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  • In the early 1800's, German physician, Franz Joseph Gall spent a lot of time running his

    在西元1800早期,一位德國醫師,Franz Joseph Gall 用手指在陌生人的頭皮上下了許多功夫。

  • fingers over the scalps of strangers. He wasn't a hairdresser, he wasn't a masseuse,

    他不是一位美髮師,也不是按摩師

  • he wasn't just like a big fan of heads. He was a phrenologist, he was the first phrenologist.

    他也不是特別喜歡頭皮。他是一位顱相學家,世上第一個顱相學者

  • Gall believed that a persons personality was linked to their skull morphology, that its bumps and ridges

    Gall 相信個人特質與的頭骨形狀有關,藉由突起和隆起

  • indicated aspects of their character. Amazingly this "science" actually caught on,

    可以看出人的各種特性。後來這門"科學"意外地大為流行

  • was widely practiced for decades, and Gall became something of a celebrity.

    被廣為實行了數十年,而Gall 則因此成了名人

  • Well, with a head like his, one can see how he might have been a little bit fixated with skull shape.

    有著Gall 那樣的頭型,可想而知他多少有點迷戀骨相

  • Eventually, phrenology was dismissed as a cult pseudoscience because it turns out your

    之後顱相學被駁斥為偽科學

  • cranial contours tell us exactly nothing about what's happening inside the brain.

    因為實驗證實顱骨輪廓與腦中的東西完全沒有關係

  • And yet! Gall was actually on to something big, something that we knew nothing about.

    但先等等,Gall 其實開了一扇門,門後的東西是人們以前不了解的

  • Remember, at this point we were just starting to get consensus that the brain was the source

    請記得,在當時人們才剛了解腦才是自我意識的所在

  • of self and not like the soul or the heart or whatever. His lasting and correct proposition

    而不是靈魂或心臟。他正確且至今仍在使用的假說

  • was that different parts of the brain control specific aspects of our behavior.

    主張在於不同區域的腦分別掌控我們行為的不同層面

  • Like we talked about last time, there is a strong link between biological activity and psychological events.

    就像我們上次談到的,生物行為與心理層面息息相關

  • But in addition to the interplay of chemicals like neurotransmitters and hormones,

    但除了化學物質,像是神經傳遞物和荷爾蒙的影響之外

  • a lot of this has to do with that localized parts of the brain have specific functions,

    有很大部分是因為腦中特定部位負責不同的功能

  • like vision, movement, memory, speech, and even facial recognition.

    像是視覺、移動、記憶、演說、甚至是臉孔辨識

  • Function, in other words, is localized.

    也就是說腦部功能是分區的

  • If you could stimulate different parts of my brain in any way you wanted to

    如果你能隨心所欲地刺激我腦中的任何部位

  • and if you ask me nicely, I just might let youyou could control my movements, my memories,

    (如果你客氣地向我請求的話,我也許會答應) 那你就能控制我的動作、記憶

  • and even my personality. Poke my brain over here and my arm would twitch, poke here and

    甚至個性。從我腦部的這邊戳下去,我的手會抽動;戳這邊

  • I'd remember my first kiss, do it up here and suddenly I'd be filled with a tremendous Hulk-like rage!

    我會想起我的初吻;這邊的話,突然間一股浩克般巨大的狂怒充斥我的胸口

  • This is the link between the brain, that physical hunk of gunk between the ears, and the mind,

    這正是腦(就像一沙一世界般可分成無數區塊)與耳朵和意識之間的連結

  • the thing that is us, our consciousness, our behavior, our decisions, our memories, our selves.

    這些構成了我們,我們的意識、我們的行為、我們的抉擇、我們的記憶、我們本身

  • Some neuroscientists like to say that the mind is what the brain does, so one of

    正如一些神經學家常說意識棲於腦中

  • the driving questions of psychology and, like, the human experiment is "How do our brains'

    一個心理學一直在探討的核心問題及相關實驗便是 "我們的腦部功能

  • functions tie to the behavior of the mind?" And you can't even ask the right questions,

    與意識之間有什麼關聯" 。然而,在你理解大腦之前,你甚至無法準確地問出合適的問題,

  • let alone get at some of the answers, until you get to know the brain.

    更不用說找出問題的答案了

  • [Intro]

    [開場音樂]

  • You might have a passing familiarity with your nervous system, like, "The brain bone

    你可能對你的神經系統已經有一些了解,像是頭骨

  • is connected to the spinal cord bone, and the spinal cord bone is connected to the motoneuron bone."

    與脊椎骨相連,或者脊椎骨與動作神經元"骨"相連之類

  • That's your central nervous system, and there aren't actually any bones.

    那其實是你的中樞神經系統,另外它們也不是骨頭

  • Your central nervous system, or just CNS, is what makes your bodies big decisions.

    你的中樞神經系統,或者簡稱為CNS,是你身體的主宰

  • This system is the command center, and if you mess with it, things are gonna get weird.

    該系統是下指令的中心,如果你讓它壞去,那事情可能會變得有點糟糕

  • There's also the peripheral nervous system, which is composed of scout-like sensory neurons

    另外還有周邊神經系統,由宛如偵查兵一般的感覺神經組成

  • that gather information and report it back to the central nervous system.

    負責搜集訊息並回報給中樞神經系統

  • To get a handle on just how physical the roots of your mind and personality are,

    為了理解你的生理如何影響你的心理和個性

  • how concretel your nervous system makes you you, let me tell you a story. The curious case of Phineas Gage.

    以及你的神經系統如何造就你這個人,讓我告訴你一個故事。關於Phineas Gage的奇特經歷

  • In 1848, a genial chap named Phineas Gage was working on the railroad,

    在1848年,有一個親切近人的小夥子叫做 Phineas Gage,當時他正在鐵路上工作著

  • tamping gunpowder into a blasting hole with an iron rod, but the gunpowder ignited.

    他負責用鐵桿將火藥放進火藥孔中,但火藥卻點燃了

  • The resulting explosion caused the rod to shoot like a bullet up through his left cheek and out of the top of his head.

    爆炸使得鐵桿像子彈一般射入他的臉頰,從他頭頂穿出

  • There's brain in between those two places, by the way.

    順帶一提,腦就在臉頰和頭頂的中間

  • Amazingly, he stood up after the accident, and walked over to a cart, described what had happened,

    意外地,事後他還能站起來,並走到馬車旁,描述剛才發生的事情

  • and then they drove him back to his house, all while he was conscious.

    之後其他人載他回到他家,而他全程都保持清醒

  • So the doctor came to examine him, and refused to believe that a rod had in fact passed through his head, understandably.

    之後醫生來替他檢查,但可想而知,醫生拒絕相信有根鐵桿穿過他的頭

  • Until Phineas started coughing and an amount of brain that the doctor described

    直到 Phineas開始咳嗽並將一部分的腦(根據醫生描述

  • as a teacup-ful fell out of his head, and the doctor had to accept indeed what had happened.

    大約一茶杯那麼多)咳出他的頭殼,於是醫生也只好接受眼前所見

  • After a few months of convalescing, he was pretty much healed up and moving around

    經過數個月的治療後,他幾乎康復了並可以到處跑

  • like he used to. But his friends were saying that Phineas was no longer like himself.

    就像他以前一樣。但他的朋友都說 Phineas不再像以前的他了

  • Yes he had his memories and his mental abilities, and he walked and talked and looked the same,

    沒錯,他的記憶跟思維能力都完好,而且他走路跟他說話的樣子都沒變

  • minus an eyeball, whereas the old Phineas was mild-mannered and soft-spoken, the post-spike-to-the-brain Phineas

    除了少了一顆眼球。然而,從前的 Phineas是溫和並輕聲細語的人,而被鐵桿插過之後的 Phineas

  • was surly and mean-spirited and vulgar. People started to describe him as "no longer Gage"

    卻變得陰沉、惡毒而粗俗。人們開始描述他 "不再是原來的Gage"

  • Phineas moved away from America, the scientific establishment lost contact with him

    Phineas 後來搬離美國,科學機構失去了他的消息

  • and 12 years later, after a series of seizures he died at the age of 36.

    直到12年後,在一連串的痙攣後,他於36歲死亡

  • Phineas is a great, if extreme, example of how function is localized in the brain and how physical and biological

    Phineas 是個很好(但也很極端)的例子來解釋大腦不同部位的分工,以及解釋生理狀況

  • factors can be reflected in psychological ways. Of course he is also an excellent example

    會對心理狀況造成影響。當然他也是一個經典的個案

  • of how individual studies are not particularly useful, especially since we have very little

    說明個案研究並不是特別有用,尤其是因為我們只有很少的

  • data on what Phineas was actually like before or even after his accident.

    資料關於從前的 Phineas是怎樣的人,甚至是意外過後的資料也不多

  • Most accounts are from the months directly after the accident, and many of them conflict.

    大多數的相關報告都集中在意外發生後的數個月,許多報告之間也互相矛盾

  • It's completely possible that he continued to heal and lived his remaining years as a happy and productive citizen.

    他搞不好其實有持續接受治療並在剩下來的日子中活得好好的

  • Intro-psychology texts often paint the simple picture of Phineas just so we can have a clear

    介紹心理學的教材常常把Phineas描繪得太過簡單,好讓我們可以有一個清楚的

  • example of the moment when physicians realized that messing with the brain was messing with the mind,

    案例來映證當時醫師們普遍相信腦部受損心智狀態也會受損的想法

  • but it is of course all much more complicated and Phineas was an actual, real life person,

    但是,當然地,事情遠比這複雜得多,Phineas是一個有血有肉的人

  • I feel that we should give him the nuance and mystery that he deserves.

    我認為我們該把他理應具有的細節以及神秘都忠實呈現才是

  • Now you might have heard that we only used about 10 percent of our brains,

    你之前可能聽過下列的說法 ,"我們平常只使用了大腦的10%",

  • and oh if that were true, Phineas would lose a quarter of his and he'd be just fine. And if we could

    (假設那是對的那就表示Phineas失去了他整整四分之一的腦卻仍然活跳跳)。"如果我們

  • just harness the rest of that gray mush, we'd be able to mind read and levitate and get all Professor X.

    可以充分利用剩下的那部分大腦灰質,我們將可以讀心或者浮在空中,讓大家都成為X教授"

  • It's an exciting thought, as exciting as the idea that I can tell what

    這樣的想法相當有趣,就好比我可以知道你喜歡怎樣的茶

  • kind of tea you like by feeling the bumps on your head. It is also exactly as wrong.

    因為我可以感覺到你腦中所想。但這其實是錯誤的

  • After watching an hour or so of reality TV, you'd be forgiven for thinking that some people

    看過了一小時左右的實境秀之後,你大概已經忘了人們只使用

  • are only working at 10 percent brain capacity. But in actual reality, brain scans show that

    10%的腦這件事情。但在現實生活裡,腦部掃描顯示

  • nearly every region of the brain lights up during even simple tasks like walking and talking.

    幾乎腦中所有的區域都發亮,即使當受試者只是做一些簡單事情像是走路和說話

  • Not only that, but the brain itself requires 20 percent of all the body's energy,

    不僅如此,腦本身就消耗20%身體的總能量

  • and it would make little evolutionary sense to throw much energy away at something that is only minimally active.

    在一個只需要最低限度活動狀態的器官上投資如此大量的能量,從演化上看是相當沒道理的

  • As animals, our capabilities have developed in part from our brain structures.

    身為動物,我們的行為能力部分源自於我們的腦部結構

  • We're actually able to trace our evolutionary history as we come to understand these structures.

    我們甚至可以藉由理解腦部結構來追溯我們演化的歷史

  • Less complex animals have simpler brains designed for basic functioning and survival:

    較不複雜的動物腦部相對簡單,僅為了基本功能和生存,諸如:

  • rest, breathe, eat. Whereas more complex animals like many mammals possess brains that feel,

    休息、呼吸、進食。相對而言,較複雜的動物像是哺乳類的腦,可以感覺、

  • remember, reason, and predict. These animals don't have all new systems.

    記憶、推論以及預測。這些動物其實沒有整組新的神經系統

  • They have new brain systems built upon old brain systems. The brain is kind of like a set of Russian nesting dolls.

    他們的新腦部系統建立在舊腦部系統之上,這樣的腦就像是俄羅斯娃娃一樣

  • The outermost wooden doll is the newest, most detailed and most complex,

    最外層的木質娃娃是最新型、最精細也是最複雜的

  • but as you go deeper, the dolls become older and smaller, and simpler, and more generic.

    但是當你逐漸深入,娃娃越變越老舊而且越小、越簡單也越通用

  • The innermost wooden doll is the oldest, most basic. It's like a fossil in your head.

    而最內層的木質娃娃是最老舊的、最基本的。就像是你腦中的化石一樣

  • This inner core of the brain, sometimes called the "old brain" still performs for us much

    這是腦部的內層核心,也被稱作"舊的腦",截至目前仍在為我們工作著

  • as it did for our early evolutionary ancestors. It's anchored by the brainstem, the most ancient

    就像以前它為我們演化上的祖先工作一般。它位在腦幹之中,腦幹是最古老

  • and central core of the brain where the spinal brain enters the skull. Above it, at the base

    也是最核心的腦,同時也是脊椎連結顱部的位置。在其上方,位於顱骨的底層

  • of the skull, is the medulla. Here, old brain functions happen automatically without any conscious effort:

    是延腦。在這裡腦幹的功能自動運作著,完全不用費心,包括:

  • the beating of hearts, the breathing of lungs, that sort of thing.

    心臟的跳動、肺部的呼吸等諸如此類

  • The pons is perched on the medulla, and it helps coordinate movement. Above the pons,

    橋腦連接著延腦,它幫助協調動作。位於橋腦之上

  • at the top of the brainstem, is the thalamus, a pair of egg-shaped structures that take in

    腦幹的上方是丘腦,它是一對蛋型結構,負責接受

  • sensory information related to seeing, hearing, touching, and tasting. The reticular formation is a

    感官資訊像是視覺、聽覺、觸覺和味覺。網狀體是一個

  • finger-shaped nerve network inside the brain stem that's essential for arousal,

    指型的神經網絡,位於腦幹之中,是警醒的關鍵

  • which isn't necessarily what you feel upon seeing a particularly nice-looking human, but instead refers to

    它與你看見一個外貌出眾的人時的反應沒什麼關係,但是

  • things like sleeping and walking and pain perception; other important functions.

    與睡眠、走路以及痛覺等重要的功能相關

  • The baseball-sized cerebellum, or "little brain", swells from the bottom of the brain stem and

    棒球大小的小腦,是腦幹底部附近的突起

  • is responsible for non-verbal learning and memory, the perception of time, and modulating motions,

    它負責非語言相關的學習與記憶,對時間的感知並調整肢體動作

  • it controls voluntary movement like your sweet dance moves, but it also gets impaired

    它調控自主移動像是你甜美的舞步,但也很容易受到損害

  • easily under the influence of alcohol, hence the term "tipsy".

    特別容易受酒精影響。因此才有"微醺"這個字(因酒醉而傾斜不穩)

  • So the old brain systems keep our body's basic functions running smoothly; the sort of stuff any animal might need.

    所以是舊的腦系統在維持身體的基本功能運作良好,就是那些任何動物都需要的基本功能

  • This is pretty much where the brain stops for reptiles.

    這系統可說是還停在爬蟲類階段的設計

  • For higher functions, we look to the limbic system. This includes the amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus.

    為了更進階的功能,我們指望邊緣系統,它包括了杏仁核、下視丘以及海馬迴

  • Sort of a border region of the brain separating the old brain and the newer, higher cerebral areas.

    像是腦的邊境一般,它區隔了舊的腦以及新的、更高級的腦部區域

  • The amygdala consists of two lima bean-sized clusters of neurons

    杏仁核包含兩個棉豆大小的神經群

  • and is responsible for memory consolidation as well as both our greatest fear and hottest aggression.

    它負責鞏固記憶並與我們最深的恐懼感和最熾熱的佔有欲有關

  • Stimulate one area of the amygdala, and a docile family dog suddenly morphs into a blood thirsty Cujo.

    當杏仁核的一塊區域受到刺激時,一隻溫馴家犬將變身成為嗜血狂犬

  • Shift that electrode over just a tiny bit and that dog will be

    將電極移向旁邊一點點,那隻狗會

  • cowering at butterfly shadow puppets. The hypothalamus keeps your whole body steady,

    在皮影戲偶前畏畏縮縮。下視丘則保持你全身的恆定

  • regulating body temperatures, circadian rhythms, and hunger, also helps govern the endocrine system,

    調節體溫、晝夜節律以及飢餓感,它也調控內分泌系統

  • especially the pituitary gland. You should also thank your hypothalamus for allowing

    特別是腦垂腺,你也應該感謝你的腦垂腺,讓你可以

  • you to feel pleasure and reward. Rats implanted with electrodes in the reward center of their hypothalamuses

    感受到愉悅以及獎賞。曾有一些老鼠在下視丘中的獎賞區被植入電極

  • and given ways to self stimulate those areas will essentially reward themselves

    同時這些老鼠們可以自己選擇是否讓獎賞區受到電擊。牠們最終持續的獎賞自己(讓電極放電)

  • until they collapse or die. So, use with caution. The final part of the limbic system is the hippocampus,

    直到自己累癱或者死亡。因此,請謹慎使用。邊緣系統的最後一個部分是海馬迴

  • central to learning and memory, and if it's damaged, a person may lose their ability

    學習與記憶的中心,若是受到損害,人將會失去

  • to retain new facts and memories.

    記下新的事項與新的記憶的能力

  • Now above all of this is the most advanced stuff - the stuff that you think of when you

    現在要說到比上述那些更進化的東西了(當你一說起腦就會想到的東西)

  • think of the brain - the grey matter. The two hemispheres of your cerebrum make up about

    - 灰質。大腦的兩個半球大約佔了

  • eighty-five percent of your brain weight, and oversee your ability to think, speak, and perceive.

    你的腦部重量的85%,它管控你思考、說話以及感知的能力

  • The left and right hemispheres govern and regulate different functions,

    左以及右半球掌管並調節不同的功能

  • giving us a split brain, connected by a structure called the corpus callosum. So, for instance,

    它們使得我們的腦分對半,並由胼胝體來連結兩邊。舉例而言

  • language production is controlled largely by the left hemisphere, while certain creative

    語言的產生主要是由左半球來調控,而特定種類的創造行為

  • functions are controlled by the right. Though this has nothing to do with handedness or

    則由右半球調控。儘管這些與慣用手或者

  • people having dominant sides of their brain being more analytical or creative or whatever

    "使用某一半球較多的人會比較理性或者有創意"或者其他諸如此類的說法無關

  • - that's part of what we call pop psychology: a behavioral disorder in which journalists

    這些被我們稱為大眾心理學:某種行為障礙基於

  • and arm chair psychologists use research showing beautiful, detailed, intimately connected

    新聞記者以及非專業人員所做的研究而提出,通常顯示漂亮、詳細、與你的腦密切相關的數據

  • complexities of your brain to sell newspapers or reinforce previously held beliefs.

    目的是為了提高報紙的銷量或者強化既有的認知

  • Yes, some tasks are distributed to one side, but the sides are deeply and constantly connected;

    沒錯,有些行為確實被分配在其中一邊的腦部,但腦區之間是緊密關聯的

  • a statement as general as "artistic people use their right brains" is as useless as saying

    "有藝術細胞的人右腦發達" 像這樣的概述,就跟

  • "artistic people have particularly bumpy heads".

    "有藝術細胞的人腦袋特別崎嶇不平"一樣沒用

  • Finally, covering the left and right hemispheres, we have the cerebral cortex, a thin layer

    最後我們終於來到大腦皮質,它涵蓋了左右兩個半腦

  • of over twenty billion interconnected neurons. But let's not forget the unsung heroes of

    是一個含有兩百億相互連結神經元的薄層。此外,別忽略了神經系統中的無名英雄

  • your nervous system: the billions of non-neuron glial cells, which provide a spider web of

    數以十億計的神經膠質細胞,它們就像蜘蛛網一般

  • support that surround, insulate, and nourish the cerebral neurons.

    提供支撐、包覆並且提供養分給腦中的神經細胞

  • You've probably seen enough brain diagrams to know that the cerebral cortex's left and

    你可能已經看過夠多大腦的圖片來了解大腦的左右皮質

  • right sides are subdivided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal,

    它被分為四個腦葉:額葉、頂葉、枕葉和顳葉

  • all separated by especially prominent folds, or fissures. Each lobe does indeed have its

    腦葉由皮質上特別明顯的皺褶區分,每一個腦葉

  • own set of duties, and would have made Franz Gall proud.

    都有明確的分工。當然,這會讓 Franz Gall感到驕傲的

  • The frontal lobes, just behind your forehead, are involved in speaking, planning, judging, abstract thinking,

    額葉,位於你的額頭後方,與說話、計畫、判斷、抽象思考等相關

  • and as the tale of Phineas Gage reminds us, aspects of personality.

    並且就像在 Phineas Gage的故事中提到的,它與我們的個性有關

  • The parietal lobes receive and process your sense of touch and body position.

    頂葉接收並處理你的觸覺以及身體位置

  • At the back of your head, the occipital lobes receive information related to sight.

    在你腦袋的後方,枕葉負責接收視覺資訊

  • And the temporal lobes just above your ears process sound, including speech comprehension.

    至於在你耳朵上方的顳葉,則負責處理聲音,以及語言理解

  • Remember that each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body, so my left temporal

    請記得左右腦半球分別控制身體的相反側,因此我左側的顳葉

  • lobe processes sounds heard through my right ear. And within these lobes there are still

    負責處理我右耳聽到的聲音。而且在這些腦葉中

  • more regions that have specialized functions. Your motor cortex at the rear of your frontal lobes,

    可以進一步細分出特定功能的腦區。你的運動皮質區位於你的額葉後側

  • for example, controls voluntary movements and sends messages from the brain out to the body

    它負責你的自主運動,並將訊息自腦傳達給身體

  • like "pet that dog!" or "pick up that mug", while your somatosensory cortex right

    像是"拍拍那隻狗"或者"拿起那個馬克杯",同時你的體感覺區

  • behind it processes incoming sensations like "Oooooh, that doggie is soft!"

    會處理接收到的感觸,像是"哇哦,這小狗真是柔軟!"

  • or "Gah, the mug is hot!"

    或者"嘎啊! 這馬克杯好燙!"

  • The rest of your grey matter is made up of association areas that are related to higher

    位於你腦中的灰質,除上述以外區域,由一些聯合的功能區組成

  • mental functions like remembering, thinking, learning, and speaking. But the thing about

    它們與高級的心智能力有關像是記憶、思考、學習以及說話。但事實上

  • association areas is that unlike your sensory or motor cortex, you couldn't just poke one

    關於這些聯合的功能區,它們不像你的感覺或者運動皮質區,你沒辦法簡單的戳其中一個點

  • and create a neat response. Association areas are more subtle; they deal with things like

    然後得到明確的反應。聯合區要複雜得多;它們負責的任務有

  • interpreting and integrating sensory input and linking up with memories. And they prevail throughout all four lobes,

    解讀以及整合接收到的感覺資訊並把資訊與記憶連結起來。聯合區廣為分布在四個腦葉中

  • so brain damage to different areas will cause very different results.

    因此腦中的不同區域受到損傷可能會造成迥然相異的結果

  • A lesion on a specific part of the temporal lobe may destroy a person's ability to recognize faces;

    在已知的案例中,部分顳葉受損可能損害一個人的臉部辨識能力

  • traumatic memories or overactive hormones can profoundly affect our behavior and emotions

    創傷性記憶或者荷爾蒙過剩對我們的行為以及情緒會造成深遠地影響

  • - all of which remind us how fundamentally biology and psychology are intertwined.

    以上皆告訴我們本質上生理與心理是密不可分的

  • And there are few more fascinating examples of this that how we sense and perceive the world around us,

    還有更多關於我們如何感知周遭世界的有趣例子

  • so that's where we're gonna pick up next week.

    而那將是我們下星期要提到的內容

  • For now, if you were paying attention, you learned the basics of the central nervous system,

    至於現在,假如你之前有專心聽,你已經了解了中樞神經系統的基本知識

  • specifically the brain, which can be understood in terms of old or of more evolutionary

    特別是關於腦的部分,它可以被劃分為演化上古老的系統

  • ancestral structures, along with the limbic system, and new structures,

    、邊緣系統還有較新的系統

  • which include lobes, cortices, and association areas.

    包括了腦葉、皮質區以及聯合區

  • Thanks for watching this lesson in Crash Course Psychology, which was brought to you by The Air Show,

    感謝收看這集Crash Course Psychology,本集節目由The Air Show

  • Midnight House Elves on Etsy, and Daniel Vasey, thank you so much to all of you.

    Midnight House Elves on Etsy 以及Daniel Vase 贊助播出,非常感謝上述贊助者

  • If you would like to sponsor an episode and give your own shout-out, you can learn

    如果你想要贊助並發表個人評論,你可以試著

  • about that and other perks available at Subbable.com.

    到Subbable.com.的看看額外資訊

  • This episode was written by Kathleen Yale, edited by Blake de Pastino and myself,

    本集腳本由Kathleen Yale 撰寫,Blake de Pastino以及我個人負責編輯

  • and our consultant is Dr. Ranjit Bhagwat. Our editor and director is Nicholas Jenkins,

    Ranjit Bhagwat 博士顧問,Nicholas Jenkins監製以及執導

  • Michael Aranda is our sound designer and our graphic team is Thought Cafe.

    Michael Aranda 音樂設計,我們的美術團隊是Thought Cafe

In the early 1800's, German physician, Franz Joseph Gall spent a lot of time running his

在西元1800早期,一位德國醫師,Franz Joseph Gall 用手指在陌生人的頭皮上下了許多功夫。

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【科學知識】 心理學速成班:了解你的大腦 (Meet Your Master: Getting to Know Your Brain - Crash Course Psychology #4)

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    羅紹桀 發佈於 2015 年 12 月 18 日
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