?

    他很好奇,如果我們嘗試讓老鼠不再無聊,結果會是如何?

  • So he built Rat Park, which is basically heaven for rats;

    於是就建了一個對於老鼠們來説像天堂一樣的「老鼠樂園」:

  • it’s a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls, tunnels to scamper down,

    那是個精彩的籠子,老鼠們可以玩耍彩球,在滑道中奔走上下,

  • plenty of friends to play with, and they could have loads of sex

    和同伴們玩耍、交配——

  • everything a rat about town could want.

    滿足老鼠的一切需求,

  • And they would have the drugged water and the normal water bottles.

    當然,同時也有著裝著下過藥的水和普通水的水瓶。

  • But here's the fascinating thing:

    驚人的一幕出現了:

  • in Rat Park, rats hardly ever use the drugged water;

    在「老鼠樂園」中老鼠們極少飲用下過藥的水。

  • none of them ever use it compulsively; none of them ever overdose.

    無法脫癮、吸毒過量的老鼠一隻也沒有。

  • But maybe this is a quirk of rats, right?

    這只是老鼠,那人呢?

  • Well, helpfully, there was a human experiment along the same lines:

    很巧的,類似的試驗也有人類的版本:

  • the Vietnam War.

    越南戰爭。

  • 20% of American troops in Vietnam were using a lot of heroin.

    在越南戰爭中,兩成美軍經常吸食海洛英,

  • People back home were really panicked,

    讓國內人士非常擔心

  • because they thought there would be hundreds of thousands of junkies

    戰爭結束後街頭巷尾出現

  • on the streets of the United States when the war was over.

    成千上萬的癮君子。

  • But a study followed the soliders home and found something striking:

    但對美軍的跟蹤調查讓人大吃一驚:

  • they didn't go to rehab; they didn't even go into withdrawal;

    吸毒美軍沒有進戒毒所,甚至也沒有戒斷症狀;

  • 95% of them just stopped after they got home.

    95% 的美軍回國後自動停止吸毒。

  • If you believe the old theory of addiction, that makes no sense.

    如果你深信著對癮的那個老理論,那完全不能解釋這個現象。

  • But if you believe Prof. Alexander's theory, it makes perfect sense,

    但如果你相信亞歷山大教授的理論,那將一切都得以解釋了:

  • because if you're put into a horrific jungle in a foreign country

    美軍被送往國外的深山密林,

  • where you don't want to be, and you could be forced to kill or die at any moment,

    極不情願地,冒著隨時都可能被殺或死亡的生命危險,

  • doing heroin is a great way to spend your time;

    服食海洛英將會是一個很好消磨時間的方法;

  • but if you go back to your nice home with your friends and your family,

    回國之後,與親朋好友齊聚安樂窩,

  • it's the equivalent of being taken out of that first cage

    自然像離開禁閉籠,

  • and put into a human Rat Park;

    來到人類的「老鼠樂園」。

  • it's not the chemicals, it's your cage.

    拿走的不是藥物,而是牢籠。

  • We need to think about addiction differently.

    我們必須重新思考關於「癮」.

  • Human beings have an innate need to bond and connect.

    人類天生需要依賴紐帶和接觸。

  • When we are happy and healthy, we will bond with the people around us.

    當我們健康快樂時,我們會很自然地與身邊的人人建立紐帶。

  • But when we can't,

    但當我們不能時,

  • because we're traumatized, isolated, or beaten down by life,

    我們則會因爲創傷,孤獨或被生活打敗時

  • we will bond with something that gives us some sense of relief.

    我們唯有寄託於能安撫和放鬆心靈的物品,

  • It might be endlessly checking a smartphone;

    也許是無止盡的查閲智能電話,

  • it might be pornography, video games, reddit, gambling, or it might be cocaine.

    也也許會是成人影集,電子游戲,熱提,賭博,也或許是古柯鹼。

  • But we will bond with something, because that is our human nature.

    總之我們需要和某樣東西建立紐帶 那是因爲這是我們的天性

  • The path out of unhealthy bonds is to form healthy bonds,

    擺脫那些不健康的紐帶的唯一途徑就是開始一段健康的紐帶,

  • to be connected to people you want to be present with.

    與你想要的人接觸并建立建立紐帶。

  • Addiction is just one symptom of the crisis of disconnection

    上癮,衹是一個無法建立紐帶的危機所形成的現象

  • that's happening all around us.

    這現象一直在我們身邊發生

  • We all feel it.

    我們全都感受得到

  • Since the 1950s, the average number of close friends an American has

    打從五十年代起,美國人的平均好友人數

  • has been steadily declining.

    已開始直綫下降

  • At the same time, the amount of floor space in their homes

    與此同時,他們家中的空間

  • has been steadily increasing.

    也在穩定的增長。

  • To choose floor space over friends, to choose stuff over connection.

    選擇空間的多過於選擇朋友, 選擇物品的多過於接觸。

  • The War on Drugs we've been fighting for almost a century now

    我們已經和毒品征戰了將近一世紀之久

  • has made everything worse.

    但情況卻越發糟糕。

  • Instead of helping people heal and getting their life together,

    我們非但沒有幫助療愈和 協助他們恢復正常生活,

  • we have cast them out from society,

    反之將他們排除與我們的社會之中。

  • we have made it harder for them to get jobs and become stable,

    我們讓他們更加困難的得到一份穩定的工作,

  • we take benefits and support away from them if we catch them with drugs,

    我們苛刻他們的利益和協助,當我們發現他們使用毒品

  • we throw them in prison cells, which are literally cages,

    我們把他們送入監獄,一個真正的牢籠中,

  • we put people who are not well

    我們把本來就不好的人們

  • in a situation which makes them feel worse and hate them for not recovering.

    置入一個讓他們感覺更糟甚至開始責備他們的不進取。

  • For too long, we've talked only about individual recovery from addiction.

    我們花了太長的時間討論如何讓一個人擺脫癮,

  • But we need now to talk about social recovery.

    但我們其實更需要的是如何讓這個社會恢復。

  • Because something has gone wrong with us as a group.

    因爲我們的群裏已有一部分的人走錯了道

  • We have to build a society that looks a lot more like Rat Park

    我們需要重新建立更多類似于老鼠樂園的社會

  • and a lot less like those isolated cages.

    并帶走更多的那些所謂的孤獨牢籠

  • We are going to have to change the unnatural way we live

    我們必須去改變現在這有反自然的生活方式

  • and rediscover each other.

    并重新發現彼此。

  • The opposite of addiction is not sobriety; the opposite of addiction is connection.

    上癮的另一面并不是清醒; 而是人與人(物)之間的聯係。

  • This video is a collaboration with Johann Hari,

    這個短片是和Johann Hari

  • the author of the book

    “Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs”的作者

  • Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs”.

    的協助下一同完成的

  • He was very kind to work with us on this video to spread the world.

    很感激他能與我們合作,并由衷的希望這短片能傳至世界各地

  • We recommend that you give the book a try.

    我們也鼓勵您嘗試去閲讀這本書

  • Our videos are made thanks to your support on Patreon.com.

    感謝您對我們所做的短片的支持 如果您希望我們能完成更多類似的短片

  • If you want to help us make more of them, we really appreciate your support.

    我們將會很感激您能到Patreon.com上支持我們

  • We made an interactive version of this video together with some friends.

    我們也和一些朋友做了個這段片的互動版

  • See the link in the description.

    請查閲在簡介中的鏈接

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    由 Amara.org 社群提供的字幕

What causes, say, heroin addiction?

是什麼導致人們對海洛英上癮?

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「上癮」的真面目 (Everything We Think We Know About Addiction Is Wrong)

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    Ray Du 發佈於 2015 年 10 月 31 日
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