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  • The Principal Parts of a verb are the different ways it is spelled in different tenses.

  • There are, strictly speaking, 5 principal parts of English Verbs.

  • Base Form, 3rd Person Singular Form, Past Simple Form, Past Participle, Present Participle.

  • These are the only forms, or spellings, which a verb can take.

  • With these five spellings, you can use the verb in any tense just by changing the auxiliary verbs.

  • The 5 Principal Parts are:

  • The Base Form, for example "walk" which is used a lot, such as in the present simple tense.

  • I walk to work.

  • The 3rd Person Singular Form, or the “S”

  • Form, walks, which is used in the present simple when the subject is a single thing,

  • other than the speaker or the listener (in other words, not “I” oryou”).

  • For example: She walks to work.

  • The Past Simple Form, which is used for the past simple tense.

  • For example: I walked to work.

  • For regular verbs, and many irregular verbs as well, it is the same as --

  • The Past Participle, or the “e-d” Form, which is used for perfect tenses and adjectives.

  • For example: I walked to work.

  • The Present Participle, or the “i-n-g” form,

  • is used for continuous tenses.

  • For example: I am walking to work.

  • Notice thatwalkis a regular verb so the past simple form and the past participle

  • are the same. For many irregular verbs, they are not.

  • You can click on any of the Principle Part names to skip to that part of the video.

  • Otherwise watch all the way through. Here is an example of an irregular verb, take.

  • This verb's irregularity is that its Past Simple and Past Participle are different.

  • I take medicine She takes medicine

  • I took medicine I have taken medicine

  • I am taking medicine

  • Even though there are five Principal Parts

  • for English verbs, we usually don’t have to learn all 5 for every verb.

  • The 3rd person singular form is usually very easy and the Present Participle, the "i-n-g" form, is never irregular.

  • So even for irregular verbs, there are only three forms to memorize, and in many

  • cases there are actually only two because the Past Simple Form is often the same as the Past Participle.

  • So, there are a few verbs that are very irregular.

  • They don’t fit this pattern at all. To learn more about them, you could watch our Very

  • Irregular Verbs video. Some of these are really important, so you should definitely learn them.

  • The most important is the verb "To Be" and we also have a video about that.

  • For regular verbs, all the Principal Parts

  • can be formed with predictable rules. That is why the are called regular.

  • This video is mostly about those rules. For these words, the Vocabulary Form, what

  • you see in a dictionary or word list, is just the Base form by itself.

  • So if you see only one word in the principal parts listing in a dictionary, you can assume the verb is regular.

  • So "Walk", "Visit" and "Live".

  • are all regular.

  • The first principle part of a verb that we

  • are going to look at is theThird Person Singular”, sometimes called the “S form

  • or the “3PS form”. This is only used in the present simple tense,

  • when the subject is singular (talking about one person or object) and is not the speaker

  • or the listener. That means you use this form when the subject

  • ishe,” “she,” “it,”

  • or a singular noun, such asthe baker,” orMike.”

  • These subjects are singular and third person.

  • This form is made by adding an /s/ sound to the base form.

  • The rules for spelling are as follows:

  • Normally just add an “s.” to the end of the word.

  • “I wake up at 7:00” becomesHe wakes up at 7:00.”

  • “I hit the targetbecomesShe hits the target.”

  • “I often lose my keysbecomesMy brother often loses his keys.”

  • “I value my friendshipsbecomesShe values her friendships.”

  • For some verbs it is not that simple. Here are a couple of rules for how to spell the

  • 3rd person s form depending on how the verb ends.

  • If the verb ends with a sibilant, like a /s/ or “ʃ” sound add “e-s.”

  • if there is not already a silent “e,”. For example:

  • “I miss you a lotbecomesShe misses you a lot.”

  • We wash the dogs in a bathbecomesHe washes the dogs in a bath.”

  • If the verb ends with a consonant and “o,” add “e-s”. For example:

  • Do you like Pizza?” becomesDoes he Like Pizza?”

  • They go to the shop.” becomesShe goes to the shop”.

  • If the verb ends with a consonant and “y” change the “y” to and “i” and add “e-s.” For example:

  • The balloons fly into the airbecomesThe balloon flies into the air.”

  • “I try to be goodbecomesMy daughter tries to be good.”

  • Now lets look at the Past Simple and Past Participle forms.

  • We will look at them together because for regular verbs and in many irregular verbs they are the same.

  • When the form is regular they are formed by adding “e-d”.

  • “I walk to workbecomes “I have walked to work.”

  • We play volleyballbecomesThey played volleyball.”

  • If the verb ends with an "e" just add “d”.

  • “I face my problemsbecomes “I faced my problems.”

  • The airplanes glide through the skybecomesThe airplanes glided through the sky.”

  • If the verb ends with a consonant and “y,” change the “y” to “i” and add “e-d.”

  • We always try to please our customers” “We tried to please our customers.”

  • They copy our workbecomesThey copied our work.”

  • This last rule is really important for spelling but doesn’t affect pronunciation.

  • If the verb ends with a single vowel and single consonant,

  • we double the consonant and add “e-d.”

  • For exampleWe flip the burgers.” becomesWe flipped the burgers.”

  • “I tan on the beachbecomes “I tanned on the beach.”

  • They format their newsletter nicely” “They formatted their newsletter nicely.”

  • Again, for most irregular verbs, the Past Simple Form and the Past Participle are the same.

  • So you only have to memorize one different form.

  • So if the vocabulary listing of a dictionary only has two forms, you know the Past Simple

  • and Past Participle are the same.

  • For example: Bring, Brought

  • Creep, Crept Hold, Held

  • Make, Made Stick, Stuck

  • Tell, Told

  • Some irregular verbs are actually spelled

  • the same in Past Simple and Past Participle and in their Base Form as well.

  • For Example:

  • Burst,

  • Let

  • Split

  • For many irregular verbs, the Past Simple Form and the Past Participle are different.

  • It is possible that only one or the other is irregular or that both of them are.

  • For such verbs, the Vocabulary Form will have three words.

  • Sometimes the Past Simple Form or the Past Participle form

  • is in the regular "e-d" form. For example:

  • Show, Showed, Shown

  • Most of the time, however, both will be irregular. Like:

  • Choose, Chose and Chosen

  • Forget, Forgot, Forgotten

  • Shake, Shook, Shaken

  • Tear, Tore, Torn

  • Write, Wrote, Written

  • It is often easy to spot an irregular Past Participle of a verb even if you don’t know

  • that it's irregular because they frequently end with an “n”.

  • Now lets look at thePresent Participle”, sometimes called the “i-n-g formor the

  • continuous formbecause it is used a lot with continuous tenses.

  • The present participle is formed by adding “i-n-g”. It is the easiest of the Principal

  • Parts because it is never irregular. That is why it is not usually given in thevocabulary

  • formin a dictionary but it is shown in a complete listing of the principal parts.

  • Normally you just add an “i-n-g.” to the end of the verb.

  • We play with the kittenbecomesWe are playing with the kitten.”

  • “I promise he will be goodbecomesHe is being good.”

  • If the verb ends with a silent “e,” drop the “e” and add “i-n-g.”

  • For example: “I wake up at 7:00” becomes “I was just waking up when he called.”

  • “I will vote tonightbecomes “I am voting tonight.”

  • If the verb ends with an “i-e,” we change the “i-e” to “y” and add “i-n-g.”

  • It's sad when our pets diebecomesIt is sad to watch while our pets are dying.”

  • We are going to tie the knotbecomesThey are tying the knot tomorrow.”

  • This last rule is really important for spelling but doesn’t affect pronunciation.

  • If the verb ends with a single vowel and single consonant, double the consonant and add “i-n-g.”

  • “I often win racesbecomes “I am winning the race.”

  • “I run every daybecomes “I am running.”

  • Here are some of our examples with all their Principal Parts:

  • Bring, Brings, Brought, Brought, Bringing

  • Choose, Chooses, Chose, Chosen, Choosing

  • Do, Does, Did, Done, Doing

  • Fly, Flies, Flew, Flown, Flying

  • Like, Likes, Liked, Liked, Liking

  • Tan, Tans, Tanned, Tanned, Tanning

  • Run, Runs, Ran, Run, Running

  • Learning to form the Principal Parts of regular verbs will massively improve your ability

  • to speak English. Once you learn a new regular verb, you will immediately be able to start

  • using it in all the tenses. Knowing about the Principal Parts will help

  • you with irregular verbs as well because youll be able to understand the Vocabulary entries in dictionaries.

  • Thanks for watching and I hope you have found this useful.

  • Remember you can book a class via Skype with

  • me or one of our other teachers by visiting our website. You can also find us on Twitter

  • and Skype.

The Principal Parts of a verb are the different ways it is spelled in different tenses.

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B1 中級

英語語法中動詞的主要部分 (Principle Parts of Verbs in English Grammar)

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    楊鎧瑄 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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