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  • This is a thinker who helps us understand why our lives and relationships

    佛洛伊德是位思想家,教導我們人生及人際關係

  • are full of so much confusion and pain. He tells us why life is hard, and how to cope.

    有許多困惑與痛苦。他告訴我們為何生命是艱苦的以及我們該如何與之抗衡

  • His own life incurred a lot of anxiety. Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born to a middle-class Jewish family

    佛洛伊德自己的生活也充滿了焦慮,他出生於一個中產階級猶太家庭

  • in 1856.

    1856出生

  • His professional life was not an immediate success. As a medical student,

    他的職業生涯並非一開始成功,在醫學院讀書時

  • he dissected hundreds of eels in an unsuccessful attempt to locate their reproductive organs.

    他解剖了上百隻鱔魚都找不到它們的生殖器官

  • He promoted cocaine as a medical drug, but it turned out to be a dangerous and addictive idea.

    他提倡古柯鹼可作藥物使用,但結果是它相當危險且會使人上癮

  • A few years later he founded the discipline that would ultimately make his name.

    數年後他創立了一個學科使他成名

  • A new psychological medicine he called

    新的心理醫學

  • PSYCHOANALYSIS

    他稱之為心理分析

  • The landmark study was his 1900 book The Interpretation of Dreams.

    1900年他寫了一本書名為「夢的解析」,是極為了不起的研究

  • Many others followed.

    受到好多人推崇

  • Despite his success, he was often unhappy.

    雖然很成功,但他並不是很快樂

  • During some particularly strenuous research he recorded, "The chief patient I am preoccupied with is myself.”

    他記錄了一些特別重要的研究,「我最主要的病人其是我自己」

  • He was convinced he would die between 61 and 62 and had great phobias about those numbers.

    他一直以為自己會在61或62歲時死,對這兩個數字特別恐懼

  • Although he actually died much later, at age 83.

    但實際上他一直活到83歲才過世

  • Perhaps because of his frustrations, Freud achieved a series of deep insights into the

    也許正是因為他的沮喪,佛洛伊德完成一系列能夠深入解析

  • sources of human unhappiness.

    人類的不快樂的源頭

  • He proposed that we are all driven by the

    他提出趨使人類去生活的原因是

  • Pleasure Principle

    享樂原則

  • which inclines us towards easy physical and emotional rewards

    意思是人們很容易追求身體與心理的報酬

  • and away from unpleasant things like drudgery and discipline. As infants we are guided more or less solely

    而逃避不愉快的事物如苦工或紀律。我們從嬰兒時期就或多或少

  • according to the pleasure principle, Freud argued.

    受享樂原則影響,佛洛伊德主張

  • But it will, if adhered to without constraints, lead us to dangerous reckless things

    但如果沒有限制之下去一味追求,會導致危險

  • like never doing any work eating too much

    像好吃不做工

  • or, most notoriously, sleeping with members of own family.

    或更甚者和自家人通奸

  • We need to adjust to what Freud called

    我們人需要如佛洛伊德所說的去調適

  • THE REALITY PRINCIPLE

    以符合現實的原則

  • Though we all have to bow to this reality principle, Freud believed that

    雖然我們必須向現實原則低頭,佛洛伊德相信

  • there were better and worse kinds of adaptations. He called the troublesome ones

    有好的也有壞的方式去調適自我,稱那些有問題的人

  • NEUROSES

    患有精神官能症

  • Neuroses are the result of faulty negotiations withor in Freud's language,

    精神官能症(以佛洛伊德的說法)是因為病人錯誤地壓抑自己所造成

  • repression ofthe pleasure principle.

    壓抑自我的享樂原則

  • Freud described a conflict between three parts of our minds: the

    佛洛伊德認為我們的心智裡有三個部分是互相衝突

  • the ID

    一個是 ID (伊底或本我)

  • driven by the pleasure principle,

    受享樂原則驅使

  • the SUPEREGO

    SUPEREGO 超我

  • driven by a desire to follow the rules and do the right thing according to society.

    則受到規則的影響,遵守社會的道德判斷

  • and

    然後還有

  • the EGO

    EGO 自我

  • which has to somehow accommodate the other two.

    在兩者之間協調

  • To understand more about these dynamics, Freud urged us to think back to the origins of our

    要瞭解這個動態的結構,佛洛伊德要我們思考人類的起源

  • neuroses in childhood.

    兒童時期的心理

  • As we grow up, we go through what Freud termed

    兒童成長期會經過佛洛伊德命名的幾個時期

  • THE ORAL PHASE

    口腔期

  • where we deal with all the feelings around ingestion and eating.

    藉由咀嚼、吞嚥等活動獲得滿足

  • If our parents aren't careful we might pick up all kinds of neuroses here: we might take

    父母若沒有很小心,兒童可能會發展一些官能問題,我們可能會

  • pleasure in refusing food, or turn to food to calm ourselves down,

    透過拒絕食物來感覺愉快,或藉由食物獲得慰藉

  • , or hate the idea of depending on anyone else for food.

    或憎恨因為必須依靠他人獲得食物

  • Then comes

    然後

  • THE ANAL PHASE

    肛門期

  • which is closely aligned with what we now callpotty-training".

    是在我們「排泄訓練」 的時期

  • During this period, our parents tell us what to do, and when to go.

    這段期間,父母會告訴我們怎麼上廁所和什麼時候大小便

  • At this phase we begin to learn about testing the limits of authority.

    這個階段,我們學習去測試權威的界線

  • Again, if things go wrong, if we don't feel authority is benign enough,

    還有,如果出錯了或是我們認為權威不夠友善

  • we might, for example, choose to withhold out of defiance.

    我們可能會選擇因為想要挑戰權威而不服從

  • Then, as adults, we might becomeanally retentive”; in other words, not able to

    長大後,我變得過分注重細節,換句話說就是無法

  • give or surrender.

    讓步或投降

  • Next comes,

    接下來的是

  • THE PHALLIC PHASE

    性器期

  • which goes until about age 6. Freud shocked his contemporaries by insisting that little

    直得大約六歲時開始,佛洛依德觀點震驚了世人

  • children have sexual feelings. Moreover, in the phallic phase children direct their sexual

    他堅持兒童有性慾。更且,兒童性器期的性對象

  • impulses towards their parents, the most immediately available and gratifying people around.

    是向著父母,因為父母是最親近的而且容易滿足自我性欲的人

  • Freud famously described what he called

    佛洛依德一項著名的觀點是他所稱的

  • THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX

    伊底帕斯情節

  • Where we are unconsciously predisposed towards

    指的是人類在無意識下會有

  • being in love with the one parent and hating the other.”

    「喜愛父母之中的一方而憎恨另一方」

  • What is complex is that no matter how much our parents love us, they cannot extend this to sexual life

    為什麼會有這種情節是因為父母不論多愛子女,父母的性事

  • and will always have another life with a partner. This makes our young selves

    仍然只有父母彼此能參與,這使得年幼的兒童

  • feel dangerously jealous and angryand also ashamed and guilty about this anger.

    感覺到愛受到威脅,因此生氣或妒忌,同時又為了自我的憤怒感到難為情和罪惡感

  • The complex provides a huge amount of internalised worry for a small child.

    這種情節對幼小的兒童帶來很大的內在憂慮

  • Ultimately, most of us experience some form of confusion around our parents

    最終,大多數人在父母身邊經歷過某種形式的困惑

  • that later ties into our ideas of love.

    之後和愛的想法有關係

  • Mum and dad may both give us love, but they often mix it in with disturbed behavior.

    父母兩者都愛我們,但他們的愛常伴隨著一些令我們困擾的行為

  • Yet because we love them, we remain loyal to them and also to their bizarre, destructive patterns.

    但正因為我們愛父母,因此我們保持對他們忠誠,甚至是他們怪異、有害的行為

  • For example, if our mother is cold, we will be apt nevertheless to long for her.

    例如,如果媽很冷淡,我們仍然盼望她

  • And as a result, however, we may be prone to always associate love with a certain distance.

    結論是,我們有可能傾向於連結愛與距離

  • Naturally, the result is very difficult adult relationships. Often the kind of love we've learned from mum and dad

    很自然地,對於成人後的男女關係造成困難,因為從父母那兒學到的愛

  • means we can't fuse sex and love

    使得有些人沒有辦法將性和愛融合在一起

  • because the people we learnt about love from are also those we were blocked from having sex with. We might find that the

    沒有辦法和教我們愛的人發生性關係。我們將會發現

  • more in love with someone we are, the harder it becomes to make love to them.

    愈是愛一個人愈無法和那個人做愛

  • This can reach a pitch of crisis after a few years of marriage and some kids.

    這可能會造成某些人的婚姻問題,甚至生育兒女

  • Freud compared the issues we so often have with intimacy to hedgehogs in the winter.

    佛洛伊德將這個情況比喻為冬天刺蝟的親密行為

  • they need to cuddle for warmth, but they also can't come too close because they're prickly.

    他們因為取暖而抱在一起,但他們身上的刺使彼此無法接近

  • There's no easy solution. Freud says we can't make ourselves fully rational,

    這個問題不容易解決。佛洛伊德說我們沒有辦法讓自己完全理性

  • and we can't change society, either. In his 1930 book Civilization and its Discontents,

    我們也無法改變社會。佛洛伊德1930年的書《文明及其不滿》中

  • Freud wrote that society provides us with many things, but it does this by imposing

    佛洛伊德寫道社會提供給人類許多,但它是透過這些來控制我們

  • heavy dictates on us: insisting that we sleep with only a few (usually one) other,

    如我們只能有幾位(通常是一位)性伴侶

  • imposing the incest taboo, requiring us to put off our immediate desires, demanding that we follow authority

    禁止近親通奸、要求人壓抑欲望、遵從權威

  • and work to make money. Societies themselves are neurotic

    工作賺錢,社會本身是神精質的

  • that is how they function and it's why there are constant wars and other troubles.

    它的功能即此,所以人類才有戰爭及衝突

  • Freud attempted to invent a treatment for our many neuroses, he called it, psychoanalysis.

    佛洛伊德想為許多精神患者發展治療的方法,他稱之為,精神分析

  • He thought that with a little proper analysis, people could uncover what ails them

    他認為只要適度的做一點分析,人就可以得知什麼困擾他們

  • and better adjust to the difficulties of reality.

    以及現實中適應困難較好的方法

  • In his sessions, he analyzed a number of key things.

    他的心理分析中分析有幾項重點

  • He looked at people's dreams, which he saw as expressions of

    他觀察夢境,其中有他所稱

  • WISH FULFILLMENTS

    願望實現

  • He also looked at

    他也觀察

  • PARAPRAXES

    行為倒錯

  • or slips of the tongue.

    或是口誤

  • We now call these revealing mistakes

    我們現在稱之為無意識的錯誤

  • FREUDIAN SLIPS

    佛洛伊德錯誤

  • Like when we writethighwhen we wanted to writethough”.

    例如我們寫「thigh」,其實要寫的是「though」

  • He also liked to think about jokes. He believed that jokes often help us make fun of something

    他也常思考有關笑話,他認為取笑死亡或婚姻,有助於我們

  • symbolic like death or marriage, and thus relieve some of our anxiety about these topics.

    減輕我們對這些事物的焦慮

  • There's a temptation to say Freud just made everything up, and life isn't quite so hard

    我們可能難以避免去說佛洛伊德真的太會扯了,人生沒有那麼難

  • as he makes it out to be. But then one morning we find ourselves filled with

    像他說得那麼難,但是若有一天早上起來我們心裡充滿

  • inexplicable anger towards our partner, or running high with unrelenting anxiety on the train to work,

    對於伴侶的怨氣,或突然在上班搭捷運途中感到無比的焦慮

  • and we're reminded all over again just how elusive, difficult, and Freudian

    我們會回想起這些難以捉摸、困難、及佛洛伊德的

  • our mental workings actually are.

    人的心理是很難捉摸的

  • We could still reject his work, of course. But as Freud said,

    我們當然可以反對佛洛伊德的觀點,但他說

  • No one who disdains the key will ever be able to unlock the door.”

    「輕視鑰匙的人沒有辦法開門」

  • We could all use a bit more of Freud's ideas

    也許我們可以參考佛洛伊德的方法

  • to help us unpick ourselves.

    來打開我們心靈的門

This is a thinker who helps us understand why our lives and relationships

佛洛伊德是位思想家,教導我們人生及人際關係

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【心理分析】佛洛伊德其人其事 (PSYCHOTHERAPY - Sigmund Freud)

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    Jacky Avocado Tao 發佈於 2015 年 10 月 23 日
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